or stand in the pathway 7 with sinners,
and its leaves never fall off. 19
He succeeds in everything he attempts. 20
1:4 Not so with the wicked!
nor can sinners join the assembly of the godly. 26
but the way of the wicked ends in destruction. 29
the rulers collaborate 39
against the Lord and his anointed king. 40
Let’s free ourselves from 43 their ropes!”
the Lord taunts 46 them.
2:5 Then he angrily speaks to them
on Zion, my holy hill.”
‘You are my son! 53 This very day I have become your father!
2:8 Ask me,
and I will give you the nations as your inheritance, 54
the ends of the earth as your personal property.
you will smash them like a potter’s jar!’” 57
you rulers of the earth, submit to correction! 59
Repent in terror! 61
and you will die because of your behavior, 65
when his anger quickly ignites. 66
A psalm of David, written when he fled from his son Absalom. 70
Many attack me. 72
3:2 Many say about me,
and he answered me from his holy hill. 79 (Selah)
3:5 I rested and slept;
who attack me from all directions. 84
Deliver me, my God!
you show favor to your people. 91 (Selah)
For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments; a psalm of David.
4:1 When I call out, answer me,
O God who vindicates me! 93
Though I am hemmed in, you will lead me into a wide, open place. 94
and search for what is deceptive? 101 (Selah)
the Lord responds 104 when I cry out to him.
Meditate as you lie in bed, and repent of your ways! 106 (Selah)
and trust in the Lord! 108
4:6 Many say, “Who can show us anything good?”
Smile upon us, Lord! 109
than those who have abundant grain and wine. 111
for you, Lord, make me safe and secure. 113
For the music director, to be accompanied by wind instruments; 115 a psalm of David.
Carefully consider my complaint! 117
5:2 Pay attention to my cry for help,
my king and my God,
for I am praying to you!
I will bow down toward your holy temple as I worship you. 136
because of those who wait to ambush me, 138
remove the obstacles in the way in which you are guiding me! 139
their stomachs are like the place of destruction, 142
their throats like an open grave, 143
their tongues like a steep slope leading into it. 144
May their own schemes be their downfall! 146
for they have rebelled against you.
For the music director, to be accompanied by stringed instruments, according to the sheminith style; 163 a psalm of David.
6:1 Lord, do not rebuke me in your anger!
Do not discipline me in your raging fury! 164
Heal me, Lord, for my bones are shaking! 166
and you, Lord – how long will this continue? 168
Deliver me because of your faithfulness! 170
In Sheol who gives you thanks? 172
6:6 I am exhausted as I groan;
all night long I drench my bed in tears; 173
my tears saturate the cushion beneath me. 174
for the Lord has heard the sound of my weeping! 180
6:9 The Lord has heard my appeal for mercy;
the Lord has accepted 181 my prayer.
May they turn back and be suddenly humiliated!
Deliver me from all who chase me! Rescue me!
they will tear me to bits and no one will be able to rescue me. 191
or am guilty of unjust actions, 193
or helped his lawless enemy, 195
may he trample me to death 199
and leave me lying dishonored in the dust. 200 (Selah)
Rise up with raging fury against my enemies! 202
Wake up for my sake and execute the judgment you have decreed for them! 203
take once more your rightful place over them! 205
Vindicate me, Lord, because I am innocent, 207
O righteous God,
the one who delivers the morally upright. 217
7:11 God is a just judge;
he is angry throughout the day. 218
and prepares to shoot his bow. 221
he gets ready to shoot flaming arrows. 223
7:14 See the one who is pregnant with wickedness,
who conceives destructive plans,
and gives birth to harmful lies – 224
and then falls into the hole he has made. 226
and the violence he intended for others falls on his own head. 228
I will sing praises to the sovereign Lord! 230
For the music director, according to the gittith style; 232 a psalm of David.
You reveal your majesty in the heavens above! 236
8:2 From the mouths of children and nursing babies
you have ordained praise on account of your adversaries, 237
so that you might put an end to the vindictive enemy. 238
8:3 When I look up at the heavens, which your fingers made,
and see the moon and the stars, which you set in place, 239
8:7 including all the sheep and cattle,
as well as the wild animals, 250
8:8 the birds in the sky, the fish in the sea
and everything that moves through the currents 251 of the seas.
For the music director; according to the alumoth-labben style; 257 a psalm of David.
9:1 I will thank the Lord with all my heart!
I will tell about all your amazing deeds! 258
9:2 I will be happy and rejoice in you!
I will sing praises to you, O sovereign One! 259
9:3 When my enemies turn back,
they trip and are defeated 260 before you.
from your throne you pronounced a just decision. 262
you destroyed the wicked; 264
you permanently wiped out all memory of them. 265
you destroyed their cities; 267
all memory of the enemies has perished. 268
he reigns in a just manner. 271
9:8 He judges the world fairly;
he makes just legal decisions for the nations. 272
he provides safety in times of trouble. 275
for you, Lord, do not abandon those who seek your help. 277
Tell the nations what he has done! 279
“Have mercy on me, 284 Lord!
See how I am oppressed by those who hate me, 285
O one who can snatch me away 286 from the gates of death!
their feet were caught in the net they had hidden. 292
9:16 The Lord revealed himself;
he accomplished justice;
the hopes of the oppressed are not forever dashed. 299
Don’t let men be defiant! 301
May the nations be judged in your presence!
Let the nations know they are mere mortals! 303 (Selah)
10:1 Why, Lord, do you stand far off?
Why do you pay no attention during times of trouble? 305
10:4 The wicked man is so arrogant he always thinks,
“God won’t hold me accountable; he doesn’t care.” 316
He has no regard for your commands; 318
he disdains all his enemies. 319
“I will never 321 be upended,
because I experience no calamity.” 322
his tongue injures and destroys. 324
in hidden places he kills the innocent.
His eyes look for some unfortunate victim. 326
he lies in ambush, waiting to catch 328 the oppressed;
10:10 His victims are crushed and beaten down;
they are trapped in his sturdy nets. 331
“God overlooks it;
he does not pay attention;
he never notices.” 333
O God, strike him down! 335
Do not forget the oppressed!
The unfortunate victim entrusts his cause to you; 344
Hold him accountable for his wicked deeds, 348
which he thought you would not discover. 349
The nations are driven out of his land. 351
you make them feel secure because you listen to their prayer. 354
so that mere mortals may no longer terrorize them. 357
For the music director; by David.
How can you say to me, 360
“Flee to a mountain like a bird! 361
they put their arrows on the strings,
the Lord’s throne is in heaven. 371
A whirlwind is what they deserve! 385
he rewards godly deeds; 388
the upright will experience his favor. 389
For the music director; according to the sheminith style; 391 a psalm of David.
12:1 Deliver, Lord!
they flatter and deceive. 397
and the tongue that boasts! 399
we know how to flatter and boast. 402
Who is our master?” 403
because of the painful cries 405 of the needy,
I will spring into action,” 406 says the Lord.
“I will provide the safety they so desperately desire.” 407
They are as untainted as silver purified in a furnace on the ground,
where it is thoroughly refined. 409
you will continually shelter each one from these evil people, 411
when people promote evil. 413
For the music director; a psalm of David.
How long will you pay no attention to me? 416
and suffer in broad daylight? 418
How long will my enemy gloat over me? 419
Then 424 my foes will rejoice because I am upended.
May I rejoice because of your deliverance! 426
when he vindicates me. 428
For the music director; by David.
They sin and commit evil deeds; 432
none of them does what is right. 433
they are all morally corrupt. 439
None of them does what is right, 440
not even one!
those who devour my people as if they were eating bread,
and do not call out to the Lord.
for God defends the godly. 444
When the Lord restores the well-being of his people, 449
may Jacob rejoice, 450
may Israel be happy! 451
A psalm of David.
Who may live on your holy hill? 454
does what is right,
and speaks honestly. 456
or do harm to others, 459
or insult his neighbor. 460
but honors the Lord’s loyal followers. 462
He makes firm commitments and does not renege on his promise. 463
He does not take bribes to testify against the innocent. 465
The one who lives like this 466 will never be upended.
A prayer 468 of David.
16:2 I say to the Lord, “You are the Lord,
my only source of well-being.” 470
16:3 As for God’s chosen people who are in the land,
and the leading officials I admired so much 471 –
16:4 their troubles multiply,
they desire other gods. 472
I will not pour out drink offerings of blood to their gods, 473
nor will I make vows in the name of their gods. 474
you make my future secure. 476
16:6 It is as if I have been given fertile fields
or received a beautiful tract of land. 477
yes, during the night I reflect and learn. 481
because he is at my right hand, I will not be upended.
16:9 So my heart rejoices
and I am happy; 483
My life is safe. 484
I experience absolute joy in your presence; 492
you always give me sheer delight. 493
A prayer of David.
Pay attention to my cry for help!
Listen to the prayer
I sincerely offer! 496
Decide what is right! 498
you have examined me during the night. 500
You have carefully evaluated me, but you find no sin.
I am determined I will say nothing sinful. 501
just as you have commanded,
I have not followed in the footsteps of violent men. 503
I do not deviate from them. 505
17:6 I call to you for you will answer me, O God.
Listen to me! 506
Hear what I say! 507
you who powerfully deliver those who look to you for protection from their enemies. 509
Hide me in the shadow of your wings! 511
my enemies who crowd around me for the kill. 514
they speak arrogantly. 516
they intend to throw me to the ground. 518
like a young lion crouching 522 in hidden places.
17:13 Rise up, Lord!
Use your sword to rescue me from the wicked man! 525
from the murderers of this world! 527
They enjoy prosperity; 528
you overwhelm them with the riches they desire. 529
They have many children,
and leave their wealth to their offspring. 530
when I awake you will reveal yourself to me. 532
and I was delivered from my enemies.
the snares of death trapped me. 554
18:6 In my distress I called to the Lord;
I cried out to my God. 555
From his heavenly temple 556 he heard my voice;
he listened to my cry for help. 557
they heaved because he was angry.
fire devoured as it came from his mouth; 563
he hurled down fiery coals. 564
a thick cloud was under his feet.
in thick rain clouds. 571
18:12 From the brightness in front of him came
hail and fiery coals. 572
the inner regions 583 of the world were uncovered
by the powerful breath from your nose. 586
he pulled me from the surging water. 588
from those who hate me,
for they were too strong for me.
but the Lord helped me. 591
18:19 He brought me out into a wide open place;
he delivered me because he was pleased with me. 592
I have not rebelled against my God. 598
and I do not reject his rules. 600
18:23 I was innocent before him,
and kept myself from sinning. 601
he took notice of my blameless behavior. 603
but you bring down those who have a proud look. 612
he is a shield to all who take shelter 626 in him.
he enables me to negotiate the rugged terrain. 636
my arms can bend even the strongest bow. 638
your right hand supports me; 640
my feet 644 do not slip.
I do not turn back until I wipe them out.
they fall at my feet. 648
you make my foes kneel before me. 650
I destroy those who hate me. 652
they cry out to the Lord, 654 but he does not answer them.
you make me 659 a leader of nations;
people over whom I had no authority are now my subjects. 660
Foreigners are powerless 662 before me;
he makes nations submit to me. 674
you rescue me from violent men.
I will sing praises to you! 679
For the music director; a psalm of David.
the sky displays his handiwork. 688
night after night it reveals his greatness. 690
19:3 There is no actual speech or word,
nor is its 691 voice literally heard.
and goes from one end of the sky to the other; 704
nothing can escape 705 its heat.
19:7 The law of the Lord is perfect
and preserves one’s life. 706
and impart wisdom to the inexperienced. 709
and make one joyful. 711
and give insight for life. 714
and endure forever. 716
The judgments given by the Lord are trustworthy
and absolutely just. 717
than even a great amount of pure gold;
they bring greater delight 719 than honey,
than even the sweetest honey from a honeycomb.
those who obey them receive a rich reward. 721
Please do not punish me for sins I am unaware of. 723
do not allow such sins to control me. 725
Then I will be blameless,
and innocent of blatant 726 rebellion.
19:14 May my words and my thoughts
be acceptable in your sight, 727
For the music director; a psalm of David.
may the God of Jacob 734 make you secure!
from Zion may he give you support!
may he accept 737 your burnt sacrifice! (Selah)
may he bring all your plans to pass! 739
we will rejoice 741 in the name of our God!
May the Lord grant all your requests!
and display his mighty ability to deliver. 747
For the music director; a psalm of David.
he takes great delight in the deliverance you provide. 759
you do not refuse his request. 761 (Selah)
you place a golden crown on his head.
and you have granted him long life and an enduring dynasty. 766
you give him majestic splendor. 768
21:6 For you grant him lasting blessings;
you give him great joy by allowing him into your presence. 769
your power is too great for those who hate you. 775
the Lord angrily devours them; 778
the fire consumes them.
when you shoot your arrows at them. 787
We will sing and praise 789 your power!
For the music director; according to the tune “Morning Doe;” 791 a psalm of David.
I groan in prayer, but help seems far away. 793
22:2 My God, I cry out during the day,
but you do not answer,
and during the night my prayers do not let up. 794
22:3 You are holy;
you sit as king receiving the praises of Israel. 795
they trusted in you 797 and you rescued them.
22:5 To you they cried out, and they were saved;
in you they trusted and they were not disappointed. 798
people insult me and despise me. 802
“Commit yourself 807 to the Lord!
Let the Lord 808 rescue him!
and made me feel secure on my mother’s breasts.
from the time I came out of my mother’s womb you have been my God. 813
22:11 Do not remain far away from me,
for trouble is near and I have no one to help me. 814
powerful bulls of Bashan 816 hem me in.
like a roaring lion that rips its prey. 819
all my bones are dislocated;
my heart 821 is like wax;
it melts away inside me.
my tongue sticks to my gums. 823
a gang of evil men crowd around me;
like a lion they pin my hands and feet. 827
22:18 They are dividing up my clothes among themselves;
they are rolling dice 831 for my garments.
22:19 But you, O Lord, do not remain far away!
and from the horns of the wild oxen! 839
You have answered me! 840
In the middle of the assembly I will praise you!
All you descendants of Jacob, honor him!
All you descendants of Israel, stand in awe of him! 843
he did not ignore him; 846
when he cried out to him, he responded. 847
I will fulfill my promises before the Lord’s loyal followers. 849
Let those who seek his help praise the Lord!
May you 851 live forever!
and rules over the nations.
all those who are descending into the grave 858 will bow before him,
including those who cannot preserve their lives. 859
they will tell the next generation about the sovereign Lord. 861
they will tell a future generation what he has accomplished. 863
A psalm of David.
I lack nothing. 866
he leads me to refreshing water. 868
for the sake of his reputation. 872
for you are with me;
your rod and your staff reassure me. 876
in plain sight of my enemies.
You refresh 878 my head with oil;
my cup is completely full. 879
A psalm of David.
24:1 The Lord owns the earth and all it contains,
the world and all who live in it.
24:2 For he set its foundation upon the seas,
Who may go up to his holy dwelling place?
24:4 The one whose deeds are blameless
and whose motives are pure, 891
who does not lie, 892
or make promises with no intention of keeping them. 893
and vindicated by the God who delivers them. 895
24:6 Such purity characterizes the people who seek his favor,
Jacob’s descendants, who pray to him. 896 (Selah)
Rise up, 898 you eternal doors!
The Lord who is strong and mighty!
The Lord who is mighty in battle!
24:9 Look up, you gates!
Rise up, you eternal doors!
Then the majestic king will enter!
24:10 Who is this majestic king?
The Lord who commands armies! 902
He is the majestic king! (Selah)
25:2 My God, I trust in you.
Please do not let me be humiliated;
do not let my enemies triumphantly rejoice over me!
25:3 Certainly none who rely on you will be humiliated.
Those who deal in treachery will be thwarted 905 and humiliated.
25:4 Make me understand your ways, O Lord!
Teach me your paths! 906
For you are the God who delivers me;
on you I rely all day long.
for you have always acted in this manner. 909
Because you are faithful to me, extend to me your favor, O Lord! 912
that is why he teaches sinners the right way to live. 914
May he teach 917 the humble his way!
to those who follow the demands of his covenant. 919
forgive my sin, because it is great. 921
25:12 The Lord shows his faithful followers
the way they should live. 922
and he reveals his covenantal demands to them. 927
for he will free my feet from the enemy’s net. 929
25:16 Turn toward me and have mercy on me,
for I am alone 930 and oppressed!
rescue me from my suffering! 932
25:18 See my pain and suffering!
Forgive all my sins! 933
25:19 Watch my enemies, for they outnumber me;
they hate me and want to harm me. 934
Please do not let me be humiliated,
for I have taken shelter in you!
25:21 May integrity and godliness protect me,
for I rely on you!
from all their distress! 937
26:1 Vindicate me, O Lord,
for I have integrity, 939
and I trust in the Lord without wavering.
26:2 Examine me, O Lord, and test me!
Evaluate my inner thoughts and motives! 940
and your loyalty continually motivates me. 942
and do not associate 947 with the wicked.
so I can appear before your altar, 949 O Lord,
and to tell about all your amazing deeds. 951
the place where your splendor is revealed. 953
or execute me along with violent people, 955
or offer a bribe. 957
Rescue me 959 and have mercy on me!
and among the worshipers I will praise the Lord.
I fear no one! 963
The Lord protects my life!
I am afraid of no one! 964
to devour my flesh, 966
when my adversaries and enemies attack me, 967
they stumble and fall. 968
27:3 Even when an army is deployed against me,
I do not fear. 969
Even when war is imminent, 970
I remain confident. 971
27:4 I have asked the Lord for one thing –
this is what I desire!
so I can gaze at the splendor 974 of the Lord
and contemplate in his temple.
he will hide me in his home; 978
27:6 Now I will triumph
over my enemies who surround me! 981
I will offer sacrifices in his dwelling place and shout for joy! 982
I will sing praises to the Lord!
Have mercy on me and answer me!
and I do pray to you, O Lord. 985
Do not push your servant away in anger!
You are my deliverer! 987
Do not forsake or abandon me,
O God who vindicates me!
the Lord would take me in. 989
for false witnesses who want to destroy me testify against me. 994
27:13 Where would I be if I did not believe I would experience
the Lord’s favor in the land of the living? 995
Be strong and confident! 997
Rely on the Lord!
28:1 To you, O Lord, I cry out!
If you do not respond to me, 1001
28:2 Hear my plea for mercy when I cry out to you for help,
28:3 Do not drag me away with evil men,
with those who behave wickedly, 1006
who talk so friendly to their neighbors, 1007
while they plan to harm them! 1008
28:4 Pay them back for their evil deeds!
Pay them back for what they do!
Punish them! 1009
28:5 For they do not understand the Lord’s actions,
or the way he carries out justice. 1010
for he has heard my plea for mercy! 1014
I trust in him with all my heart. 1016
I will sing to him in gratitude. 1019
he protects and delivers his chosen king. 1021
28:9 Deliver your people!
A psalm of David.
acknowledge the Lord’s majesty and power! 1028
Worship the Lord in holy attire! 1030
the majestic God thunders, 1032
the Lord appears over the surging water. 1033
the Lord’s shout is majestic. 1035
29:6 He makes Lebanon skip like a calf
the Lord shakes the wilderness of Kadesh. 1044
Everyone in his temple says, “Majestic!” 1049
the Lord sits enthroned 1051 as the eternal king.
the Lord grants his people security. 1054
A psalm – a song used at the dedication of the temple; 1056 by David.
and did not allow my enemies to gloat 1058 over me.
30:2 O Lord my God,
I cried out to you and you healed me. 1059
you rescued me from among those descending into the grave. 1061
give thanks to his holy name. 1063
30:5 For his anger lasts only a brief moment,
and his good favor restores one’s life. 1064
One may experience sorrow during the night,
but joy arrives in the morning. 1065
30:6 In my self-confidence I said,
“I will never be upended.” 1066
Then you rejected me 1068 and I was terrified.
30:8 To you, O Lord, I cried out;
I begged the Lord for mercy: 1069
in my descending into the Pit? 1072
Can the dust of the grave 1073 praise you?
Can it declare your loyalty? 1074
30:10 Hear, O Lord, and have mercy on me!
O Lord, deliver me!” 1075
30:11 Then you turned my lament into dancing;
you removed my sackcloth and covered me with joy. 1076
O Lord my God, I will always 1079 give thanks to you.
For the music director; a psalm of David.
31:1 In you, O Lord, I have taken shelter!
Never let me be humiliated!
Vindicate me by rescuing me! 1081
Quickly deliver me!
Be my protector and refuge, 1083
a stronghold where I can be safe! 1084
for you are my place of refuge.
you will rescue 1090 me, O Lord, the faithful God.
but I trust in the Lord.
31:7 I will be happy and rejoice in your faithfulness,
because you notice my pain
and you are aware of how distressed I am. 1092
31:8 You do not deliver me over to the power of the enemy;
you enable me to stand 1093 in a wide open place.
31:9 Have mercy on me, for I am in distress!
I have lost my strength. 1096
31:10 For my life nears its end in pain;
my years draw to a close as I groan. 1097
My strength fails me because of 1098 my sin,
and my bones become brittle. 1099
my neighbors are appalled by my suffering 1101 –
those who know me are horrified by my condition; 1102
those who see me in the street run away from me.
I am regarded as worthless, like a broken jar. 1104
the terrifying news that comes from every direction. 1106
When they plot together against me,
they figure out how they can take my life.
31:14 But I trust in you, O Lord!
I declare, “You are my God!”
Rescue me from the power of my enemies and those who chase me.
Deliver me because of your faithfulness!
31:17 O Lord, do not let me be humiliated,
for I call out to you!
May evil men be humiliated!
May they go wailing to the grave! 1109
31:18 May lying lips be silenced –
with arrogance and contempt!
which you store up for your loyal followers! 1113
you conceal them in a shelter, where they are safe from slanderous attacks. 1118
for he demonstrated his amazing faithfulness to me when I was besieged by enemies. 1120
“I am cut off from your presence!” 1122
But you heard my plea for mercy when I cried out to you for help.
The Lord protects those who have integrity,
but he pays back in full the one who acts arrogantly. 1124
all you who wait on the Lord!
By David; a well-written song. 1127
whose sin is pardoned! 1130
in whose spirit there is no deceit. 1133
my whole body wasted away, 1135
while I groaned in pain all day long.
32:5 Then I confessed my sin;
I no longer covered up my wrongdoing.
I said, “I will confess 1140 my rebellious acts to the Lord.”
And then you forgave my sins. 1141 (Selah)
while there is a window of opportunity. 1143
it will not reach them. 1146
32:7 You are my hiding place;
you protect me from distress.
You surround me with shouts of joy from those celebrating deliverance. 1147 (Selah)
I will advise you as I look you in the eye. 1150
which will not obey you
unless they are controlled by a bridle and bit. 1153
but the Lord’s faithfulness overwhelms the one who trusts in him. 1155
32:11 Rejoice in the Lord and be happy, you who are godly!
Shout for joy, all you who are morally upright! 1156
33:1 You godly ones, shout for joy because of the Lord!
It is appropriate for the morally upright to offer him praise.
33:2 Give thanks to the Lord with the harp!
Sing to him to the accompaniment of a ten-stringed instrument!
Play skillfully as you shout out your praises to him! 1159
and everything he does is fair. 1163
the Lord’s faithfulness extends throughout the earth. 1165
by a mere word from his mouth all the stars in the sky were created. 1167
he puts the oceans 1169 in storehouses.
Let all who live in the world stand in awe of him!
he issued the decree, 1172 and it stood firm.
he nullifies the plans 1174 of the peoples.
33:11 The Lord’s decisions stand forever;
his plans abide throughout the ages. 1175
the people whom he has chosen to be his special possession. 1177
he sees all people. 1179
33:14 From the place where he lives he looks carefully
at all the earth’s inhabitants.
and takes note of all their actions.
33:16 No king is delivered by his vast army;
a warrior is not saved by his great might.
despite its great strength, it cannot deliver.
those who wait for him to demonstrate his faithfulness 1183
and sustaining them during times of famine. 1185
33:21 For our hearts rejoice in him,
for we trust in his holy name.
for 1190 we wait for you.
Written by David, when he pretended to be insane before Abimelech, causing the king to send him away. 1192
my mouth will continually praise him. 1194
let the oppressed hear and rejoice! 1196
34:3 Magnify the Lord with me!
Let’s praise 1197 his name together!
he delivered me from all my fears.
34:5 Those who look to him for help are happy;
their faces are not ashamed. 1199
34:6 This oppressed man cried out and the Lord heard;
he saved him 1200 from all his troubles.
34:7 The Lord’s angel camps around
for his loyal followers 1210 lack nothing!
34:10 Even young lions sometimes lack food and are hungry,
but those who seek the Lord lack no good thing.
34:11 Come children! Listen to me!
I will teach you what it means to fear the Lord. 1211
Would you love to live a long, happy life? 1213
or use deceptive speech! 1215
Strive for peace and promote it! 1217
34:15 The Lord pays attention to the godly
and hears their cry for help. 1218
34:16 But the Lord opposes evildoers
and wipes out all memory of them from the earth. 1219
he saves them from all their troubles. 1221
34:18 The Lord is near the brokenhearted;
not one of them is broken. 1230
those who hate the godly are punished. 1232
all who take shelter in him escape punishment. 1234
Attack those who attack me!
and rise up to help me!
Assure me with these words: 1240 “I am your deliverer!”
35:4 May those who seek my life be embarrassed and humiliated!
May those who plan to harm me be turned back and ashamed! 1241
as the Lord’s angel chases them!
35:7 I did not harm them, but they hid a net to catch me
and dug a pit to trap me. 1246
Let the net they hid catch them!
Let them fall into destruction! 1248
35:9 Then I will rejoice in the Lord
and be happy because of his deliverance. 1249
“O Lord, who can compare to you?
the oppressed and needy from those who try to rob them.” 1253
and falsely accuse me. 1255
I am overwhelmed with sorrow. 1257
and refrained from eating food. 1259
(If I am lying, may my prayers go unanswered!) 1260
35:15 But when I stumbled, they rejoiced and gathered together;
they gathered together to ambush me. 1264
They tore at me without stopping to rest. 1265
and tried to bite me. 1267
guard my life 1271 from the young lions!
I will praise you before a large crowd of people! 1273
Do not let those who hate me without cause carry out their wicked schemes! 1276
but plan ways to deceive those who are unsuspecting. 1278
they say, “Aha! Aha! We’ve got you!” 1280
O Lord, do not remain far away from me!
My God and Lord, defend my just cause! 1284
35:24 Vindicate me by your justice, O Lord my God!
Do not let them gloat 1285 over me!
Do not let them say, “We have devoured him!”
May those who arrogantly taunt me be covered with shame and humiliation! 1289
35:27 May those who desire my vindication shout for joy and rejoice!
and praise you all day long. 1294
For the music director; written by the Lord’s servant, David; an oracle. 1296
He does not fear God, 1298
36:2 for he is too proud
to recognize and give up his sin. 1299
36:3 The words he speaks are sinful and deceitful;
he does not care about doing what is wise and right. 1300
36:4 He plans ways to sin while he lies in bed;
he is committed to a sinful lifestyle; 1301
he does not reject what is evil. 1302
your faithfulness to the clouds. 1304
your fairness like the deepest sea;
The human race finds shelter under your wings. 1309
36:8 They are filled with food from your house,
and you allow them to drink from the river of your delicacies.
36:9 For you are the one who gives
and sustains life. 1310
36:11 Do not let arrogant men overtake me,
or let evil men make me homeless! 1315
They have been knocked down and are unable to get up! 1317
Do not envy evildoers!
37:2 For they will quickly dry up like grass,
and wither away like plants. 1321
37:3 Trust in the Lord and do what is right!
Settle in the land and maintain your integrity! 1322
and he will answer your prayers. 1324
Trust in him, and he will act on your behalf. 1326
37:6 He will vindicate you in broad daylight,
and publicly defend your just cause. 1327
Wait confidently 1329 for him!
Do not fret over the apparent success of a sinner, 1330
a man who carries out wicked schemes!
Do not fret! That only leads to trouble!
but those who rely on the Lord are the ones who will possess the land. 1334
you will stare at the spot where they once were, but they will be gone. 1336
37:11 But the oppressed will possess the land
and enjoy great prosperity. 1337
and viciously attack them. 1339
for he knows that their day is coming. 1341
37:14 Evil men draw their swords
and prepare their bows,
to bring down 1342 the oppressed and needy,
and to slaughter those who are godly. 1343
and their bows will be broken.
37:16 The little bit that a godly man owns is better than
the wealth of many evil men, 1345
but the Lord sustains 1347 the godly.
and they possess a permanent inheritance. 1349
when famine comes they will have enough to eat. 1351
the Lord’s enemies will be incinerated 1353 –
they will go up in smoke. 1354
37:21 Evil men borrow, but do not repay their debt,
but the godly show compassion and are generous. 1355
37:23 The Lord grants success to the one
whose behavior he finds commendable. 1360
for the Lord holds 1363 his hand.
37:25 I was once young, now I am old.
I have never seen a godly man abandoned,
and his children 1367 are blessed.
Then you will enjoy lasting security. 1369
and never abandons 1371 his faithful followers.
They are permanently secure, 1372
37:29 The godly will possess the land
and will dwell in it permanently.
37:30 The godly speak wise words
and promote justice. 1375
their 1377 feet do not slip.
37:32 Evil men set an ambush for the godly
and try to kill them. 1378
37:33 But the Lord does not surrender the godly,
or allow them to be condemned in a court of law. 1379
Then he will permit you 1382 to possess the land;
you will see the demise of evil men. 1383
growing in influence, like a green tree grows in its native soil. 1385
I looked for them, but they could not be found.
For the one who promotes peace has a future. 1388
evil men have no future. 1390
he protects them in times of trouble. 1392
37:40 The Lord helps them and rescues them;
he rescues them from evil men and delivers them, 1393
for they seek his protection.
A psalm of David, written to get God’s attention. 1395
38:1 O Lord, do not continue to rebuke me in your anger!
Do not continue to punish me in your raging fury! 1396
and your hand presses me down. 1398
I am deprived of health because of my sin. 1400
like a heavy load, they are too much for me to bear.
because of my foolish sins. 1404
all day long I walk around mourning.
and my whole body is sick. 1408
I groan loudly because of the anxiety I feel. 1410
my groaning is not hidden from you.
38:10 My heart beats quickly;
my strength leaves me;
I can hardly see. 1412
my neighbors stand far away. 1415
those who want to harm me speak destructive words;
all day long they say deceitful things.
38:13 But I am like a deaf man – I hear nothing;
I am like a mute who cannot speak. 1417
38:14 I am like a man who cannot hear
and is incapable of arguing his defense. 1418
You will respond, O Lord, my God!
when my foot slips they will arrogantly taunt me. 1421
38:17 For I am about to stumble,
and I am in constant pain. 1422
and I am concerned about my sins.
those who hate me without cause outnumber me. 1425
38:20 They repay me evil for the good I have done;
though I have tried to do good to them, they hurl accusations at me. 1426
38:21 Do not abandon me, O Lord!
My God, do not remain far away from me!
For the music director, Jeduthun; a psalm of David.
and make sure I do not sin with my tongue. 1430
I will put a muzzle over my mouth
while in the presence of an evil man.” 1431
I held back the urge to speak. 1433
My frustration grew; 1434
As I thought about it, I became impatient. 1436
Finally I spoke these words: 1437
39:4 “O Lord, help me understand my mortality
and the brevity of life! 1438
Let me realize how quickly my life will pass! 1439
and my life span is nothing from your perspective. 1441
Surely all people, even those who seem secure, are nothing but vapor. 1442
Surely they accumulate worthless wealth
without knowing who will eventually haul it away.” 1444
39:7 But now, O Lord, upon what am I relying?
You are my only hope! 1445
39:8 Deliver me from all my sins of rebellion!
Do not make me the object of fools’ insults!
39:9 I am silent and cannot open my mouth
because of what you have done. 1446
You have almost beaten me to death! 1448
like a moth you slowly devour their strength. 1450
Surely all people are a mere vapor. (Selah)
39:12 Hear my prayer, O Lord!
Listen to my cry for help!
Do not ignore my sobbing! 1451
For I am dependent on you, like one residing outside his native land;
I am at your mercy, just as all my ancestors were. 1452
39:13 Turn your angry gaze away from me, so I can be happy
before I pass away. 1453
For the music director; By David, a psalm.
and he turned toward me
and heard my cry for help.
out of the slimy mud. 1457
He placed my feet on a rock
and gave me secure footing. 1458
praising our God. 1460
May many see what God has done,
so that they might swear allegiance to him and trust in the Lord! 1461
40:5 O Lord, my God, you have accomplished many things;
you have done amazing things and carried out your purposes for us. 1467
No one can thwart you! 1468
I want to declare them and talk about them,
but they are too numerous to recount! 1469
You make that quite clear to me! 1471
You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings.
40:7 Then I say,
“Look! I come!
What is written in the scroll pertains to me. 1472
Your law dominates my thoughts.” 1474
Look! I spare no words! 1477
O Lord, you know this is true.
I spoke about your reliability and deliverance;
I have not neglected to tell the great assembly about your loyal love and faithfulness. 1479
May your loyal love and faithfulness continually protect me! 1481
My sins overtake me
so I am unable to see;
they outnumber the hairs of my head
so my strength fails me. 1483
40:13 Please be willing, O Lord, to rescue me!
O Lord, hurry and help me! 1484
40:14 May those who are trying to snatch away my life
be totally embarrassed and ashamed! 1485
May those who want to harm me
be turned back and ashamed! 1486
40:15 May those who say to me, “Aha! Aha!”
40:16 May all those who seek you be happy and rejoice in you!
“May the Lord be praised!” 1491
May the Lord pay attention to me! 1493
You are my helper and my deliverer!
O my God, do not delay!
For the music director; a psalm of David.
May he be blessed 1500 in the land!
you completely heal him from his illness. 1504
“O Lord, have mercy on me!
Heal me, for I have sinned against you!
‘When will he finally die and be forgotten?’ 1507
he thinks of ways to defame me, 1510
and when he leaves he slanders me. 1511
they plan ways to harm me.
and now that he is bed-ridden he will never recover.’ 1516
he who shared meals with me, has turned against me. 1518
41:10 As for you, O Lord, have mercy on me and raise me up,
so I can pay them back!” 1519
in the future and forevermore! 1528
We agree! We agree! 1529
For the music director; a well-written song 1531 by the Korahites.
so I long 1534 for you, O God!
for the living God.
all day long they say to me, 1539 “Where is your God?”
For I was once walking along with the great throng to the temple of God,
shouting and giving thanks along with the crowd as we celebrated the holy festival. 1541
Why are you upset? 1544
Wait for God!
For I will again give thanks
to my God for his saving intervention. 1545
so I will pray to you while I am trapped here in the region of the upper Jordan, 1547
all your billows and waves overwhelm me. 1552
and by night he gives me a song, 1554
a prayer 1555 to the living God.
“Why do you ignore 1558 me?
Why must I walk around mourning 1559
because my enemies oppress me?”
as they say to me all day long, “Where is your God?” 1561
Why are you upset? 1564
Wait for God!
For I will again give thanks
to my God for his saving intervention. 1565
43:1 Vindicate me, O God!
Fight for me 1567 against an ungodly nation!
Why do you reject me? 1571
because my enemies oppress me?
They will lead me, 1576
and to the place where you live. 1579
to the God who gives me ecstatic joy, 1581
so that I express my thanks to you, 1582 O God, my God, with a harp.
Why are you upset? 1585
Wait for God!
For I will again give thanks
to my God for his saving intervention. 1586
For the music director; by the Korahites, a well-written song. 1588
our ancestors 1590 have told us
what you did 1591 in their days,
in ancient times. 1592
and they did not prevail by their strength, 1599
for you were partial to 1603 them.
44:6 For I do not trust in my bow,
and I do not prevail by my sword.
you humiliate 1613 those who hate us.
44:8 In God I boast all day long,
and we will continually give thanks to your name. (Selah)
You did not go into battle with our armies. 1615
Those who hate us take whatever they want from us. 1617
you scattered us among the nations.
you did not ask a high price for them. 1621
those who live on our borders taunt and insult us. 1623
foreigners treat us with contempt. 1626
and am overwhelmed with shame, 1628
44:16 before the vindictive enemy
who ridicules and insults me. 1629
or violated your covenant with us. 1631
nor have we disobeyed your commands. 1633
you have covered us with darkness. 1635
and spread out our hands in prayer to another god, 1637
44:21 would not God discover it,
44:23 Rouse yourself! Why do you sleep, O Lord?
Wake up! 1643 Do not reject us forever!
44:25 For we lie in the dirt,
with our bellies pressed to the ground. 1647
44:26 Rise up and help us!
Rescue us 1648 because of your loyal love!
I say, “I have composed this special song 1653 for the king;
my tongue is as skilled as the stylus of an experienced scribe.” 1654
You speak in an impressive and fitting manner! 1656
Appear in your majestic splendor! 1660
Ride forth for the sake of what is right, 1662
on behalf of justice! 1663
Then your right hand will accomplish mighty acts! 1664
45:5 Your arrows are sharp
and penetrate the hearts of the king’s enemies.
Nations fall at your feet. 1665
The scepter 1668 of your kingdom is a scepter of justice.
Observe and pay attention! 1683
will seek your favor by bringing a gift. 1691
decked out in pearls and clothed in a brocade trimmed with gold. 1694
45:14 In embroidered robes she is escorted to the king.
Her attendants, the maidens of honor who follow her,
are led before you. 1695
45:15 They are bubbling with joy as they walk in procession
and enter the royal palace. 1696
you will make them princes throughout the land.
then the nations will praise you 1701 forever.
For the music director; by the Korahites; according to the alamoth style; 1703 a song.
he is truly our helper in times of trouble. 1705
and the mountains tumble into the depths of the sea, 1708
who brings devastation to the earth! 1728
For the music director; by the Korahites; a psalm.
47:1 All you nations, clap your hands!
Shout out to God in celebration! 1743
he is the great king who rules the whole earth! 1746
and countries 1748 under our feet.
the Lord has ascended his throne amid the blaring of ram’s horns. 1755
47:6 Sing to God! Sing!
Sing to our king! Sing!
47:7 For God is king of the whole earth!
Sing a well-written song! 1756
God sits on his holy throne!
47:9 The nobles of the nations assemble,
along with the people of the God of Abraham, 1758
for God has authority over the rulers 1759 of the earth.
He is highly exalted! 1760
A song, a psalm by the Korahites.
48:1 The Lord is great and certainly worthy of praise
in the city of our God, 1762 his holy hill.
a source of joy to the whole earth. 1764
Mount Zion resembles the peaks of Zaphon; 1765
it is the city of the great king.
48:3 God is in its fortresses;
he reveals himself as its defender. 1766
they advance together.
they are terrified, they quickly retreat. 1771
like a woman writhing in childbirth. 1773
48:7 With an east wind
in the city of the Lord, the invincible Warrior, 1777
in the city of our God.
God makes it permanently secure. 1778 (Selah)
48:9 We reflect on your loyal love, O God,
within your temple.
48:10 The praise you receive as far away as the ends of the earth
is worthy of your reputation, O God. 1779
You execute justice! 1780
48:11 Mount Zion rejoices;
because of your acts of judgment. 1783
Count its towers!
Walk through 1786 its fortresses,
so you can tell the next generation about it! 1787
For the music director, a psalm by the Korahites.
49:1 Listen to this, all you nations!
Pay attention, all you inhabitants of the world! 1792
both rich and poor!
I will share my profound thoughts. 1795
49:4 I will learn a song that imparts wisdom;
I will then sing my insightful song to the accompaniment of a harp. 1796
when the sinful deeds of deceptive men threaten to overwhelm me? 1798
and boast 1800 in their great riches.
he cannot pay God an adequate ransom price 1802
and people go to their final destiny), 1804
and not experience death. 1806
fools and spiritually insensitive people all pass away 1810
and leave their wealth to others. 1811
49:11 Their grave becomes their permanent residence,
their eternal dwelling place. 1812
They name their lands after themselves, 1813
and of those who approve of their philosophy. 1818 (Selah)
with death as their shepherd. 1820
Sheol will consume their bodies and they will no longer live in impressive houses. 1823
and his wealth multiplies! 1831
49:17 For he will take nothing with him when he dies;
his wealth will not follow him down into the grave. 1832
49:18 He pronounces this blessing on himself while he is alive:
“May men praise you, for you have done well!”
they will never again see the light of day. 1834
A psalm by Asaph.
and summons the earth to come from the east and west. 1840
God comes in splendor. 1842
consuming fire goes ahead of him
and all around him a storm rages. 1844
50:4 He summons the heavens above,
as well as the earth, so that he might judge his people. 1845
“Assemble my covenant people before me, 1847
those who ratified a covenant with me by sacrifice!” 1848
for God is judge. 1850 (Selah)
“Listen my people! I am speaking!
Listen Israel! I am accusing you! 1852
I am God, your God!
or because of your burnt sacrifices that you continually offer me. 1854
or goats from your sheepfolds.
50:10 For every wild animal in the forest belongs to me,
as well as the cattle that graze on a thousand hills. 1856
and the insects 1858 of the field are mine.
50:12 Even if I were hungry, I would not tell you,
for the world and all it contains belong to me.
50:13 Do I eat the flesh of bulls?
Do I drink the blood of goats? 1859
50:14 Present to God a thank-offering!
Repay your vows to the sovereign One! 1860
I will deliver you, and you will honor me!” 1862
“How can you declare my commands,
and talk about my covenant? 1864
50:17 For you hate instruction
and reject my words. 1865
you associate with men who are unfaithful to their wives. 1867
and use your tongue to deceive. 1869
you slander your own brother. 1871
so you thought I was exactly like you. 1873
But now I will condemn 1874 you
and state my case against you! 1875
Otherwise I will rip you to shreds 1877
and no one will be able to rescue you.
To whoever obeys my commands, I will reveal my power to deliver.” 1879
1 sn Psalm 1. In this wisdom psalm the author advises his audience to reject the lifestyle of the wicked and to be loyal to God. The psalmist contrasts the destiny of the wicked with that of the righteous, emphasizing that the wicked are eventually destroyed while the godly prosper under the Lord’s protective care.
2 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see v. 3; Pss 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
3 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness [of] the man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the more neutral “one.” (Generic “he” is employed in vv. 2-3). Since the godly man described in the psalm is representative of followers of God (note the plural form צַדִּיקִים [tsadiqim, “righteous, godly”] in vv. 5-6), one could translate the collective singular with the plural “those” both here and in vv. 2-3, where singular pronouns and verbal forms are utilized in the Hebrew text (cf. NRSV). However, here the singular form may emphasize that godly individuals are usually outnumbered by the wicked. Retaining the singular allows the translation to retain this emphasis.
4 tn Heb “walk in.” The three perfect verbal forms in v. 1 refer in this context to characteristic behavior. The sequence “walk–stand–sit” envisions a progression from relatively casual association with the wicked to complete identification with them.
5 tn The Hebrew noun translated “advice” most often refers to the “counsel” or “advice” one receives from others. To “walk in the advice of the wicked” means to allow their evil advice to impact and determine one’s behavior.
6 tn In the psalms the Hebrew term רְשָׁעִים (rÿsha’im, “wicked”) describes people who are proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21).
7 tn “Pathway” here refers to the lifestyle of sinners. To “stand in the pathway of/with sinners” means to closely associate with them in their sinful behavior.
8 tn Here the Hebrew term מוֹשַׁב (moshav), although often translated “seat” (cf. NEB, NIV), appears to refer to the whole assembly of evildoers. The word also carries the semantic nuance “assembly” in Ps 107:32, where it is in synonymous parallelism with קָהָל (qahal, “assembly”).
9 tn The Hebrew word refers to arrogant individuals (Prov 21:24) who love conflict (Prov 22:10) and vociferously reject wisdom and correction (Prov 1:22; 9:7-8; 13:1; 15:12). To “sit in the assembly” of such people means to completely identify with them in their proud, sinful plans and behavior.
11 tn Heb “his delight [is] in the law of the
12 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the characteristic behavior described here and lends support to the hyperbolic adverbial phrase “day and night.” The verb הָגָה (hagag) means “to recite quietly; to meditate” and refers metonymically to intense study and reflection.
13 tn Or “his law.”
14 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the same characteristic force as the imperfect in the preceding verse. According to the psalmist, the one who studies and obeys God’s commands typically prospers.
15 tn Heb “channels of water.”
16 tn Heb “which.”
18 tn Heb “in its season.”
19 tn Or “fade”; “wither.”
sn The author compares the godly individual to a tree that has a rich water supply (planted by flowing streams), develops a strong root system, and is filled with leaves and fruit. The simile suggests that the godly have a continual source of life which in turn produces stability and uninterrupted prosperity.
20 tn Heb “and all which he does prospers”; or “and all which he does he causes to prosper.” (The simile of the tree does not extend to this line.) It is not certain if the Hiphil verbal form (יַצְלִיחַ, yatsliakh) is intransitive-exhibitive (“prospers”) or causative (“causes to prosper”) here. If the verb is intransitive, then כֹּל (kol, “all, everything”) is the subject. If the verb is causative, then the godly individual or the Lord himself is the subject and כֹּל is the object. The wording is reminiscent of Josh 1:8, where the Lord tells Joshua: “This law scroll must not leave your lips! You must memorize it day and night so you can carefully obey all that is written in it. Then you will prosper (literally, “cause your way to prosper”) and be successful.”
22 tn Heb “[they are] like the chaff which [the] wind blows about.” The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the typical nature of the action described.
sn Wind-driven chaff. In contrast to the well-rooted and productive tree described in v. 3, the wicked are like a dried up plant that has no root system and is blown away by the wind. The simile describes the destiny of the wicked (see vv. 5-6).
23 tn Or “Therefore.”
24 tn Heb “arise in,” but the verb is used metonymically here in the sense of “stand”; “endure,” as in 1 Sam 13:14 and Job 8:15. The negated Hebrew imperfect verbal form is here taken as indicating incapability or lack of potential, though one could understand the verb form as indicating what is typical (“do not withstand”) or what will happen (“will not withstand”).
25 tn Heb “the judgment.” The article indicates a judgment that is definite in the mind of the speaker. In the immediate context this probably does not refer to the “final judgment” described in later biblical revelation, but to a temporal/historical judgment which the author anticipates. Periodically during the OT period, God would come in judgment, removing the wicked from the scene, while preserving a godly remnant (see Gen 6-9; Ps 37; Hab 3).
26 tn Heb “and sinners in the assembly (or “circle”) of [the] godly.” The negative particle and verb from the preceding line are assumed by ellipsis here (“will not arise/stand”).
sn The assembly of the godly is insulated from divine judgment (Ps 37:12-17, 28-29).
27 tn The translation understands כי as asseverative. Another option is to translate “for,” understanding v. 6 as a theological explanation for vv. 3-5, which contrasts the respective destinies of the godly and the wicked.
28 tn Heb “the
29 tn Heb “but the way of the wicked perishes.” The “way of the wicked” may refer to their course of life (Ps 146:9; Prov 4:19; Jer 12:1) or their sinful behavior (Prov 12:26; 15:9). The Hebrew imperfect verbal form probably describes here what typically happens, though one could take the form as indicating what will happen (“will perish”).
30 sn Psalm 2. In this royal psalm the author asserts the special status of the divinely chosen Davidic king and warns the nations and their rulers to submit to the authority of God and his chosen vice-regent.
31 tn The question is rhetorical. Rather than seeking information, the psalmist expresses his outrage that the nations would have the audacity to rebel against God and his chosen king.
32 tn The Hebrew verb רָגַשׁ (ragash) occurs only here. In Dan 6:6, 11, 15 the Aramaic cognate verb describes several officials acting as a group. A Hebrew nominal derivative is used in Ps 55:14 of a crowd of people in the temple.
33 tn The interrogative לָמָּה (lamah, “why?”) is understood by ellipsis in the second line.
34 tn Or “peoples” (so many English versions).
35 tn The Hebrew imperfect form describes the rebellion as underway. The verb הָגָה (hagah), which means “to recite quietly, meditate,” here has the metonymic nuance “devise, plan, plot” (see Ps 38:12; Prov 24:2).
36 tn Heb “devising emptiness.” The noun רִיק (riq, “emptiness”) may characterize their behavior as “worthless, morally bankrupt” but more likely refers to the outcome of their plots (i.e., failure). As the rest of the psalm emphasizes, their rebellion will fail.
37 sn The expression kings of the earth refers somewhat hyperbolically to the kings who had been conquered by and were subject to the Davidic king.
38 tn Or “take their stand.” The Hebrew imperfect verbal form describes their action as underway.
39 tn Or “conspire together.” The verbal form is a Niphal from יָסַד (yasad). BDB 413-14 s.v. יָסַד defines the verb as “establish, found,” but HALOT 417 s.v. II יסד proposes a homonym meaning “get together, conspire” (an alternate form of סוּד, sud).
41 tn The words “they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The quotation represents the words of the rebellious kings.
42 tn Heb “their (i.e., the
43 tn Heb “throw off from us.”
45 tn As the next line indicates, this refers to derisive laughter. The Hebrew imperfect verbal forms in vv. 4-5 describe the action from the perspective of an eyewitness who is watching the divine response as it unfolds before his eyes.
46 tn Or “scoffs at”; “derides”; “mocks.”
47 sn And terrifies them in his rage. This line focuses on the effect that God’s angry response (see previous line) has on the rebellious kings.
48 tn The word “saying” is supplied in the translation for clarification to indicate that the speaker is the Lord (cf. RSV, NIV).
49 tn The first person pronoun appears before the first person verbal form for emphasis, reflected in the translation by “myself.”
50 tn Or perhaps “consecrated.”
51 tn The words “the king says” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The speaker is the Lord’s chosen king.
52 tn Or “I will relate the decree. The
53 sn ‘You are my son!’ The Davidic king was viewed as God’s “son” (see 2 Sam 7:14; Ps 89:26-27). The idiom reflects ancient Near Eastern adoption language associated with covenants of grant, by which a lord would reward a faithful subject by elevating him to special status, referred to as “sonship.” Like a son, the faithful subject received an “inheritance,” viewed as an unconditional, eternal gift. Such gifts usually took the form of land and/or an enduring dynasty. See M. Weinfeld, “The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East,” JAOS 90 (1970): 184-203, for general discussion and some striking extra-biblical parallels.
54 sn I will give you the nations. The
55 tc The LXX reads “you will shepherd them.” This reading, quoted in the Greek text of the NT in Rev 2:27; 12:5; 19:15, assumes a different vocalization of the consonantal Hebrew text and understands the verb as רָעָה (ra’ah, “to shepherd”) rather than רָעָע (ra’a’, “to break”). But the presence of נָפַץ (nafats, “to smash”) in the next line strongly favors the MT vocalization.
56 tn The Hebrew term שֵׁבֶט (shevet) can refer to a “staff” or “rod,” but here it probably refers to the Davidic king’s royal scepter, symbolizing his sovereignty.
57 sn Like a potter’s jar. Before the Davidic king’s awesome power, the rebellious nations are like fragile pottery.
58 sn The speaker here is either the psalmist or the Davidic king, who now addresses the rebellious kings.
59 tn The Niphal has here a tolerative nuance; the kings are urged to submit themselves to the advice being offered.
60 tn The Hebrew verb translated “serve” refers here to submitting to the Lord’s sovereignty as expressed through the rule of the Davidic king. Such “service” would involve maintaining allegiance to the Davidic king by paying tribute on a regular basis.
61 tn Traditionally, “rejoice with trembling” (KJV). The verb גִּיל (gil) normally means “rejoice,” but this meaning does not fit well here in conjunction with “in trembling.” Some try to understand “trembling” (and the parallel יִרְאָה, yir’ah, “fear”) in the sense of “reverential awe” and then take the verbs “serve” and “rejoice” in the sense of “worship” (cf. NASB). But רְעָדָה (rÿ’adah, “trembling”) and its related terms consistently refer to utter terror and fear (see Exod 15:15; Job 4:14; Pss 48:6; 55:5; 104:32; Isa 33:14; Dan 10:11) or at least great emotional distress (Ezra 10:9). It seems more likely here that גִּיל carries its polarized meaning “mourn, lament,” as in Hos 10:5. “Mourn, lament” would then be metonymic in this context for “repent” (referring to one’s rebellious ways). On the meaning of the verb in Hos 10:5, see F. I. Andersen and D. N. Freedman, Hosea (AB), 556-57.
62 tn Traditionally, “kiss the son” (KJV). But בַּר (bar) is the Aramaic word for “son,” not the Hebrew. For this reason many regard the reading as suspect. Some propose emendations of vv. 11b-12a. One of the more popular proposals is to read בִּרְעָדָה נַשְּׁקוּ לְרַגְלָיו (bir’adah nashÿqu lÿraslayv, “in trembling kiss his feet”). It makes better sense to understand בַּר (bar) as an adjective meaning “pure” (see Pss 24:4; 73:1 and BDB 141 s.v. בַּר 3) functioning here in an adverbial sense. If read this way, then the syntactical structure of exhortation (imperative followed by adverbial modifier) corresponds to the two preceding lines (see v. 11). The verb נָשַׁק (nashaq, “kiss”) refers metonymically to showing homage (see 1 Sam 10:1; Hos 13:2). The exhortation in v. 12a advocates a genuine expression of allegiance and warns against insincerity. When swearing allegiance, vassal kings would sometimes do so insincerely, with the intent of rebelling when the time was right. The so-called “Vassal Treaties of Esarhaddon” also warn against such an attitude. In this treaty the vassal is told: “If you, as you stand on the soil where this oath [is sworn], swear the oath with your words and lips [only], do not swear with your entire heart, do not transmit it to your sons who will live after this treaty, if you take this curse upon yourselves but do not plan to keep the treaty of Esarhaddon…may your sons and grandsons because of this fear in the future” (see J. B. Pritchard, ed., The Ancient Near East, 2:62).
64 tn The implied subject of the verb is the
65 tn Heb “and you will perish [in the] way.” The Hebrew word דֶּרֶךְ (derekh, “way”) here refers to their rebellious behavior (not to a pathway, as often understood). It functions syntactically as an adverbial accusative in relation to the verb “perish.”
66 tn Or “burns.” The
67 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
68 sn Who take shelter in him. “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear, and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
69 sn Psalm 3. The psalmist acknowledges that he is confronted by many enemies (vv. 1-2). But, alluding to a divine oracle he has received (vv. 4-5), he affirms his confidence in God’s ability to protect him (vv. 3, 6) and requests that God make his promise a reality (vv. 7-8).
71 tn The Hebrew term מָה (mah, “how”) is used here as an adverbial exclamation (see BDB 553 s.v.).
72 tn Heb “many rise up against me.”
73 tn Heb “there is no deliverance for him in God.”
74 sn The function of the Hebrew term סֶלָה (selah), transliterated here “Selah,” is uncertain. It may be a musical direction of some kind.
75 tn Heb “a shield round about me.”
76 tn Heb “my glory,” or “my honor.” The psalmist affirms that the
77 tn Heb “[the one who] lifts my head.” This phrase could be understood to refer to a general strengthening of the psalmist by God during difficult circumstances. However, if one takes the suggestion of the superscription that this is a Davidic psalm written during the revolt of Absalom, the phrase “lift the head” could refer to the psalmist’s desire for restoration to his former position (cf. Gen 40:13 where the same phrase is used). Like the Hebrew text, the present translation (“who restores me”) can be understood in either sense.
78 tn The prefixed verbal form could be an imperfect, yielding the translation “I cry out,” but the verb form in the next line (a vav [ו] consecutive with the preterite) suggests this is a brief narrative of what has already happened. Consequently the verb form in v. 4a is better understood as a preterite, “I cried out.” (For another example of the preterite of this same verb form, see Ps 30:8.) Sometime after the crisis arose, the psalmist prayed to the Lord and received an assuring answer. Now he confidently awaits the fulfillment of the divine promise.
80 tn The three verbal forms that appear in succession here (perfect + vav [ו] consecutive with preterite + perfect) are most naturally taken as narrational. When the psalmist received an assuring word from the
81 tn Or “supports”; “sustains.” In this explanatory causal clause the imperfect verbal form probably has a habitual or present progressive nuance, for the psalmist is confident of God’s continual protection (see v. 3). Another option is to take the verb as a preterite, “for the
82 tn The imperfect verbal form here expresses the psalmist’s continuing attitude as he faces the crisis at hand.
83 tn Or perhaps “troops.” The Hebrew noun עָם (’am) sometimes refers to a military contingent or army.
84 tn Heb “who all around take a stand against me.”
85 tn In v. 2 the psalmist describes his enemies as those who “confront” him (קָמִים [qamim], literally, “rise up against him”). Now, using the same verbal root (קוּם, qum) he asks the
86 tn Elsewhere in the psalms the particle כִּי (ki), when collocated with a perfect verbal form and subordinated to a preceding imperative directed to God, almost always has an explanatory or causal force (“for, because”) and introduces a motivating argument for why God should respond positively to the request (see Pss 5:10; 6:2; 12:1; 16:1; 41:4; 55:9; 56:1; 57:1; 60:2; 69:1; 74:20; 119:94; 123:3; 142:6; 143:8). (On three occasions the כִּי is recitative after a verb of perception [“see/know that,” see Pss 4:3; 25:19; 119:159]). If כִּי is taken as explanatory here, then the psalmist is arguing that God should deliver him now because that is what God characteristically does. However, such a motivating argument is not used in the passages cited above. The motivating argument usually focuses on the nature of the psalmist’s dilemma or the fact that he trusts in the Lord. For this reason it is unlikely that כִּי has its normal force here. Most scholars understand the particle כִּי as having an asseverative (emphasizing) function here (“indeed, yes”; NEB leaves the particle untranslated).
87 tn If the particle כִּי (ki) is taken as explanatory, then the perfect verbal forms in v. 7b would describe God’s characteristic behavior. However, as pointed out in the preceding note on the word “yes,” the particle probably has an asseverative force here. If so, the perfects may be taken as indicating rhetorically the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s assault on his enemies as if it had already happened. Such confidence is consistent with the mood of the psalm, as expressed before (vv. 3-6) and after this (v. 8). Another option is to take the perfects as precative, expressing a wish or request (“Strike all my enemies on the jaw, break the teeth of the wicked”). See IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d. However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.
89 tn In the psalms the Hebrew term רְשָׁעִים (rÿsha’im, “wicked”) describes people who are proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21). They oppose God and his people.
90 tn Heb “to the
92 sn Psalm 4. The psalmist asks God to hear his prayer, expresses his confidence that the Lord will intervene, and urges his enemies to change their ways and place their trust in God. He concludes with another prayer for divine intervention and again affirms his absolute confidence in God’s protection.
93 tn Heb “God of my righteousness.”
94 tn Heb “in distress (or “a narrow place”) you make (a place) large for me.” The function of the Hebrew perfect verbal form here is uncertain. The translation above assumes that the psalmist is expressing his certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer, he can describe God’s deliverance as if it had already happened. Such confidence is consistent with the mood of the psalm (vv. 3, 8). Another option is to take the perfects as precative, expressing a wish or request (“lead me”). See IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d. However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.
95 tn Or “show me favor.”
96 tn Heb “hear.”
97 tn Heb “sons of man.”
98 tn Heb “how long my honor to shame?”
99 tn The interrogative construction עַד־מֶה (’ad-meh, “how long?”), is understood by ellipsis in the second line.
100 tn Heb “emptiness.”
101 tn Heb “a lie.” Some see the metonymic language of v. 2b (“emptiness, lie”) as referring to idols or false gods. However, there is no solid immediate contextual evidence for such an interpretation. It is more likely that the psalmist addresses those who threaten him (see v. 1) and refers in a general way to their sinful lifestyle. (See R. Mosis, TDOT 7:121.) The two terms allude to the fact that sinful behavior is ultimately fruitless and self-destructive.
102 tn Heb “and know that.”
103 tn Heb “that the
104 tn Heb “hears.”
105 sn The psalmist warns his enemies that they need to tremble with fear before God and repudiate their sinful ways.
106 tn Heb “say in your heart(s) on your bed(s) and wail/lament.” The verb דֹמּוּ (dommu) is understood as a form of דָמָם (“wail, lament”) in sorrow and repentance. Another option is to take the verb from II דָמָם (damam, “be quiet”); cf. NIV, NRSV “be silent.”
108 sn Trust in the
109 tn Heb “lift up upon us the light of your face,
sn Smile upon us. Though many are discouraged, the psalmist asks the Lord to intervene and transform the situation.
110 tn Heb “you place joy in my heart.” Another option is to understand the perfect verbal form as indicating certitude, “you will make me happier.”
111 tn Heb “from (i.e., more than) the time (when) their grain and their wine are abundant.”
112 tn Heb “in peace at the same time I will lie down and sleep.”
113 tn Heb “for you,
115 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word נְחִילוֹת (nÿkhilot), which occurs only here, is uncertain. Many relate the form to חָלִיל (khalil, “flute”).
116 tn Heb “my words.”
119 tn The imperfect is here understood in a specific future sense; the psalmist is expressing his confidence that God will be willing to hear his request. Another option is to understand the imperfect as expressing the psalmist’s wish or request. In this case one could translate, “
120 tn Heb “my voice.”
121 tn Heb “I will arrange for you.” Some understand a sacrifice or offering as the implied object (cf. NEB “I set out my morning sacrifice”). The present translation assumes that the implied object is the psalmist’s case/request. See Isa 44:7.
122 tn Heb “and I will watch.”
123 tn Or “for.”
124 tn Heb “not a God [who] delights [in] wickedness [are] you.”
125 tn The Hebrew text has simply the singular form רע, which may be taken as an abstract noun “evil” (the reference to “wickedness” in the preceding line favors this; cf. NEB, NASB, NRSV) or as a substantival adjective “evil one” (the references to evil people in the next two verses favor this; cf. NIV “with you the wicked cannot dwell”).
126 tn Heb “cannot dwell as a resident alien [with] you.” The negated imperfect verbal form here indicates incapability or lack of permission. These people are morally incapable of dwelling in God’s presence and are not permitted to do so.
sn Only the godly are allowed to dwell with the Lord. Evil people are excluded. See Ps 15.
127 tn Heb “before your eyes.”
129 tn Heb “all the workers of wickedness.”
130 tn The imperfect verbal form indicates God’s typical response to such individuals. Another option is to translate the verb as future (“You will destroy”); the psalmist may be envisioning a time of judgment when God will remove the wicked from the scene.
131 tn Heb “those who speak a lie.” In the OT a “lie” does not refer in a general philosophical sense to any statement that fails to correspond to reality. Instead it refers more specifically to a slanderous and/or deceitful statement that promotes one’s own selfish, sinful interests and/or exploits or harms those who are innocent. Note the emphasis on violence and deceit in the following line.
132 tn The imperfect verbal form highlights the
133 tn Heb “a man of bloodshed and deceit.” The singular אִישׁ (’ish, “man”) is used here in a collective or representative sense; thus the translation “people” is appropriate here. Note the plural forms in vv. 5-6a.
134 sn But as for me. By placing the first person pronoun at the beginning of the verse, the psalmist highlights the contrast between the evildoers’ actions and destiny, outlined in the preceding verses, with his own.
136 tn Heb “in fear [of] you.” The Hebrew noun יִרְאָה (yir’ah, “fear”), when used of fearing God, is sometimes used metonymically for what it ideally produces: “worship, reverence, piety.”
137 tn God’s providential leading is in view. His צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah, “righteousness”) includes here the deliverance that originates in his righteousness; he protects and vindicates the one whose cause is just. For other examples of this use of the word, see BDB 842 s.v.
139 tn Heb “make level before me your way.” The imperative “make level” is Hiphil in the Kethib (consonantal text); Piel in the Qere (marginal reading). God’s “way” is here the way in which he leads the psalmist providentially (see the preceding line, where the psalmist asks the Lord to lead him).
140 tn Or “certainly.”
141 tn Heb “for there is not in his mouth truthfulness.” The singular pronoun (“his”) probably refers back to the “man of bloodshed and deceit” mentioned in v. 6. The singular is collective or representative, as the plural in the next line indicates, and so has been translated “they.”
143 tn Heb “their throat is an open grave.” For a discussion of the extended metaphor in v. 9b, see the note on the word “it” at the end of the verse. The metaphor is suggested by the physical resemblance of the human throat to a deeply dug grave; both are dark chasms.
144 tn Heb “they make smooth their tongue.” Flattering, deceitful words are in view. See Ps 12:2. The psalmist’s deceitful enemies are compared to the realm of death/Sheol in v. 9b. Sheol was envisioned as a dark region within the earth, the entrance to which was the grave with its steep slopes (cf. Ps 88:4-6). The enemies’ victims are pictured here as slipping down a steep slope (the enemies’ tongues) and falling into an open grave (their throat) that terminates in destruction in the inner recesses of Sheol (their stomach). The enemies’ קרב (“inward part”) refers here to their thoughts and motives, which are destructive in their intent. The throat is where these destructive thoughts are transformed into words, and their tongue is what they use to speak the deceitful words that lead their innocent victims to their demise.
sn As the psalmist walks down the path in which God leads him, he asks the
145 tn Heb “declare/regard them as guilty.” Declaring the psalmist’s adversaries guilty is here metonymic for judging them or paying them back for their wrongdoing.
146 tn Heb “may they fall from their plans.” The prefixed verbal form is a jussive, expressing an imprecation. The psalmist calls judgment down on the evildoers. Their plans will be their downfall in that God will judge them for their evil schemes.
147 tn Or “banish them.”
148 tn The Hebrew noun used here, פֶּשַׁע (pesha’), refers to rebellious actions. The psalmist pictures his enemies as rebels against God (see the next line).
149 sn Take shelter. “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
150 tn The prefixed verbal form is a jussive of wish or prayer. The psalmist calls on God to reward his faithful followers.
151 tn Or perhaps more hyperbolically, “forever.”
152 tn As in the preceding line, the prefixed verbal form is a jussive of wish or prayer.
153 tn Heb “put a cover over them.” The verb form is a Hiphil imperfect from סָכַךְ (sakhakh, “cover, shut off”). The imperfect expresses the psalmist’s wish or request.
155 tn The vav (ו) with prefixed verbal form following the volitional “shelter them” indicates purpose or result (“so that those…may rejoice).
156 tn Or “For.”
157 tn Or “bless.” The imperfect verbal forms here and in the next line highlight how God characteristically rewards and protects the godly.
158 tn Or “innocent.” The singular form is used here in a collective or representative sense.
160 tn Heb “him.” The singular form is used here in a collective or representative sense and is thus translated “them.”
161 tn Or “with favor” (cf. NRSV). There is no preposition before the noun in the Hebrew text, nor is there a pronoun attached. “Favor” here stands by metonymy for God’s defensive actions on behalf of the one whom he finds acceptable.
162 sn Psalm 6. The psalmist begs the Lord to withdraw his anger and spare his life. Having received a positive response to his prayer, the psalmist then confronts his enemies and describes how they retreat.
165 tn Or “show me favor.”
166 tn Normally the verb בָּהַל (bahal) refers to an emotional response and means “tremble with fear, be terrified” (see vv. 3, 10). Perhaps here the “bones” are viewed as the seat of the psalmist’s emotions. However, the verb may describe one of the effects of his physical ailment, perhaps a fever. In Ezek 7:27 the verb describes how the hands of the people will shake with fear when they experience the horrors of divine judgment.
167 tn Heb “my being is very terrified.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
168 tn Heb “and you,
169 tn Heb “my being,” or “my life.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
170 sn Deliver me because of your faithfulness. Though the psalmist is experiencing divine discipline, he realizes that God has made a commitment to him in the past, so he appeals to God’s faithfulness in his request for help.
171 tn Heb “for there is not in death your remembrance.” The Hebrew noun זֵכֶר (zekher, “remembrance”) here refers to the name of the Lord as invoked in liturgy and praise. Cf. Pss 30:4; 97:12. “Death” here refers to the realm of death where the dead reside. See the reference to Sheol in the next line.
172 tn The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “no one.”
sn In Sheol who gives you thanks? According to the OT, those who descend into the realm of death/Sheol are cut off from God’s mighty deeds and from the worshiping covenant community that experiences divine intervention (Pss 30:9; 88:10-12; Isa 38:18). In his effort to elicit a positive divine response, the psalmist reminds God that he will receive no praise or glory if he allows the psalmist to die. Dead men do not praise God!
173 tn Heb “I cause to swim through all the night my bed.”
174 tn Heb “with my tears my bed I flood/melt.”
175 tn The Hebrew text has the singular “eye” here.
176 tn Or perhaps, “are swollen.”
177 tn Or perhaps, “grow old.”
178 sn In his weakened condition the psalmist is vulnerable to the taunts and threats of his enemies.
181 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a preterite here; it is parallel to a perfect and refers to the fact that the
182 tn The four prefixed verbal forms in this verse are understood as jussives. The psalmist concludes his prayer with an imprecation, calling judgment down on his enemies.
183 tn Heb “and may they be very terrified.” The psalmist uses the same expression in v. 3 to describe the terror he was experiencing. Now he asks the
185 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term שִׁגָּיוֹן (shiggayon; translated here “musical composition”) is uncertain. Some derive the noun from the verbal root שָׁגָה (shagah, “swerve, reel”) and understand it as referring to a “wild, passionate song, with rapid changes of rhythm” (see BDB 993 s.v. שִׁגָּיוֹן). But this proposal is purely speculative. The only other appearance of the noun is in Hab 3:1, where it occurs in the plural.
186 tn Or “on account of.”
187 sn Apparently this individual named Cush was one of David’s enemies.
188 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form probably refers here to a completed action with continuing results.
189 tn The verb is singular in the Hebrew text, even though “all who chase me” in v. 1 refers to a whole group of enemies. The singular is also used in vv. 4-5, but the psalmist returns to the plural in v. 6. The singular is probably collective, emphasizing the united front that the psalmist’s enemies present. This same alternation between a collective singular and a plural referring to enemies appears in Pss 9:3, 6; 13:4; 31:4, 8; 41:6, 10-11; 42:9-10; 55:3; 64:1-2; 74:3-4; 89:22-23; 106:10-11; 143:3, 6, 9.
191 tn Heb “tearing and there is no one rescuing.” The verbal form translated “tearing” is a singular active participle.
192 tn Heb “if I have done this.”
193 tn Heb “if there is injustice in my hands.” The “hands” figuratively suggest deeds or actions.
194 tn Heb “if I have repaid the one at peace with me evil.” The form שׁוֹלְמִי (sholÿmi, “the one at peace with me”) probably refers to a close friend or ally, i.e., one with whom the psalmist has made a formal agreement. See BDB 1023 s.v. שָׁלוֹם 4.a.
195 tn Heb “or rescued my enemy in vain.” The preterite with vav (ו) consecutive (the verb form is pseudo-cohortative; see IBHS 576-77 §34.5.3) carries on the hypothetical nuance of the perfect in the preceding line. Some regard the statement as a parenthetical assertion that the psalmist is kind to his enemies. Others define חָלַץ (khalats) as “despoil” (cf. NASB, NRSV “plundered”; NIV “robbed”), an otherwise unattested nuance for this verb. Still others emend the verb to לָחַץ (lakhats, “oppress”). Most construe the adverb רֵיקָם (reqam, “emptily, vainly”) with “my enemy,” i.e., the one who is my enemy in vain.” The present translation (1) assumes an emendation of צוֹרְרִי (tsorÿriy, “my enemy”) to צוֹרְרוֹ (tsorÿro, “his [i.e., the psalmist’s ally’s] enemy”) following J. Tigay, “Psalm 7:5 and Ancient Near Eastern Treaties,” JBL 89 (1970): 178-86, (2) understands the final mem (ם) on רֵיקָם as enclitic, and (3) takes רִיק (riq) as an adjective modifying “his enemy.” (For other examples of a suffixed noun followed by an attributive adjective without the article, see Pss 18:17 (“my strong enemy”), 99:3 (“your great and awesome name”) and 143:10 (“your good spirit”). The adjective רִיק occurs with the sense “lawless” in Judg 9:4; 11:3; 2 Chr 13:7. In this case the psalmist affirms that he has not wronged his ally, nor has he given aid to his ally’s enemies. Ancient Near Eastern treaties typically included such clauses, with one or both parties agreeing not to lend aid to the treaty partner’s enemies.
196 tn The vocalization of the verb form seems to be a mixture of Qal and Piel (see GKC 168 §63.n). The translation assumes the Piel, which would emphasize the repetitive nature of the action. The translation assumes the prefixed verbal form is a jussive. The psalmist is so certain that he is innocent of the sins mentioned in vv. 3-4, he pronounces an imprecation on himself for rhetorical effect.
198 tn Heb “and may he overtake.” The prefixed verbal form is distinctly jussive. The object “me,” though unexpressed, is understood from the preceding statement.
199 tn Heb “and may he trample down to the earth my life.”
200 tn Heb “and my honor in the dust may he cause to dwell.” The prefixed verbal form is distinctly jussive. Some emend כְבוֹדִי (khÿvodiy, “my honor”) to כְבֵדִי (khÿvediy, “my liver” as the seat of life), but the term כְבוֹדִי (khÿvodiy) is to be retained since it probably refers to the psalmist’s dignity or honor.
201 tn Heb “in your anger.”
202 tn Heb “Lift yourself up in the angry outbursts of my enemies.” Many understand the preposition prefixed to עַבְרוֹת (’avrot, “angry outbursts”) as adversative, “against,” and the following genitive “enemies” as subjective. In this case one could translate, “rise up against my furious enemies” (cf. NIV, NRSV). The present translation, however, takes the preposition as indicating manner (cf. “in your anger” in the previous line) and understands the plural form of the noun as indicating an abstract quality (“fury”) or excessive degree (“raging fury”). Cf. Job 21:30.
203 tc Heb “Wake up to me [with the] judgment [which] you have commanded.” The LXX understands אֵלִי (’eliy, “my God”) instead of אֵלַי (’elay, “to me”; the LXX reading is followed by NEB, NIV, NRSV.) If the reading of the MT is retained, the preposition probably has the sense of “on account of, for the sake of.” The noun מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat, “judgment”) is probably an adverbial accusative, modifying the initial imperative, “wake up.” In this case צִוִּיתָ (tsivvita, “[which] you have commanded”) is an asyndetic relative clause. Some take the perfect as precative. In this case one could translate the final line, “Wake up for my sake! Decree judgment!” (cf. NIV). However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.
204 tn Heb “and the assembly of the peoples surrounds you.” Some understand the prefixed verbal form as a jussive, “may the assembly of the peoples surround you.”
205 tn Heb “over it (the feminine suffix refers back to the feminine noun “assembly” in the preceding line) on high return.” Some emend שׁוּבָה (shuvah, “return”) to שֵׁבָה (shevah, “sit [in judgment]”) because they find the implication of “return” problematic. But the psalmist does not mean to imply that God has abandoned his royal throne and needs to regain it. Rather he simply urges God, as sovereign king of the world, to once more occupy his royal seat of judgment and execute judgment, as the OT pictures God doing periodically.
206 sn The
207 tn Heb “judge me, O
208 tn Heb “according to my blamelessness.” The imperative verb translated “vindicate” governs the second line as well.
209 tn The Hebrew form עָלָי (’alay) has been traditionally understood as the preposition עַל (’al, “over”) with a first person suffix. But this is syntactically awkward and meaningless. The form is probably a divine title derived from the verbal root עָלָה (’alah, “ascend”). This relatively rare title appears elsewhere in the OT (see HALOT 824-25 s.v. I עַל, though this text is not listed) and in Ugaritic as an epithet for Baal (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 98). See M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:44-45, and P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 98.
210 tn In the psalms the Hebrew term רְשָׁעִים (rÿsha’im, “wicked”) describes people who are proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21). They oppose God and his people.
211 tn The prefixed verbal form is a jussive, expressing an imprecation here.
213 tn The prefixed verbal form expresses the psalmist’s prayer or wish.
215 tn Heb “and [the one who] tests hearts and kidneys, just God.” The translation inverts the word order to improve the English style. The heart and kidneys were viewed as the seat of one’s volition, conscience, and moral character.
216 tn Traditionally, “my shield is upon God” (cf. NASB). As in v. 8, עַל (’al) should be understood as a divine title, here compounded with “God” (cf. NIV, “God Most High”). See M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:45-46. The shield metaphor pictures God as a protector against deadly attacks.
217 tn Heb “pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the Lord and, as a result, experience his deliverance (see Pss 11:2; 32:11; 36:10; 64:10; 94:15; 97:11).
218 tn Heb “God (the divine name אֵל [’el] is used) is angry during all the day.” The verb זֹעֵם (zo’em) means “be indignant, be angry, curse.” Here God’s angry response to wrongdoing and injustice leads him to prepare to execute judgment as described in the following verses.
219 tn Heb “If he”; the referent (a person who is a sinner) has been specified in the translation for clarity. The subject of the first verb is understood as the sinner who fails to repent of his ways and becomes the target of God’s judgment (vv. 9, 14-16).
220 tn Heb “if he does not return, his sword he sharpens.” The referent (God) of the pronominal subject of the second verb (“sharpens”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
221 tn Heb “his bow he treads and prepares it.” “Treading the bow” involved stepping on one end of it in order to string it and thus prepare it for battle.
222 tn Heb “and for him he prepares the weapons of death.”
223 tn Heb “his arrows into flaming [things] he makes.”
224 tn Heb “and he conceives harm and gives birth to a lie.”
sn Pregnant with wickedness…gives birth to harmful lies. The psalmist metaphorically pictures the typical sinner as a pregnant woman, who is ready to give birth to wicked, destructive schemes and actions.
225 tn Heb “a pit he digs and he excavates it.” Apparently the imagery of hunting is employed; the wicked sinner digs this pit to entrap and destroy his intended victim. The redundancy in the Hebrew text has been simplified in the translation.
226 tn The verb forms in vv. 15-16 describe the typical behavior and destiny of those who attempt to destroy others. The image of the evildoer falling into the very trap he set for his intended victim emphasizes the appropriate nature of God’s judgment.
228 tn Heb “and on his forehead his violence [i.e., the violence he intended to do to others] comes down.”
229 tn Heb “according to.”
230 tn Heb “[to] the name of the
232 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term הגתית is uncertain; it probably refers to a musical style or type of instrument.
233 tn The plural form of the title emphasizes the
234 tn Or “awesome”; or “majestic.”
235 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
236 tc Heb “which, give, your majesty on the heavens.” The verb form תְּנָה (tÿnah; an imperative?) is corrupt. The form should be emended to a second masculine singular perfect (נָתַתָּה, natatah) or imperfect (תִתֵן, titen) form. The introductory אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “which”) can be taken as a relative pronoun (“you who”) or as a causal conjunction (“because”). One may literally translate, “you who [or “because you”] place your majesty upon the heavens.” For other uses of the phrase “place majesty upon” see Num 27:20 and 1 Chr 29:25.
237 tn Heb “you establish strength because of your foes.” The meaning of the statement is unclear. The present translation follows the reading of the LXX which has “praise” (αἶνος, ainos) in place of “strength” (עֹז, ’oz); cf. NIV, NCV, NLT.
239 tn Heb “when I see your heavens, the works of your fingers, the moon and stars which you established.” The verb “[and] see” is understood by ellipsis in the second half of the verse.
240 tn Heb “What is man[kind]?” The singular noun אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh, “man”) is used here in a collective sense and refers to the human race.
241 tn Heb “remember him.”
242 tn Heb “and the son of man.” The phrase “son of man” is used here in a collective sense and refers to human beings. For other uses of the phrase in a collective or representative manner, see Num 23:19; Ps 146:3; Isa 51:12.
244 tn Heb “and you make him lack a little from [the] gods [or “God”].” The Piel form of חָסַר (khasar, “to decrease, to be devoid”) is used only here and in Eccl 4:8, where it means “to deprive, to cause to be lacking.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive either carries on the characteristic nuance of the imperfect in v. 5b or indicates a consequence (“so that you make him…”) of the preceding statement (see GKC 328 §111.m). Some prefer to make this an independent clause and translate it as a new sentence, “You made him….” In this case the statement might refer specifically to the creation of the first human couple, Adam and Eve (cf. Gen 1:26-27). The psalmist does appear to allude to Gen 1:26-27, where mankind is created in the image of God and his angelic assembly (note “let us make man in our image” in Gen 1:26). However, the psalmist’s statement need not be limited in its focus to that historical event, for all mankind shares the image imparted to the first human couple. Consequently the psalmist can speak in general terms of the exalted nature of mankind. The referent of אֱלֹהִים (’elohim, “God” or “the heavenly beings”) is unclear. Some understand this as a reference to God alone, but the allusion to Gen 1:26-27 suggests a broader referent, including God and the other heavenly beings (known in other texts as “angels”). The term אֱלֹהִים is also used in this way in Gen 3:5, where the serpent says to the woman, “you will be like the heavenly beings who know good and evil.” (Note Gen 3:22, where God says, “the man has become like one of us.”) Also אֱלֹהִים may refer to the members of the heavenly assembly in Ps 82:1, 6. The LXX (the ancient Greek translation of the OT) reads “angels” in Ps 8:5 (this is the source of the quotation of Ps 8:5 in Heb 2:7).
245 tn Heb “you crown him [with].” The imperfect verbal forms in this and the next line describe God’s characteristic activity.
247 tn Heb “you cause [i.e., “permit, allow”] him to rule over the works of your hands.”
249 tn Heb “under his feet.”
sn Placed everything under their authority. This verse affirms that mankind rules over God’s creation as his vice-regent. See Gen 1:26-30.
250 tn Heb “and also the beasts of the field.”
251 tn Heb “paths.”
252 tn The plural form of the title emphasizes the
253 tn Or “awesome, majestic.”
254 tn Heb “name,” which here stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
256 sn Psalm 9. The psalmist, probably speaking on behalf of Israel or Judah, praises God for delivering him from hostile nations. He celebrates God’s sovereignty and justice, and calls on others to join him in boasting of God’s greatness. Many Hebrew
257 tc The meaning of the Hebrew term עַלְמוּת (’almut) is uncertain. Some
259 tn Heb “[to] your name, O Most High.” God’s “name” refers metonymically to his divine characteristics as suggested by his name, in this case “Most High.” This divine title (עֶלְיוֹן, ’elyo/) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. See especially Ps 47:2.
260 tn Or “perish”; or “die.” The imperfect verbal forms in this line either emphasize what typically happens or describe vividly the aftermath of a recent battle in which the
261 tn Heb “for you accomplished my justice and my legal claim.”
262 tn Heb “you sat on a throne [as] one who judges [with] righteousness.” The perfect verbal forms in v. 4 probably allude to a recent victory (see vv. 5-7). Another option is to understand the verbs as describing what is typical (“you defend…you sit on a throne”).
263 tn The verb גָּעַר (ga’ar) is often understood to mean “rebuke” and in this context taken to refer to the
264 tn The singular form is collective (note “nations” and “their name”). In the psalms the “wicked” (רְשָׁעִים, rÿsha’im) are typically proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21). In this context the hostile nations who threaten Israel/Judah are in view.
265 tn Heb “their name you wiped out forever and ever.” The three perfect verbal forms in v. 5 probably refer to a recent victory (definite past or present perfect use), although they might express what is typical (characteristic use).
266 tn Heb “the enemy – they have come to an end [in] ruins permanently.” The singular form אוֹיֵב (’oyev, “enemy”) is collective. It is placed at the beginning of the verse to heighten the contrast with יְהוָה (yÿhvah, “the
267 tn Heb “you uprooted cities.”
268 tn Heb “it has perished, their remembrance, they.” The independent pronoun at the end of the line is in apposition to the preceding pronominal suffix and lends emphasis (see IBHS 299 §16.3.4). The referent of the masculine pronoun is the nations/enemies (cf. v. 5), not the cities (the Hebrew noun עָרִים [’arim, “cities”] is grammatically feminine). This has been specified in the present translation for clarity; many modern translations retain the pronoun “them,” resulting in ambiguity (cf. NRSV “their cities you have rooted out; the very memory of them has perished”).
271 tn Heb “he establishes for justice his throne.”
273 tn Following the imperfect in v. 9, the construction vav (ו) conjunctive + shortened form of the prefixed verb הָיָה (hayah) indicates a consequence or result of the preceding statement. The construction functions this same way in Pss 81:15 and 104:20.
274 tn Heb “and the
275 tn Heb “[he is] an elevated place for times in trouble.” Here an “elevated place” refers to a stronghold, a defensible, secure position that represents a safe haven in times of unrest or distress (cf. NEB “tower of strength”; NIV, NRSV “stronghold”).
276 tn Heb “and the ones who know your name trust in you.” The construction vav (ו) conjunctive + imperfect at the beginning of the verse expresses another consequence of the statement made in v. 8. “To know” the
277 tn Heb “the ones who seek you.”
279 tn Heb “declare among the nations his deeds.”
280 tn Heb “for the one who seeks shed blood remembered them.” The idiomatic expression “to seek shed blood” seems to carry the idea “to seek payment/restitution for one’s shed blood.” The plural form דָּמִים (damim, “shed blood”) occurs only here as the object of דָּרַשׁ (darash); the singular form דָּם (dam, “blood”) appears with the verb in Gen 9:5; 42:22; Ezek 33:6. “Them,” the pronominal object of the verb “remembered,” refers to the oppressed, mentioned specifically in the next line, so the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
281 tn Heb “did not forget.”
282 tn Heb “the cry for help of the oppressed.” In this context the “oppressed” are the psalmist and those he represents, whom the hostile nations have threatened.
283 tn The words “when they prayed,” though not represented in the Hebrew text, are supplied in the translation for clarification. The petition in vv. 13-14 is best understood as the cry for help which the oppressed offered to God when the nations threatened. The
284 tn Or “show me favor.”
285 tn Heb “see my misery from the ones who hate me.”
286 tn Heb “one who lifts me up.”
287 tn Or “so that I might.”
288 tn Heb “all your praise.” “Praise” stands by metonymy for the mighty acts that prompt it.
289 sn Daughter Zion is an idiomatic title for Jerusalem. It appears frequently in the prophets, but only here in the psalms.
290 tn Heb “in your deliverance.”
291 tn Heb “sank down.”
293 tn Heb “by the work of his hands [the] wicked [one] was ensnared. The singular form רָשָׁע (rasha’, “wicked”) is collective or representative here (see vv. 15, 17). The form נוֹקֵשׁ (noqesh) appears to be an otherwise unattested Qal form (active participle) from נָקַשׁ (naqash), but the form should be emended to נוֹקַשׁ (noqash), a Niphal perfect from יָקַשׁ (yaqash).
294 tn This is probably a technical musical term.
295 tn Heb “the wicked turn back to Sheol.” The imperfect verbal form either emphasizes what typically happens or describes vividly the aftermath of the
296 tn The words “this is the destiny of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. The verb “are turned back” is understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).
297 tn Heb “forget.” “Forgetting God” refers here to worshiping false gods and thereby refusing to recognize his sovereignty (see also Deut 8:19; Judg 3:7; 1 Sam 12:9; Isa 17:10; Jer 3:21; Ps 44:20). The nations’ refusal to acknowledge God’s sovereignty accounts for their brazen attempt to attack and destroy his people.
298 tn Or “forgotten.”
299 tn Heb “the hope of the afflicted does [not] perish forever.” The negative particle is understood by ellipsis; note the preceding line. The imperfect verbal forms express what typically happens.
300 sn Rise up,
301 tn Or “prevail.”
302 tn Heb “place,
303 tn Heb “let the nations know they [are] man[kind]”; i.e., mere human beings (as opposed to God).
304 sn Psalm 10. Many Hebrew
305 tn Heb “you hide for times in trouble.” The interrogative “why” is understood by ellipsis; note the preceding line. The Hiphil verbal form “hide” has no expressed object. Some supply “your eyes” by ellipsis (see BDB 761 s.v. I עָלַם Hiph and HALOT 835 s.v. I עלם hif) or emend the form to a Niphal (“you hide yourself,” see BHS, note c; cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV).
306 tn Heb “because of the pride of [the] wicked he burns [i.e. hotly pursues] [the] oppressed.” The singular forms רָשָׁע (rasha’, “wicked”) and עָנִי (’aniy, “oppressed”) are collective and representative, as indicated in the next line, which uses plural verb forms to describe the actions of both.
308 tn Heb “they are trapped in the schemes which they have thought up.” The referents of the two pronominal suffixes on the verbs have been specified in the translation for clarity. The referent of the first suffix (“they”) is taken as the oppressed, while the referent of the second (“they”) is taken to be the wicked (cf. NIV, which renders “wicked” in the previous line as a collective singular). Others take the referent of both occurrences of “they” in the line to be the wicked (cf. NRSV, “let them be caught in the schemes they have devised”).
309 tn The translation assumes כִּי (ki) is asseverative: “indeed, certainly.” Another option is to translate “for,” understanding v. 3 as giving the reason why the wicked so arrogantly seek to destroy the helpless (so NASB, NRSV).
311 tn Heb “the wicked [one] boasts on account of the desire of his appetite.” The translation assumes that the preposition עַל (’al) introduces the reason why the wicked boasts (cf. this use of עַל with הָלַל (halal) in Ps 119:164 and Ezra 3:11). In this case, the “desire of his appetite” refers by metonymy to the object desired and acquired.
312 tn The translation assumes the active participle is substantival, referring to the wicked man mentioned in the preceding line. The substantival participle is then understood as the subject of the following verbs. For other examples of the participle of בָּצַע (batsar) used of those who desire and/or acquire wealth through dishonest and/or violent means, see Prov 1:19; 15:27; Jer 6:13; 8:10; Hab 2:9.
313 tn The verb בָּרַךְ (barakh) normally means “to bless,” but in a few cases it exhibits the polarized meaning “to curse” (1 Kgs 21:10, 13; Job 1:5-11; 2:5-9). (Some regard this use of בָּרַךְ as a mere euphemism.) The verb refers to the act of pronouncing or calling down a formal curse upon the object of one’s anger.
314 tn The conjunction “and” is supplied in the translation; it does not appear in the Hebrew text.
315 tn Another option is to translate, “he blesses one who robs others, [but] he curses the
316 tn Heb “the wicked [one], according to the height of his nose, he does not seek, there is no God, all his thoughts.” The phrase “height of his nose” probably refers to an arrogant or snooty attitude; it likely pictures one with his nose turned upward toward the sky in pride. One could take the “wicked” as the subject of the negated verb “seek,” in which case the point is that the wicked do not “seek” God. The translation assumes that this statement, along with “there is no God,” is what the wicked man thinks to himself. In this case God is the subject of the verb “seek,” and the point is that God will not hold the wicked man accountable for his actions. Verse 13 strongly favors this interpretation. The statement “there is no God” is not a philosophical assertion that God does not exist, but rather a confident affirmation that he is unconcerned about how men live morally and ethically (see v. 11).
318 tc Heb “[on a] height, your judgments from before him.” If the MT is retained, then the idea may be that God’s “judgments” are high above (i.e., not recognized) by the wicked man. However, the syntax is awkward. The translation assumes an emendation of מָרוֹם (marom, “height”) to סָרוּ (saru, “[your judgments] are turned aside”), the final mem (ם) being dittographic (note the initial mem on the immediately following word [מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ, mishÿfatekha, “your judgments”). “Judgments” probably refers here to God’s laws or commands, rather than his judicial decisions or acts of judgment.
319 tn Heb “all his enemies, he snorts against them.” This may picture the wicked man defiantly challenging his enemies because he is confident of success. Another option is to take יָפִיחַ (yafiakh) from the root יָפַח (yafakh, “to testify”) and translate “he testifies against all his enemies,” implying that he gets the upper hand over them in legal battles. The noun יָפֵחַ (yafeakh, “witness”) is attested in biblical Hebrew (see Prov 6:19; 12:17; 14:5, 25; 19:5, 9, and Hab 2:3). The verb, however, is not clearly attested.
320 tn Heb “he says in his heart/mind.”
321 tn Heb “for a generation and a generation.” The traditional accentuation of the MT understands these words with the following line.
322 tn Heb “who, not in calamity.” If אֲשֶׁר (’asher) is taken as a relative pronoun here, then one could translate, “[I] who [am] not in calamity.” Some emend אֲשֶׁר to אֹשֶׁר (’osher, “happiness”; see HALOT 99 s.v. אֹשֶׁר); one might then translate, “[I live in] happiness, not in calamity.” The present translation assumes that אֲשֶׁר functions here as a causal conjunction, “because, for.” For this use of אֲשֶׁר, see BDB 83 s.v. אֲשֶׁר 8.c (where the present text is not cited).
323 tn Heb “[with] a curse his mouth is full, and lies and injury.”
325 tn Heb “he sits in the ambush of the villages.”
326 tn Heb “his eyes for an unfortunate person lie hidden.” The language may picture a lion (see v. 9) peering out from its hiding place in anticipation that an unsuspecting victim will soon come strolling along.
327 tn Or “in its den.”
330 tn Or “when he [i.e., the wicked man] pulls in his net.”
sn The background of the imagery is hunting, where the hunter uses a net to entrap an unsuspecting bird or wild animal.
331 tn Heb “he crushes, he is bowed down, and he falls into his strong [ones], [the] unfortunate [ones].” This verse presents several lexical and syntactical difficulties. The first word (יִדְכֶּה, yidekeh) is an otherwise unattested Qal form of the verb דָּכָה (dakhah, “crush”). (The Qere [marginal] form is imperfect; the consonantal text [Kethib] has the perfect with a prefixed conjunction vav [ו].) If the wicked man’s victim is the subject, which seems to be the case (note the two verbs which follow), then the form should be emended to a Niphal (יִדָּכֶה, yiddakheh). The phrase בַּעֲצוּמָיו (ba’atsumayv, “into his strong [ones]”), poses interpretive problems. The preposition -בְּ (bet) follows the verb נָפַל (nafal, “fall”), so it may very well carry the nuance “into” here, with “his strong [ones]” then referring to something into which the oppressed individual falls. Since a net is mentioned in the preceding verse as the instrument used to entrap the victim, it is possible that “strong [ones]” here refers metonymically to the wicked man’s nets or traps. Ps 35:8 refers to a man falling into a net (רֶשֶׁת, reshet), as does Ps 141:10 (where the plural of מִכְמָר [mikhmar, “net”] is used). A hunter’s net (רֶשֶׁת), is associated with snares (פַּח [pakh], מֹקְשִׁים, [moqÿshim]) and ropes (חֲבָלִים, khavalim) in Ps 140:5. The final word in the verse (חֶלְכָּאִים (khelka’im, “unfortunate [ones]”) may be an alternate form of חֵלְכָח (khelkhakh, “unfortunate [one]”; see vv. 8, 14). The Qere (marginal reading) divides the form into two words, חֵיל כָּאִים (khel ka’im, “army/host of disheartened [ones]”). The three verb forms in v. 10 are singular because the representative “oppressed” individual is the grammatical subject (see the singular עָנִי [’aniy] in v. 9).
333 tn Heb “God forgets, he hides his face, he never sees.”
334 sn Rise up, O
335 tn Heb “lift up your hand.” Usually the expression “lifting the hand” refers to praying (Pss 28:2; 134:2) or making an oath (Ps 106:26), but here it probably refers to “striking a blow” (see 2 Sam 18:28; 20:21). Note v. 15, where the psalmist asks the
336 tn The rhetorical question expresses the psalmist’s outrage that the wicked would have the audacity to disdain God.
338 tn Here the wicked man addresses God directly.
339 tn Heb “you will not seek.” The verb דָרַשׁ (darash, “seek”) is used here in the sense of “seek an accounting.” One could understand the imperfect as generalizing about what is typical and translate, “you do not hold [people] accountable.”
340 tn Heb “you see.” One could translate the perfect as generalizing, “you do take notice.”
341 tn If the preceding perfect is taken as generalizing, then one might understand כִּי (ki) as asseverative: “indeed, certainly.”
342 tn Here the imperfect emphasizes God’s typical behavior.
343 tn Heb “destruction and suffering,” which here refers metonymically to the wicked, who dish out pain and suffering to their victims.
344 tn Heb “to give into your hand, upon you, he abandons, [the] unfortunate [one].” The syntax is awkward and the meaning unclear. It is uncertain who or what is being given into God’s hand. Elsewhere the idiom “give into the hand” means to deliver into one’s possession. If “to give” goes with what precedes (as the accentuation of the Hebrew text suggests), then this may refer to the wicked man being delivered over to God for judgment. The present translation assumes that “to give” goes with what follows (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). The verb יַעֲזֹב (ya’azov) here has the nuance “entrust” (see Gen 39:6; Job 39:11); the direct object (“[his] cause”) is implied.
345 tn Or “help.”
sn The fatherless. Because they were so vulnerable and were frequently exploited, fatherless children are often mentioned as epitomizing the oppressed (see Pss 68:5; 82:3; 94:6; 146:9; as well as Job 6:27; 22:9; 24:3, 9; 29:12; 31:17, 21).
347 sn The arm symbolizes the strength of the wicked, which they use to oppress and exploit the weak.
348 tn Heb “you seek his wickedness.” As in v. 13, the verb דָרַשׁ (darash, “seek”) is used here in the sense of “seek an accounting.” One could understand the imperfect as describing a fact, “you hold him accountable,” or as anticipating divine judgment, “you will hold him accountable.” However, since the verb is in apparent parallelism with the preceding imperative (“break”), it is better to understand the imperfect as expressing the psalmist’s desire or request.
349 tn Heb “you will not find.” It is uncertain how this statement relates to what precedes. Some take בַל (bal), which is used as a negative particle in vv. 4, 6, 11, 18, as asseverative here, “Indeed find (i.e., judge his wickedness).” The translation assumes that the final words are an asyndetic relative clause which refers back to what the wicked man boasted in God’s face (“you will not find [i.e., my wickedness]”). See v. 13.
350 tn Heb “the
351 tn Or “the nations perish from his land.” The perfect verb form may express what is typical or it may express rhetorically the psalmist’s certitude that God’s deliverance is “as good as done.”
sn The nations may be the underlying reality behind the psalmist’s references to the “wicked” in the earlier verses. This reference to the nations may have motivated the combining of Ps 10 with Ps 9 (see Ps 9:5, 15, 19).
352 sn You have heard. The psalmist is confident that God has responded positively to his earlier petitions for divine intervention. The psalmist apparently prayed the words of vv. 16-18 after the reception of an oracle of deliverance (given in response to the confident petition of vv. 12-15) or after the Lord actually delivered him from his enemies.
353 tn Heb “desire.”
354 tn Heb “you make firm their heart, you cause your ear to listen.”
355 tn Heb “to judge (on behalf of),” or “by judging (on behalf of).”
357 tn Heb “he will not add again [i.e., “he will no longer”] to terrify, man from the earth.” The Hebrew term אֱנוֹשׁ (’enosh, “man”) refers here to the wicked nations (v. 16). By describing them as “from the earth,” the psalmist emphasizes their weakness before the sovereign, eternal king.
359 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form probably refers here to a completed action with continuing results.
361 tc The MT is corrupt here. The Kethib (consonantal text) reads: “flee [masculine plural!] to your [masculine plural!] mountain, bird.” The Qere (marginal reading) has “flee” in a feminine singular form, agreeing grammatically with the addressee, the feminine noun “bird.” Rather than being a second masculine plural pronominal suffix, the ending כֶם- (-khem) attached to “mountain” is better interpreted as a second feminine singular pronominal suffix followed by an enclitic mem (ם). “Bird” may be taken as vocative (“O bird”) or as an adverbial accusative of manner (“like a bird”). Either way, the psalmist’s advisers compare him to a helpless bird whose only option in the face of danger is to fly away to an inaccessible place.
362 tn In the psalms the “wicked” (רְשָׁעִים, rÿsha’im) are typically proud, practical atheists (Ps 10:2, 4, 11) who hate God’s commands, commit sinful deeds, speak lies and slander (Ps 50:16-20), and cheat others (Ps 37:21). They oppose God and threaten his people (Ps 3:8).
363 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form depicts the enemies’ hostile action as underway.
364 tn Heb “a bow.”
365 sn In the darkness. The enemies’ attack, the precise form of which is not indicated, is compared here to a night ambush by archers; the psalmist is defenseless against this deadly attack.
366 tn Heb “pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the Lord and, as a result, experience his deliverance (see Pss 7:10; 32:11; 36:10; 64:10; 94:15; 97:11).
367 tn The precise meaning of this rare word is uncertain. An Ugaritic cognate is used of the “bottom” or “base” of a cliff or mountain (see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47, 159). The noun appears in postbiblical Hebrew with the meaning “foundation” (see Jastrow 1636 s.v. שָׁת).
368 tn The singular form is used here in a collective or representative sense. Note the plural form “pure [of heart]” in the previous verse.
369 sn The quotation of the advisers’ words (which begins in 11:1c) ends at this point. They advise the psalmist to flee because the enemy is poised to launch a deadly attack. In such a lawless and chaotic situation godly people like the psalmist can accomplish nothing, so they might as well retreat to a safe place.
371 sn The
373 tn The two Hebrew imperfect verbal forms in this verse describe the
374 tn Heb “eyelids.”
376 tn Heb “test the sons of men.”
379 tn Heb “his [very] being.” A נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being, soul”) is also attributed to the Lord in Isa 1:14, where a suffixed form of the noun appears as the subject of the verb “hate.” Both there and here the term is used of the seat of one’s emotions and passions.
381 tn Heb “the wicked [one] and the lover of violence.” The singular form is used here in a collective or representative sense. Note the plural form רְשָׁעִים (rÿsha’im, “wicked [ones]”) in vv. 2 and 6.
382 tn The verb form is a jussive, indicating that the statement is imprecatory (“May the
383 tc The MT reads “traps, fire, and brimstone,” but the image of God raining traps, or snares, down from the sky is bizarre and does not fit the fire and storm imagery of this verse. The noun פַּחִים (pakhim, “traps, snares”) should be emended to פַּחֲמֵי (pakhamey, “coals of [fire]”). The rare noun פֶּחָם (pekham, “coal”) occurs in Prov 26:21 and Isa 44:12; 54:16.
385 tn Heb “[may] a wind of rage [be] the portion of their cup.” The precise meaning of the rare noun זִלְעָפוֹת (zil’afot) is uncertain. It may mean “raging heat” (BDB 273 s.v. זַלְעָפָה) or simply “rage” (HALOT 272 s.v. זַלְעָפָה). If one understands the former sense, then one might translate “hot wind” (cf. NEB, NRSV). The present translation assumes the latter nuance, “a wind of rage” (the genitive is attributive) referring to a “whirlwind” symbolic of destructive judgment. In this mixed metaphor, judgment is also compared to an allotted portion of a beverage poured into one’s drinking cup (see Hab 2:15-16).
386 tn Or “for.”
387 tn Or “righteous.”
388 tn Heb “he loves righteous deeds.” The “righteous deeds” are probably those done by godly people (see v. 5). The Lord “loves” such deeds in the sense that he rewards them. Another option is to take צְדָקוֹת (tsÿdaqot) as referring to God’s acts of justice (see Ps 103:6). In this case one could translate, “he loves to do just deeds.”
389 tn Heb “the upright will see his face.” The singular subject (“upright”) does not agree with the plural verb. However, collective singular nouns can be construed with a plural predicate (see GKC 462 §145.b). Another possibility is that the plural verb יֶחֱזוּ (yekhezu) is a corruption of an original singular form. To “see” God’s “face” means to have access to his presence and to experience his favor (see Ps 17:15 and Job 33:26 [where רָאָה (ra’ah), not חָזָה (khazah), is used]). On the form פָנֵימוֹ (fanemo, “his face”) see GKC 300-301 §103.b, n. 3.
390 sn Psalm 12. The psalmist asks the Lord to intervene, for society is overrun by deceitful, arrogant oppressors and godly individuals are a dying breed. When the Lord announces his intention to defend the oppressed, the psalmist affirms his confidence in the divine promise.
392 tn The singular form is collective or representative. Note the plural form “faithful [ones]” in the following line. A “godly [one]” (חָסִיד, khasid) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 18:25; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).
393 tn Or “have come to an end.”
394 tn Heb “the faithful [ones] from the sons of man.”
395 tn The Hebrew verb פָּסַס (pasas) occurs only here. An Akkadian cognate means “efface, blot out.”
397 tn Heb “[with] a lip of smoothness, with a heart and a heart they speak.” Speaking a “smooth” word refers to deceptive flattery (cf. Ps 5:9; 55:21; Prov 2:16; 5:3; 7:5, 21; 26:28; 28:23; Isa 30:10). “Heart” here refers to their mind, from which their motives and intentions originate. The repetition of the noun indicates diversity (see GKC 396 §123.f, IBHS 116 §7.2.3c, and Deut 25:13, where the phrase “weight and a weight” refers to two different measuring weights). These people have two different types of “hearts.” Their flattering words seem to express kind motives and intentions, but this outward display does not really reflect their true motives. Their real “heart” is filled with evil thoughts and destructive intentions. The “heart” that is seemingly displayed through their words is far different from the real “heart” they keep disguised. (For the idea see Ps 28:3.) In 1 Chr 12:33 the phrase “without a heart and a heart” means “undivided loyalty.”
398 tn The verb form is a jussive, indicating that the statement is imprecatory (“May the
399 tn Heb “a tongue speaking great [things].”
401 tn Heb “to our tongue we make strong.” The Hiphil of גָבַר (gavar) occurs only here and in Dan 9:27, where it refers to making strong, or confirming, a covenant. Here in Ps 12 the evildoers “make their tongue strong” in the sense that they use their tongue to produce flattering and arrogant words to accomplish their purposes. The preposition -לְ (l) prefixed to “our tongue” may be dittographic.
402 tn Heb “our lips [are] with us.” This odd expression probably means, “our lips are in our power,” in the sense that they say what they want, whether it be flattery or boasting. For other cases where אֵת (’et, “with”) has the sense “in the power of,” see Ps 38:10 and other texts listed by BDB 86 s.v. 3.a.
403 sn The rhetorical question expresses the arrogant attitude of these people. As far as they are concerned, they are answerable to no one for how they speak.
404 tn The term translated “oppressed” is an objective genitive; the oppressed are the recipients/victims of violence.
405 tn Elsewhere in the psalms this noun is used of the painful groans of prisoners awaiting death (79:11; 102:20). The related verb is used of the painful groaning of those wounded in combat (Jer 51:52; Ezek 26:15) and of the mournful sighing of those in grief (Ezek 9:4; 24:17).
406 tn Heb “I will rise up.”
407 tn Heb “I will place in deliverance, he pants for it.” The final two words in Hebrew (יָפִיחַ לוֹ, yafiakh lo) comprise an asyndetic relative clause, “the one who pants for it.” “The one who pants” is the object of the verb “place” and the antecedent of the pronominal suffix (in the phrase “for it”) is “deliverance.” Another option is to translate, “I will place in deliverance the witness for him,” repointing יָפִיחַ (a Hiphil imperfect from פּוּחַ, puakh, “pant”) as יָפֵחַ (yafeakh), a noun meaning “witness.” In this case the
409 tn Heb “[like] silver purified in a furnace of [i.e., “on”] the ground, refined seven times.” The singular participle מְזֻקָּק (mÿzuqqaq, “refined”) modifies “silver.” The number seven is used rhetorically to express the thorough nature of the action. For other rhetorical/figurative uses of שִׁבְעָתָיִם (shiv’atayim, “seven times”), see Gen 4:15, 24; Ps 79:12; Prov 6:31; Isa 30:26.
410 tn The third person plural pronominal suffix on the verb is masculine, referring back to the “oppressed” and “needy” in v. 5 (both of those nouns are plural in form), suggesting that the verb means “protect” here. The suffix does not refer to אִמֲרוֹת (’imarot, “words”) in v. 6, because that term is feminine gender.
411 tn Heb “you will protect him from this generation permanently.” The third masculine singular suffix on the verb “protect” is probably used in a distributive sense, referring to each one within the group mentioned previously (the oppressed/needy, referred to as “them” in the preceding line). On this grammatical point see GKC 396 §123.f (where the present text is not cited). (Some Hebrew
412 tn Heb “the wicked walk all around.” One could translate v. 8a as an independent clause, in which case it would be a concluding observation in proverbial style. The present translation assumes that v. 8a is a subordinate explanatory clause, or perhaps a subordinate temporal clause (“while the wicked walk all around”). The adverb סָבִיב (saviv, “around”), in combination with the Hitpael form of the verb “walk” (which indicates repeated action), pictures the wicked as ubiquitous. They have seemingly overrun society.
413 tn Heb “when evil is lifted up by the sons of man.” The abstract noun זֻלּוּת (zulut, “evil”) occurs only here. On the basis of evidence from the cognate languages (see HALOT 272 s.v.), one might propose the meaning “base character,” or “morally foolish behavior.”
415 tn Heb “will you forget me continually.”
416 tn Heb “will you hide your face from me.”
417 tn Heb “How long will I put counsel in my being?”
418 tn Heb “[with] grief in my heart by day.”
419 tn Heb “be exalted over me.” Perhaps one could translate, “How long will my enemy defeat me?”
420 tn Heb “see.”
421 tn Heb “Give light [to] my eyes.” The Hiphil of אוּר (’ur), when used elsewhere with “eyes” as object, refers to the law of God giving moral enlightenment (Ps 19:8), to God the creator giving literal eyesight to all people (Prov 29:13), and to God giving encouragement to his people (Ezra 9:8). Here the psalmist pictures himself as being on the verge of death. His eyes are falling shut and, if God does not intervene soon, he will “fall asleep” for good.
422 tn Heb “or else I will sleep [in?] the death.” Perhaps the statement is elliptical, “I will sleep [the sleep] of death,” or “I will sleep [with the sleepers in] death.”
423 tn Heb “or else.”
424 tn Heb “or else.”
425 tn The grammatical construction used here (conjunction with independent pronoun) highlights the contrast between the psalmist’s defeated condition envisioned in v. 4 and confident attitude he displays in v. 5.
426 tn Heb “may my heart rejoice in your deliverance.” The verb form is jussive. Having expressed his trust in God’s faithful character and promises, the psalmist prays that his confidence will prove to be well-placed. “Heart” is used here of the seat of the emotions.
427 tn The verb form is cohortative, indicating the psalmist’s resolve (or vow) to praise the
428 tn Or “for he will have vindicated me.” The verb form indicates a future perfect here. The idiom גָמַל עַל (gamal ’al) means “to repay,” here in a positive sense.
429 sn Psalm 14. The psalmist observes that the human race is morally corrupt. Evildoers oppress God’s people, but the psalmist is confident of God’s protection and anticipates a day when God will vindicate Israel.
430 tn Heb “a fool says in his heart.” The singular is used here in a collective or representative sense; the typical fool is envisioned.
431 sn “There is no God.” The statement is probably not a philosophical assertion that God does not exist, but rather a confident affirmation that God is unconcerned about how men live morally and ethically (see Ps 10:4, 11).
432 tn Heb “they act corruptly, they make a deed evil.” The verbs describe the typical behavior of the wicked. The subject of the plural verbs is “sons of man” (v. 2). The entire human race is characterized by sinful behavior. This practical atheism – living as if there is no God who will hold them accountable for their actions – makes them fools, for one of the earmarks of folly is to fail to anticipate the long range consequences of one’s behavior.
433 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”
434 sn The picture of the
435 tn Heb “upon the sons of man.”
436 tn Or “acts wisely.” The Hiphil is exhibitive.
437 sn Anyone who is wise and seeks God refers to the person who seeks to have a relationship with God by obeying and worshiping him.
438 tn Heb “everyone turns aside.”
439 tn Heb “together they are corrupt.”
440 tn Heb “there is none that does good.”
442 tn Heb “Do they not understand?” The rhetorical question (rendered in the translation as a positive affirmation) expresses the psalmist’s amazement at their apparent lack of understanding. This may refer to their lack of moral understanding, but it more likely refers to their failure to anticipate God’s defense of his people (see vv. 5-7).
443 tn Heb “there they are afraid [with] fear.” The perfect verbal form is probably used in a rhetorical manner; the psalmist describes the future demise of the oppressors as if it were already occurring. The adverb שָׁם (sham, “there”) is also used here for dramatic effect, as the psalmist envisions the wicked standing in fear at a spot that is this vivid in his imagination (BDB 1027 s.v.). The cognate accusative following the verb emphasizes the degree of their terror.
444 tn Heb “for God is with a godly generation.” The Hebrew noun דּוֹר (dor, “generation”) refers here to the general class of people who are characterized by godliness. See BDB 190 s.v. for other examples where “generation” refers to a class of people.
445 tn Heb “the counsel of the oppressed you put to shame.” Using a second person plural verb form, the psalmist addresses the wicked. Since the context indicates their attempt to harm the godly will be thwarted, the imperfect should be taken in a subjunctive (cf. NASB, NRSV) rather than an indicative manner (cf. NIV). Here it probably expresses their desire or intent (“want to humiliate”).
446 tn It is unlikely that כִּי (ki) has a causal force here. The translation assumes a concessive force; another option is to understand an asseverative use (“certainly, indeed”).
447 tn Heb “his.” The antecedent of the singular pronoun is the singular form עָנִי (’ani, “oppressed”) in the preceding line. The singular is collective or representative here (and thus translated as plural, “they”).
448 sn The deliverance of Israel. This refers metonymically to God, the one who lives in Zion and provides deliverance for Israel.
449 tn Heb “turns with a turning [toward] his people.” The Hebrew term שְׁבוּת (shÿvut) is apparently a cognate accusative of שׁוּב (shuv).
450 tn The verb form is jussive.
451 tn Because the parallel verb is jussive, this verb, which is ambiguous in form, should be taken as a jussive as well.
453 tn Heb “Who may live as a resident alien in your tent?”
455 tn Heb “one who walks blamelessly.”
456 tn Heb “one who speaks truth in his heart”; or “one who speaks truth [that is] in his heart.” This apparently refers to formulating a truthful statement in one’s mind and then honestly revealing that statement in one’s speech.
457 sn Hebrew literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age.
459 tn Or “his fellow.”
460 tn Heb “and he does not lift up an insult against one who is near to him.”
461 tn Heb “despised in his eyes [is] a rejected [one].” The Hebrew term נִמְאָס (nim’as, “rejected [one]”) apparently refers here to one who has been rejected by God because of his godless behavior. It stands in contrast to “those who fear God” in the following line.
463 tn Heb “he takes an oath to do harm and does not change.” The phrase “to do harm” cannot mean “do harm to others,” for the preceding verse clearly characterizes this individual as one who does not harm others. In this context the phrase must refer to an oath to which a self-imprecation is attached. The godly individual takes his commitments to others so seriously he is willing to “swear to his own hurt.” For an example of such an oath, see Ruth 1:16-17.
464 sn He does not charge interest. Such an individual is truly generous, and not simply concerned with making a profit.
465 tn Heb “a bribe against the innocent he does not take.” For other texts condemning the practice of a judge or witness taking a bribe, see Exod 23:8; Deut 16:19; 27:25; 1 Sam 8:3; Ezek 22:12; Prov 17:23.
466 tn Heb “does these things.”
468 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew term מִכְתָּם (mikhtam) is uncertain. HALOT 582-83 s.v. defines it as “inscription.”
sn Taken shelter. “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
471 tn Heb “regarding the holy ones who [are] in the land, they; and the mighty [ones] in [whom is/was] all my desire.” The difficult syntax makes the meaning of the verse uncertain. The phrase “holy ones” sometimes refers to God’s angelic assembly (see Ps 89:5, 7), but the qualifying clause “who are in the land” suggests that here it refers to God’s people (Ps 34:9) or to their priestly leaders (2 Chr 35:3).
472 tn Heb “their troubles multiply, another, they pay a dowry.” The meaning of the text is unclear. The Hebrew term עַצְּבוֹתָם (’atsÿvotam, “troubles”) appears to be a plural form of עַצֶּבֶת (’atsÿvet, “pain, wound”; see Job 9:28; Ps 147:3). Because idolatry appears to be in view (see v. 4b), some prefer to emend the noun to עַצְּבִים (’atsÿvim, “idols”). “Troubles” may be a wordplay on “idols” or a later alteration designed to emphasize that idolatry leads to trouble. The singular form אחר (“another”) is syntactically problematic here. Perhaps the form should be emended to a plural אֲחֵרִים (’akherim, “others”). (The final mem [ם] could have been lost by haplography; note the mem [מ] at the beginning of the next word.) In this case it might be taken as an abbreviated form of the well-attested phrase אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים (’elohim ’akherim, “other gods”). (In Isa 42:8 the singular form אַחַר (’akher, “another”) is used of another god.) The verb מָהַר (mahar) appears in the Qal stem; the only other use of a Qal verbal form of a root מָהַר is in Exod 22:15, where the denominative verb מָהֹר (mahor, “purchase [a wife]”) appears; cf. the related noun מֹהַר (mohar, “bride money, purchase price for a wife”). If that verb is understood here, then the idolaters are pictured as eager bridegrooms paying the price to acquire the object of their desire. Another option is to emend the verb to a Piel and translate, “hurry (after).”
473 tn Heb “I will not pour out their drink offerings of blood.” The third masculine plural suffix would appear to refer back to the people/leaders mentioned in v. 3. However, if we emend אֲחֵר (’akher, “another”) to the plural אֲחֵרִים (’akherim, “other [gods]”) in v. 4, the suffix can be understood as referring to these gods – “the drink offerings [made to] them.” The next line favors this interpretation. Perhaps this refers to some type of pagan cultic ritual. Elsewhere wine is the prescribed content of drink offerings.
474 tn Heb “and I will not lift up their names upon my lips.” The expression “lift up the name” probably refers here to swearing an oath in the name of deity (see Exod 20:7; Deut 5:11). If so, the third masculine plural suffix on “names” likely refers to the pagan gods, not the people/leaders. See the preceding note.
475 tn Heb “O
476 tc Heb “you take hold of my lot.” The form תּוֹמִיךְ (tomikh) should be emended to a participle, תוֹמֵךְ (tomekh). The psalmist pictures the
477 tn Heb “measuring lines have fallen for me in pleasant [places]; yes, property [or “an inheritance”] is beautiful for me.” On the dative use of עַל, see BDB 758 s.v. II.8. Extending the metaphor used in v. 5, the psalmist compares the divine blessings he has received to a rich, beautiful tract of land that one might receive by allotment or inheritance.
478 tn Heb “bless,” that is, “proclaim as worthy of praise.”
479 tn Or “because.”
480 tn Or “counsels, advises.”
481 tn Heb “yes, [during] nights my kidneys instruct [or “correct”] me.” The “kidneys” are viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s moral character (see Ps 26:2). In the quiet darkness the
482 tn Heb “I set the
483 tn Heb “my glory is happy.” Some view the Hebrew term כְּבוֹדִי (kÿvodiy, “my glory”) as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvediy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 30:12; 57:9; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.”
484 tn Heb “yes, my flesh dwells securely.” The psalmist’s “flesh” stands by metonymy for his body and, by extension, his physical life.
485 tn Or “my life.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
486 sn In ancient Israelite cosmology Sheol is the realm of the dead, viewed as being under the earth’s surface. See L. I. J. Stadelmann, The Hebrew Conception of the World, 165-76.
487 tn A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד [khasid], traditionally rendered “holy one”) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 18:25; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10). The psalmist here refers to himself, as the parallel line (“You will not abandon me to Sheol”) indicates.
sn According to Peter, the words of Ps 16:8-11 are applicable to Jesus (Acts 2:25-29). Peter goes on to argue that David, being a prophet, foresaw future events and spoke of Jesus’ resurrection from the dead (Acts 2:30-33). Paul seems to concur with Peter in this understanding (see Acts 13:35-37). For a discussion of the NT application of these verses to Jesus’ resurrection, see R. B. Chisholm, Jr., “A Theology of the Psalms,” A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, 292-95.
490 tn Heb “cause me to know”; or “cause me to experience.”
494 sn Psalm 17. The psalmist asks God to intervene on his behalf because his life is threatened by dangerous enemies. He appeals to divine justice, for he is certain of his own innocence. Because he is innocent, he expects to encounter God and receive an assuring word.
495 tn Heb “hear,
496 tn Heb “Listen to my prayer, [made] without lips of deceit.”
497 tn Heb “From before you may my justice come out.” The prefixed verbal form יָצָא (yatsa’) could be taken as an imperfect, but following the imperatives in v. 1, it is better understood as a jussive of prayer.
498 tn Heb “May your eyes look at what is right.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as jussive. (See also the preceding note on the word “behalf.”)
499 tn Heb “you tested my heart.”
500 tn Heb “you visited [at] night.”
501 tc Heb “you tested me, you do not find, I plan, my mouth will not cross over.” The Hebrew verbal form זַמֹּתִי (zammotiy) is a Qal perfect, first person singular from the root זָמַם (zamam, “plan, plan evil”). Some emend the form to a suffixed form of the noun, זִמָּתִי (zimmatiy, “my plan/evil plan”), and take it as the object of the preceding verb “find.” However, the suffix seems odd, since the psalmist is denying that he has any wrong thoughts. If one takes the form with what precedes, it might make better sense to read זִמּוֹת (zimmot, “evil plans”). However, this emendation leaves an unclear connection with the next line. The present translation maintains the verbal form found in the MT and understands it in a neutral sense, “I have decided” (see Jer 4:28). The words “my mouth will not cross over” (i.e., “transgress, sin”) can then be taken as a noun clause functioning as the object of the verb.
502 tn Heb “with regard to the deeds of man[kind].”
503 tn Heb “by the word of your lips, I, I have watched the paths of the violent” (i.e., “watched” in the sense of “watched for the purpose of avoiding”).
504 tn Heb “my steps stay firm in your tracks.” The infinitive absolute functions here as a finite verb (see GKC 347 §113.gg). God’s “tracks” are his commands, i.e., the moral pathways he has prescribed for the psalmist.
505 tn Heb “my footsteps do not stagger.”
506 tn Heb “Turn your ear toward me.”
507 tn Heb “my word.”
508 tn Heb “Set apart faithful acts.”
509 tn Heb “[O] one who delivers those who seek shelter from the ones raising themselves up, by your right hand.” The Lord’s “right hand” here symbolizes his power to protect and deliver.
sn Those who look to you for protection from their enemies. “Seeking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
510 tc Heb “Protect me like the pupil, a daughter of an eye.” The noun בַּת (bat, “daughter”) should probably be emended to בָּבַת (bavat, “pupil”). See Zech 2:12 HT (2:8 ET) and HALOT 107 s.v. *בָּבָה.
511 sn Your wings. The metaphor compares God to a protective mother bird.
513 tn Heb “destroy.” The psalmist uses the perfect verbal form to emphasize the degree of danger. He describes the wicked as being already in the process of destroying him.
515 tn Heb “their fat they close.” The Hebrew term חֵלֶב (khelev, “fat”) appears to stand by metonymy for their calloused hearts. They attack the psalmist without feeling any pity or remorse. Some propose emending the text to חֵלֶב לִבָּמוֹ (khelev libbamo, “fat of their heart[s]; cf. Ps 119:70, “their heart is insensitive like fat”). This assumes haplography of the לב (lamed-bet) consonantal sequence.
516 tn Heb “[with] their mouth they speak with arrogance.”
517 tc Heb “our steps, now they surround me.” The Kethib (consonantal text) has “surround me,” while the Qere (marginal reading) has “surround us,” harmonizing the pronoun to the preceding “our steps.” The first person plural pronoun does not fit the context, where the psalmist speaks as an individual. In the preceding verses the psalmist uses a first person singular verbal or pronominal form twenty times. For this reason it is preferable to emend “our steps” to אִשְּׁרוּנִי (’ishÿruni, “they attack me”) from the verbal root אָשֻׁר (’ashur, “march, stride, track”).
518 tn Heb “their eyes they set to bend down in the ground.”
519 tn Here the psalmist switches to the singular pronoun; he views his enemies collectively, or singles out a representative of the group, perhaps its leader.
520 tn Heb “his likeness [is] like a lion.”
521 tn Heb “[that] longs to tear.”
522 tn Heb “sitting.”
523 tn Heb “Be in front of his face.”
524 tn Or “bring him to his knees.”
525 tn Heb “rescue my life from the wicked [one] [by] your sword.”
526 tc Heb “from men [by] your hand,
527 tn Heb “from men, from [the] world.” On the emendation of “men” to “murderers,” see the preceding note on the word “murderers.”
528 tn Heb “their portion, in life.”
529 tn Heb “and [with] your treasures you fill their belly.”
sn You overwhelm them with the riches they desire. The psalmist is not accusing God of being unjust; he is simply observing that the wicked often prosper and that God is the ultimate source of all blessings that human beings enjoy (see Matt 5:45). When the wicked are ungrateful for God’s blessings, they become even more culpable and deserving of judgment. So this description of the wicked actually supports the psalmist’s appeal for deliverance. God should rescue him because he is innocent (see vv. 3-5) and because the wicked, though blessed abundantly by God, still have the audacity to attack God’s people.
530 tn Heb “they are satisfied [with] sons and leave their abundance to their children.”
531 tn Heb “I, in innocence, I will see your face.” To “see” God’s “face” means to have access to his presence and to experience his favor (see Ps 11:7; see also Job 33:26 [where רָאָה (ra’ah), not חָזַה (khazah), is used]). Here, however, the psalmist may be anticipating a mystical experience. See the following note on the word “me.”
532 tn Heb “I will be satisfied, when I awake, [with] your form.” The noun תְּמוּנָה (tÿmunah) normally carries the nuance “likeness” or “form.” In Job 4:16 it refers to a ghostlike spiritual entity (see v. 15) that revealed itself to Eliphaz during the night. The psalmist may anticipate a mystical encounter with God in which he expects to see a manifestation of God’s presence (i.e., a theophany), perhaps in conjunction with an oracle of deliverance. During the quiet darkness of the night, God examines the psalmist’s inner motives and finds them to be pure (see v. 3). The psalmist is confident that when he awakens, perhaps sometime during the night or in the morning, he will be visited by God and assured of vindication.
sn When I awake you will reveal yourself to me. Some see in this verse an allusion to resurrection. According to this view, when the psalmist awakens from the sleep of death, he will see God. It is unlikely that the psalmist had such a highly developed personal eschatology. As noted above, it is more likely that he is anticipating a divine visitation and mystical encounter as a prelude to his deliverance from his enemies.
533 sn Psalm 18. In this long song of thanks, the psalmist (a Davidic king, traditionally understood as David himself) affirms that God is his faithful protector. He recalls in highly poetic fashion how God intervened in awesome power and delivered him from death. The psalmist’s experience demonstrates that God vindicates those who are blameless and remain loyal to him. True to his promises, God gives the king victory on the battlefield and enables him to subdue nations. A parallel version of the psalm appears in 2 Sam 22:1-51.
534 tn Heb “spoke.”
535 tn Heb “in the day,” or “at the time.”
536 tn Heb “hand.”
537 tn Heb “and from the hand of Saul.”
538 tn A number of translations (e.g., NASB, NIV, NRSV) assign the words “he said” to the superscription, in which case the entire psalm is in first person. Other translations (e.g., NAB) include the introductory “he said” at the beginning of v. 1.
539 tn The verb רָחַם (rakham) elsewhere appears in the Piel (or Pual) verbal stem with the basic meaning, “have compassion.” The verb occurs only here in the basic (Qal) stem. The basic stem of the verbal root also occurs in Aramaic with the meaning “love” (see DNWSI 2:1068-69; Jastrow 1467 s.v. רָחַם; G. Schmuttermayr, “rhm: eine lexikalische Studie,” Bib 51 : 515-21). Since this introductory statement does not appear in the parallel version in 2 Sam 22:1-51, it is possible that it is a later addition to the psalm, made when the poem was revised for use in worship.
540 tn Heb “my strength.” “Strength” is metonymic here, referring to the Lord as the one who bestows strength to the psalmist; thus the translation “my source of strength.”
543 tn Or “in whom.”
544 sn Take shelter. “Taking shelter” in the Lord is an idiom for seeking his protection. Seeking his protection presupposes and even demonstrates the subject’s loyalty to the Lord. In the psalms those who “take shelter” in the Lord are contrasted with the wicked and equated with those who love, fear and serve the Lord (Pss 5:11-12; 31:17-20; 34:21-22).
545 tn Heb “the horn of my salvation”; or “my saving horn.”
sn Though some see “horn” as referring to a horn-shaped peak of a hill, or to the “horns” of an altar where one could find refuge, it is more likely that the horn of an ox underlies the metaphor (cf. Deut 33:17; 1 Kgs 22:11; Ps 92:10). The horn of the wild ox is frequently a metaphor for military strength; the idiom “exalt the horn” signifies military victory (see 1 Sam 2:10; Pss 89:17, 24; 92:10; Lam 2:17). In the ancient Near East powerful warrior-kings would sometimes compare themselves to a goring bull that uses its horns to kill its enemies. For examples, see P. Miller, “El the Warrior,” HTR 60 (1967): 422-25, and R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 135-36. Ps 18:2 uses the metaphor of the horn in a slightly different manner. Here the Lord himself is compared to a horn. He is to the psalmist what the horn is to the ox, a source of defense and victory.
547 tn In this song of thanksgiving, where the psalmist recalls how the Lord delivered him, the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect.
548 tn Heb “worthy of praise, I cried out [to] the
549 tc Ps 18:4 reads “ropes,” while 2 Sam 22:5 reads “waves.” The reading of the psalm has been influenced by the next verse (note “ropes of Sheol”) and perhaps also by Ps 116:3 (where “ropes of death” appears, as here, with the verb אָפַף, ’afaf). However, the parallelism of v. 4 (note “currents” in the next line) favors the reading “waves.” While the verb אָפַף is used with “ropes” as subject in Ps 116:3, it can also be used with engulfing “waters” as subject (see Jonah 2:5). Death is compared to surging waters in v. 4 and to a hunter in v. 5.
551 tn The noun בְלִיַּעַל (vÿliyya’al) is used here as an epithet for death. Elsewhere it is a common noun meaning “wickedness, uselessness.” It is often associated with rebellion against authority and other crimes that result in societal disorder and anarchy. The phrase “man/son of wickedness” refers to one who opposes God and the order he has established. The term becomes an appropriate title for death, which, through human forces, launches an attack against God’s chosen servant.
552 tn In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. (Note the perfect verbal form in the parallel/preceding line.) The verb בָּעַת (ba’at) sometimes by metonymy carries the nuance “frighten,” but the parallelism (see “engulfed”) favors the meaning “overwhelm” here.
553 tn Heb “surrounded me.”
554 tn Heb “confronted me.”
557 tc Heb “and my cry for help before him came into his ears.” 2 Sam 22:7 has a shorter reading, “my cry for help, in his ears.” It is likely that Ps 18:6 MT as it now stands represents a conflation of two readings: (1) “my cry for help came before him,” (2) “my cry for help came into his ears.” See F. M. Cross and D. N. Freedman, Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry (SBLDS), 144, n. 13.
558 sn The earth heaved and shook. The imagery pictures an earthquake in which the earth’s surface rises and falls. The earthquake motif is common in OT theophanies of God as warrior and in ancient Near Eastern literary descriptions of warring gods and kings. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 160-62.
559 tn 2 Sam 22:8 has “heavens” which forms a merism with “earth” in the preceding line. The “foundations of the heavens” would be the mountains. However, the reading “foundations of the mountains” has a parallel in Deut 32:22.
560 tn In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. Note the three prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive in the verse.
561 tn Heb “within”; or “[from] within.” For a discussion of the use of the preposition -בְּ (bÿ) here, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 163-64.
562 tn Or “in his anger.” The noun אַף (’af) can carry the abstract meaning “anger,” but the parallelism (note “from his mouth”) suggests the more concrete meaning “nose” here. See also v. 15, “the powerful breath of your nose.”
563 tn Heb “fire from his mouth devoured.” In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. Note the two perfect verbal forms in the verse.
sn Fire devoured as it came from his mouth. For other examples of fire as a weapon in OT theophanies and ancient Near Eastern portrayals of warring gods and kings, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 165-67.
565 tn The Hebrew verb נָטָה (natah) can carry the sense “[cause to] bend, bow down.” For example, Gen 49:15 pictures Issachar as a donkey that “bends” its shoulder or back under a burden. Here the
566 tn Or “rode upon.”
567 tn Heb “a cherub.” Because of the typical associations of the word “cherub” in English with chubby winged babies, the term has been rendered “winged angel” in the translation.
sn Winged angel (Heb “cherub”). Cherubs, as depicted in the OT, possess both human and animal (lion, ox, and eagle) characteristics (see Ezek 1:10; 10:14, 21; 41:18). They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Pss 80:1; 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). The picture of the
569 sn The wings of the wind. Verse 10 may depict (1) the Lord riding a cherub, which is in turn propelled by the wind current. Another option (2) is that two different vehicles (a cherub and the wind) are envisioned. Yet another option (3) is that the wind is personified as a cherub. For a discussion of ancient Near Eastern parallels to the imagery in v. 10, see M. Weinfeld, “‘Rider of the Clouds’ and ‘Gatherer of the Clouds’,” JANESCU 5 (1973): 422-24.
570 tc Heb “he made darkness his hiding place around him, his covering.” 2 Sam 22:12 reads, “he made darkness around him coverings,” omitting “his hiding place” and pluralizing “covering.” Ps 18:11 may include a conflation of synonyms (“his hiding place” and “his covering”) or 2 Sam 22:12 may be the result of haplography/homoioarcton. Note that three successive words in Ps 18:11 begin with the Hebrew letter samek: סִתְרוֹ סְבִיבוֹתָיו סֻכָּתוֹ (sitro sÿvivotayv sukkato).
571 tc Heb “darkness of water, clouds of clouds.” The noun “darkness” (חֶשְׁכַת, kheshkhat) is probably a corruption of an original reading חשׁרת, a form that is preserved in 2 Sam 22:12. The latter is a construct form of חַשְׁרָה (khashrah, “sieve”) which occurs only here in the OT. A cognate Ugaritic noun means “sieve,” and a related verb חָשַׁר (khashar, “to sift”) is attested in postbiblical Hebrew and Aramaic. The phrase חַשְׁרַת מַיִם (khashrat mayim) means literally “a sieve of water.” It pictures the rain clouds as a sieve through which the rain falls to the ground (see F. M. Cross and D. N. Freedman, Studies in Ancient Yahwistic Poetry [SBLDS], 146, n. 33).
572 tc Heb “from the brightness in front of him his clouds came, hail and coals of fire.” 2 Sam 22:13 reads, “from the brightness in front of him burned coals of fire.” The Lucianic family of texts within the Greek tradition of 2 Sam 22:13 seems to assume the underlying Hebrew text: מנגה נגדו עברו ברד וגחלי אשׁ, “from the brightness in front of him came hail and coals of fire” (the basis for the present translation). The textual situation is perplexing and the identity of the original text uncertain. The verbs עָבָרוּ (’avaru; Ps 18:12) and בָּעֲרוּ (ba’aru; 2 Sam 22:13) appear to be variants involving a transposition of the first two letters. The noun עָבָיו (’avayv, “his clouds,” Ps 18:12) may be virtually dittographic (note the following עָבְרוּ, ’avru), or it could have accidentally dropped out from the text of 2 Sam 22:13 by virtual haplography (note the preceding בָּעֲרוּ, which might have originally read עָבְרוּ). The noun בָּרָד (barad, “hail,” Ps 18:12) may be virtually dittographic (note the preceding עָבְרוּ), or it could have dropped out from 2 Sam 22:13 by virtual haplography (note the preceding בָּעֲרוּ, which might have originally read עָבְרוּ). For a fuller discussion of the text and its problems, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 74-76.
573 sn Thunder is a common motif in OT theophanies and in ancient Near Eastern portrayals of the storm god and warring kings. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 179-83.
tn Heb “offered his voice.” In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not an imperfect. Note the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive in the preceding line.
578 tn The pronominal suffixes on the verbs “scattered” and “routed” (see the next line) refer to the psalmist’s enemies. Some argue that the suffixes refer to the arrows, in which case one might translate “shot them far and wide” and “made them move noisily,” respectively. They argue that the enemies have not been mentioned since v. 4 and are not again mentioned until v. 17. However, usage of the verbs פוּץ (puts, “scatter”) and הָמַם (hamam, “rout”) elsewhere in Holy War accounts suggests the suffixes refer to enemies. Enemies are frequently pictured in such texts as scattered and/or routed (see Exod 14:24; 23:27; Num 10:35; Josh 10:10; Judg 4:15; 1 Sam 7:10; 11:11; Ps 68:1).
579 sn Lightning is a common motif in in OT theophanies and in ancient Near Eastern portrayals of the storm god and warring kings. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 190-92.
580 tn Heb “lightning bolts, many.” 2 Sam 22:15 has simply “lightning” (בָּרָק, baraq). The identity of the word רָב (rav) in Ps 18:14 is problematic. (1) It may be a form of a rare verb רָבַב (ravav, “to shoot”), perhaps attested in Gen 49:23 as well. In this case one might translate, “he shot lightning bolts and routed them.” Other options include (2) understanding רָב (rav) as an adverbial use of the adjective, “lightning bolts in abundance,” or (3) emending the form to רַבּוּ (rabbu), from רָבַב (ravav, “be many”) or to רָבוּ (ravu), from רָבָה (ravah, “be many”) – both a haplography of the vav (ו); note the initial vav on the immediately following form – and translating “lightning bolts were in abundance.”
sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 77:17-18; 144:6; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983], 187).
581 tn Or “channels.”
583 tn Or “foundations.”
584 tn Heb “from.” The preposition has a causal sense here.
585 tn The noun is derived from the verb גָּעַר (ga’ar), which is often understood to mean “rebuke.” In some cases it is apparent that scolding or threatening is in view (see Gen 37:10; Ruth 2:16; Zech 3:2). However, in militaristic contexts this translation is inadequate, for the verb refers in this setting to the warrior’s battle cry, which terrifies and paralyzes the enemy. See A. Caquot, TDOT 3:53, and note the use of the verb in Pss 68:30; 106:9; and Nah 1:4, as well as the related noun in Job 26:11; Pss 9:5; 76:6; 104:7; Isa 50:2; 51:20; 66:15.
586 tn 2 Sam 22:16 reads “by the battle cry of the
587 tn Heb “stretched.” Perhaps “his hand” should be supplied by ellipsis (see Ps 144:7). In this poetic narrative context the three prefixed verbal forms in this verse are best understood as preterites indicating past tense, not imperfects.
589 tn The singular refers either to personified death or collectively to the psalmist’s enemies. The following line, which refers to “those [plural] who hate me,” favors the latter.
591 tn Heb “became my support.”
592 tn Or “delighted in me.”
593 tn In this poetic narrative context the prefixed verbal form is best understood as a preterite indicating past tense, not imperfect.
594 tn Heb “according to my righteousness.” As vv. 22-24 make clear, the psalmist refers here to his unwavering obedience to God’s commands. In these verses the psalmist explains that the
595 tn The unreduced Hiphil prefixed verbal form appears to be an imperfect, in which case the psalmist would be generalizing. However, both the preceding and following contexts (see especially v. 24) suggest he is narrating his experience. Despite its unreduced form, the verb is better taken as a preterite. For other examples of unreduced Hiphil preterites, see Pss 55:14a; 68:9a, 10b; 80:8a; 89:43a; 107:38b; 116:6b.
596 tn Heb “according to the purity of my hands he repaid to me.” “Hands” suggest activity and behavior.
597 tn Heb “for I have kept the ways of the
598 tn Heb “I have not acted wickedly from my God.” The statement is elliptical; the idea is, “I have not acted wickedly and, in so doing, departed from my God.”
599 tn Heb “for all his regulations [are] before me.” The Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim, “regulations”) refers to God’s covenantal requirements, especially those which the king is responsible to follow (cf. Deut 17:18-20). See also Pss 19:9 (cf. vv. 7-8); 89:30; 147:20 (cf. v. 19), as well as the numerous uses of the term in Ps 119.
600 tn Heb “and his rules I do not turn aside from me.” 2 Sam 22:23 reads, “and his rules, I do not turn aside from it.” The prefixed verbal form is probably an imperfect; the psalmist here generalizes about his loyalty to God’s commands. The Lord’s “rules” are the stipulations of the covenant which the king was responsible to obey (see Ps 89:31; cf. v. 30 and Deut 17:18-20).
601 tn Heb “from my sin,” that is, from making it my own in any way.
sn Kept myself from sinning. Leading a blameless life meant that the king would be loyal to God’s covenant, purge the government and society of evil and unjust officials, and reward loyalty to the Lord (see Ps 101).
602 tn Heb “according to my righteousness.”
603 tn Heb “according to the purity of my hands before his eyes.” 2 Sam 22:25 reads “according to my purity before his eyes.” The verbal repetition (compare vv. 20 and 24) sets off vv. 20-24 as a distinct sub-unit within the psalm.
604 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 25-29 draw attention to God’s characteristic actions. Based on his experience, the psalmist generalizes about God’s just dealings with people (vv. 25-27) and about the way in which God typically empowers him on the battlefield (vv. 28-29). The Hitpael stem is used in vv. 26-27 in a reflexive resultative (or causative) sense. God makes himself loyal, etc. in the sense that he conducts or reveals himself as such. On this use of the Hitpael stem, see GKC 149-50 §54.e.
605 tn Or “to a faithful follower.” A “faithful follower” (חָסִיד, khasid) is one who does what is right in God’s eyes and remains faithful to God (see Pss 4:3; 12:1; 16:10; 31:23; 37:28; 86:2; 97:10).
606 tn Or “innocent.”
607 tn Heb “a man of innocence.”
608 tn Or “blameless.”
609 tn The Hebrew verb פָתַל (patal) is used in only three other texts. In Gen 30:8 it means literally “to wrestle,” or “to twist.” In Job 5:13 it refers to devious individuals, and in Prov 8:8 to deceptive words.
610 tn The adjective עִקֵּשׁ (’iqqesh) has the basic nuance “twisted, crooked,” and by extension refers to someone or something that is morally perverse. It appears frequently in Proverbs, where it is used of evil people (22:5), speech (8:8; 19:1), thoughts (11:20; 17:20), and life styles (2:15; 28:6). A righteous king opposes such people (Ps 101:4).
sn Verses 25-26 affirm God’s justice. He responds to people in accordance with their moral character. His response mirrors their actions. The faithful and blameless find God to be loyal and reliable in his dealings with them. But deceivers discover he is able and willing to use deceit to destroy them. For a more extensive discussion of the theme of divine deception in the OT, see R. B. Chisholm, “Does God Deceive?” BSac 155 (1998): 11-28.
611 tn Or perhaps, “humble” (note the contrast with those who are proud).
613 tn Or “for.” The translation assumes that כִּי (ki)is asseverative here.
614 tn Ps 18:28 reads literally, “you light my lamp,
616 tn Heb “my darkness.”
617 tn Or “for.” The translation assumes that כִּי (ki) is asseverative here.
618 tn Heb “by you.”
619 tn Heb “I will run.” The imperfect verbal forms in v. 29 indicate the subject’s potential or capacity to perform an action. Though one might expect a preposition to follow the verb here, this need not be the case with the verb רוּץ (ruts; see 1 Sam 17:22). Some emend the Qal to a Hiphil form of the verb and translate, “I put to flight [Heb “cause to run”] an army.”
620 tn More specifically, the noun גְּדוּד (gÿdud) refers to a raiding party or to a contingent of troops.
sn I can charge against an army. The picture of a divinely empowered warrior charging against an army in almost superhuman fashion appears elsewhere in ancient Near Eastern literature. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 228.
621 tn Heb “and by my God.”
622 sn I can jump over a wall. The psalmist uses hyperbole to emphasize his God-given military superiority.
623 tn Heb “[As for] the God, his way is blameless.” The term הָאֵל (ha’el, “the God”) stands as a nominative (or genitive) absolute in apposition to the resumptive pronominal suffix on “way.” The prefixed article emphasizes his distinctiveness as the one true God (cf. Deut 33:26). God’s “way” in this context refers to his protective and salvific acts in fulfillment of his promise (see also Deut 32:4; Pss 67:2; 77:13 [note vv. 11-12, 14]; 103:7; 138:5; 145:17).
624 sn The
625 tn Heb “the word of the
627 tn Or “for.”
629 tn The rhetorical questions anticipate the answer, “No one.” In this way the psalmist indicates that the
631 tn Heb “is the one who clothes.” For similar language see 1 Sam 2:4; Pss 65:6; 93:1. The psalmist employs a generalizing hymnic style in vv. 32-34; he uses participles in vv. 32a, 33a, and 34a to describe what God characteristically does on his behalf.
sn Gives me strength. As the following context makes clear, this refers to physical and emotional strength for battle (see especially v. 39).
633 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries along the generalizing force of the preceding participle.
634 tn Heb “he made my path smooth.” The Hebrew term תָּמִים (tamim, “smooth”) usually carries a moral or ethical connotation, “blameless, innocent.” However, in Ps 18:33 it refers to a pathway free of obstacles. The reality underlying the metaphor is the psalmist’s ability to charge into battle without tripping (see vv. 33, 36).
635 tn Heb “[the one who] makes my feet like [those of ] a deer.”
636 tn Heb “and on my high places he makes me walk.” The imperfect verbal form emphasizes God’s characteristic provision. The psalmist compares his agility in battle to the ability of a deer to negotiate rugged, high terrain without falling or being injured.
sn Habakkuk uses similar language to describe his faith during difficult times. See Hab 3:19.
637 sn He trains my hands. The psalmist attributes his skill with weapons to divine enablement. Egyptian reliefs picture gods teaching the king how to shoot a bow. See O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265.
638 tn Heb “and a bow of bronze is bent by my arms”; or “my arms bend a bow of bronze.” The verb נָחַת (nakhat) apparently means “pull back, bend” here (see HALOT 692 s.v. נחת). The third feminine singular verbal form appears to agree with the feminine singular noun קֶשֶׁת (qeshet, “bow”). In this case the verb must be taken as Niphal (passive). However, it is possible that “my arms” is the subject of the verb and “bow” the object. In this case the verb is Piel (active). For other examples of a feminine singular verb being construed with a plural noun, see GKC 464 §145.k.
sn The strongest bow (Heb “bow of bronze”) probably refers to a bow laminated with bronze strips, or to a purely ceremonial or decorative bow made entirely from bronze. In the latter case the language is hyperbolic, for such a weapon would not be functional in battle.
639 tn Heb “and you give to me the shield of your deliverance.”
sn You give me your protective shield. Ancient Near Eastern literature often refers to a god giving a king special weapons. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 260-61.
640 tc 2 Sam 22:36 omits this line, perhaps due to homoioarcton. A scribe’s eye may have jumped from the vav (ו) prefixed to “your right hand” to the vav prefixed to the following “and your answer,” causing the copyist to omit by accident the intervening words (“your right hand supports me and”).
641 tn The MT of Ps 18:35 appears to read, “your condescension,” apparently referring to God’s willingness to intervene (cf. NIV “you stoop down”). However, the noun עֲנָוָה (’anavah) elsewhere means “humility” and is used only here of God. The form עַנְוַתְךָ (’anvatÿkha) may be a fully written form of the suffixed infinitive construct of עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”; a defectively written form of the infinitive appears in 2 Sam 22:36). In this case the psalmist refers to God’s willingness to answer his prayer; one might translate, “your favorable response.”
642 tn Heb “makes me great.”
643 tn Heb “you make wide my step under me.” “Step” probably refers metonymically to the path upon which the psalmist walks. Another option is to translate, “you widen my stride.” This would suggest that God gives the psalmist the capacity to run quickly.
644 tn Heb “lower legs.” On the meaning of the Hebrew noun, which occurs only here, see H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 112. A cognate Akkadian noun means “lower leg.”
648 sn They fall at my feet. For ancient Near Eastern parallels, see O. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 294-97.
650 tn Heb “you make those who rise against me kneel beneath me.”
sn My foes kneel before me. For ancient Near Eastern parallels, see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 268.
653 tn Heb “but there is no deliverer.”
654 tn Heb “to the
sn They cry out. This reference to the psalmist’s enemies crying out for help to the
656 tc Ps 18:42 reads, “I empty them out” (Hiphil of ריק), while 2 Sam 22:43 reads, “I crush them, I stomp on them” (juxtaposing the synonyms דקק and רקע). It is likely that the latter is a conflation of variants. One, but not both, of the verbs in 2 Sam 22:43 is probably original; “empty out” does not form as good a parallel with “grind, pulverize” in the parallel line.
657 tn Or “mud.”
658 tn Heb “from the strivings of a people.” In this context the Hebrew term רִיב (riv, “striving”) probably has a militaristic sense (as in Judg 12:2; Isa 41:11), and עָם (’am, “people”) probably refers more specifically to an army (for other examples, see the verses listed in BDB 766 s.v. I עַם, עָם 2.d). Some understand the phrase as referring to attacks by the psalmist’s own countrymen, the “nation” being Israel. However, foreign enemies appear to be in view; note the reference to “nations” in the following line.
660 tn Heb “a people whom I did not know serve me.” In this context “know” (יָדַע, yada’) probably refers to formal recognition by treaty. People who were once not under the psalmist’s authority now willingly submit to his rulership to avoid being conquered militarily (see vv. 44-45). The language may recall the events recorded in 2 Sam 8:9-10 and 10:19.
661 tn Heb “at a report of an ear they submit to me.” The report of the psalmist’s exploits is so impressive that those who hear it submit to his rulership without putting up a fight.
662 tn For the meaning “be weak, powerless” for כָּחַשׁ (kakhash), see Ps 109:24. The next line (see v. 45a), in which “foreigners” are also mentioned, favors this interpretation. Another option is to translate “cower in fear” (see Deut 33:29; Pss 66:3; 81:15; cf. NIV “cringe”; NRSV “came cringing”).
663 tn Heb “wither, wear out.”
664 tn The meaning of חָרַג (kharag, “shake”) is established on the basis of cognates in Arabic and Aramaic. 2 Sam 22:46 reads חָגַר (khagar), which might mean here, “[they] come limping” (on the basis of a cognate in postbiblical Hebrew). The normal meaning for חָגַר (“gird”) makes little sense here.
665 tn Heb “from.”
666 tn Heb “their prisons.” The besieged cities of the foreigners are compared to prisons.
667 tn Elsewhere the construction חַי־יְהוָה (khay-yÿhvah) is used exclusively as an oath formula, “as surely as the
669 tn Or “blessed [i.e., praised] be.”
671 tn The words “as king” are supplied in the translation for clarification. Elsewhere in the psalms the verb רוּם (rum, “be exalted”), when used of God, refers to his exalted position as king (Pss 99:2; 113:4; 138:6) and/or his self-revelation as king through his mighty deeds of deliverance (Pss 21:13; 46:10; 57:5, 11).
673 tn Heb “is the one who grants vengeance to me.” The plural form of the noun indicates degree here, suggesting complete vengeance or vindication.
sn Completely vindicates me. In the ancient Near East military victory was sometimes viewed as a sign that one’s God had judged in favor of the victor, avenging and/or vindicating him. See, for example, Judg 11:27, 32-33, 36.
674 tn Heb “he subdues nations beneath me.” On the meaning of the verb דָּבַר (davar, “subdue,” a homonym of דָּבַר, davar, “speak”), see HALOT 209-10 s.v. I דבר. See also Ps 47:3 and 2 Chr 22:10. 2 Sam 22:48 reads “and [is the one who] brings down nations beneath me.”
676 tn Heb “lifts me up.” In light of the preceding and following references to deliverance, the verb רום probably here refers to being rescued from danger (see Ps 9:13). However, it could mean “exalt, elevate” here, indicating that the
677 tn Heb “from those who rise against me.”
678 sn I will give you thanks before the nations. This probably alludes to the fact that the psalmist will praise the
679 tn Heb “to your name.” God’s “name” refers metonymically to his divine characteristics as suggested by his name, in this case “
680 tn Or “the one who.”
681 tn Heb “magnifies the victories of his king.” “His king” refers to the psalmist, the Davidic king whom God has chosen to rule Israel.
682 tn Heb “[the one who] does loyalty.”
684 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
685 sn If David is the author of the psalm (see the superscription), then he here anticipates that God will continue to demonstrate loyalty to his descendants who succeed him. If the author is a later Davidic king, then he views the divine favor he has experienced as the outworking of God’s faithful promises to David his ancestor.
686 sn Psalm 19. The psalmist praises God for his self-revelation in the heavens and in the Mosaic law. The psalmist concludes with a prayer, asking the Lord to keep him from sinning and to approve of his thoughts and words.
687 sn God’s glory refers here to his royal majesty and power.
688 tn Heb “and the work of his hands the sky declares.” The participles emphasize the ongoing testimony of the heavens/sky.
689 tn Heb “it gushes forth a word.” The “sky” (see v. 1b) is the subject of the verb. Though not literally speaking (see v. 3), it clearly reveals God’s royal majesty. The sun’s splendor and its movement across the sky is in view (see vv. 4-6).
690 tn Heb “it [i.e., the sky] declares knowledge,” i.e., knowledge about God’s royal majesty and power (see v. 1). This apparently refers to the splendor and movements of the stars. The imperfect verbal forms in v. 2, like the participles in the preceding verse, combine with the temporal phrases (“day after day” and “night after night”) to emphasize the ongoing testimony of the sky.
692 tc The MT reads, “their measuring line” (קוּם, qum). The noun קַו (qav, “measuring line”) makes no sense in this context. The reading קוֹלָם (qolam, “their voice”) which is supported by the LXX, is preferable.
693 tn Heb “goes out,” or “proceeds forth.”
695 tn The verb is supplied in the translation. The Hebrew text has no verb; יָצָא (yatsa’, “goes out”) is understood by ellipsis.
696 tn Heb “to the end of the world.”
697 tn Heb “in them” (i.e., the heavens).
698 sn He has pitched a tent for the sun. The personified sun emerges from this “tent” in order to make its daytime journey across the sky. So the “tent” must refer metaphorically to the place where the sun goes to rest during the night.
699 tn The participle expresses the repeated or regular nature of the action.
sn Like a bridegroom. The metaphor likens the sun to a bridegroom who rejoices on his wedding night.
701 tn The imperfect verbal form draws attention to the regularity of the action.
702 tn Heb “[on] a path.”
sn Like a strong man. The metaphorical language reflects the brilliance of the sunrise, which attests to the sun’s vigor.
703 tn Heb “from the end of the heavens [is] its going forth.”
704 tn Heb “and its circuit [is] to their ends.”
705 tn Heb “is hidden from.”
706 tn Heb “[it] restores life.” Elsewhere the Hiphil of שׁוּב (shuv, “return”) when used with נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “life”) as object, means to “rescue or preserve one’s life” (Job 33:30; Ps 35:17) or to “revive one’s strength” (emotionally or physically; cf. Ruth 4:15; Lam 1:11, 16, 19). Here the point seems to be that the law preserves the life of the one who studies it by making known God’s will. Those who know God’s will know how to please him and can avoid offending him. See v. 11a.
707 tn Traditionally, “the testimony of the
708 tn God’s covenant contains a clear, reliable witness to his moral character and demands.
709 tn Or “the [morally] naive,” that is, the one who is young and still in the process of learning right from wrong and distinguishing wisdom from folly.
710 tn Or “just.” Perhaps the idea is that they impart a knowledge of what is just and right.
711 tn Heb “[they] make happy [the] heart.” Perhaps the point is that they bring a sense of joyful satisfaction to the one who knows and keeps them, for those who obey God’s law are richly rewarded. See v. 11b.
712 tn Heb “command.” The singular here refers to the law as a whole.
713 tn Because they reflect God’s character, his commands provide a code of moral and ethical purity.
714 tn Heb [they] enlighten [the] eyes.
715 tn Heb “the fear of the
716 tn Heb “[it] stands permanently.”
717 sn Trustworthy and absolutely just. The Lord’s commands accurately reflect God’s moral will for his people and are an expression of his just character.
718 tn Heb “more desirable.”
720 tn Heb “moreover your servant is warned by them.”
721 tn Heb “in the keeping of them [there is] a great reward.”
722 tn Heb “Errors who can discern?” This rhetorical question makes the point that perfect moral discernment is impossible to achieve. Consequently it is inevitable that even those with good intentions will sin on occasion.
723 tn Heb “declare me innocent from hidden [things],” i.e., sins. In this context (see the preceding line) “hidden” sins are not sins committed in secret, but sins which are not recognized as such by the psalmist.
724 tn Or “presumptuous.”
725 tn Heb “let them not rule over me.”
726 tn Heb “great.”
727 tn Heb “may the words of my mouth and the thought of my heart be acceptable before you.” The prefixed verbal form at the beginning of the verse is understood as a jussive of prayer. Another option is to translate the form as an imperfect continuing the thought of v. 14b: “[Then] the words of my mouth and the thought of my heart will be acceptable before you.”
728 tn Heb “my rocky cliff,” which is a metaphor for protection; thus the translation “sheltering rock.”
729 tn Heb “and the one who redeems me.” The metaphor casts the Lord in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis.
730 sn Psalm 20. The people pray for the king’s success in battle. When the king declares his assurance that the Lord will answer the people’s prayer, they affirm their confidence in God’s enablement.
731 tn The prefixed verbal forms here and in vv. 1b-5 are interpreted as jussives of prayer (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV). Another option is to understand them as imperfects, “the
732 sn May the
733 tn Heb “in a day of trouble.”
734 tn Heb “the name of the God of Jacob.” God’s “name” refers metonymically to his very person and to the divine characteristics suggested by his name, in this case “God of Jacob,” which highlights his relationship to Israel.
735 tc Heb “from [the] temple.” The third masculine singular pronominal suffix (ן, nun) has probably been accidentally omitted by haplography. Note that the following word begins with a prefixed vav (ו). See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 184.
737 tc Heb “consider as fat.” The verbal form should probably be emended to יְדַשְּׁנֶהָ (yÿdashÿneha), the final he (ה) being understood as a third feminine singular pronominal suffix referring back to the feminine noun “burnt sacrifice.”
739 sn May he bring all your plans to pass. This probably refers to the king’s strategy for battle.
741 tc The Hebrew verb דָּגַל (dagal) occurs only here in the Qal. If accepted as original, it may carry the nuance “raise a banner,” but it is preferable to emend the form to נגיל (“we will rejoice”) which provides better parallelism with “shout for joy” and fits well with the prepositional phrase “in the name of our God” (see Ps 89:16).
742 tn Or “know.”
sn Now I am sure. The speaker is not identified. It is likely that the king, referring to himself in the third person (note “his chosen king”), responds to the people’s prayer. Perhaps his confidence is due to the reception of a divine oracle of salvation.
743 tn The perfect verbal form is probably used rhetorically to state that the deliverance is as good as done. In this way the speaker emphasizes the certainty of the deliverance. Another option is to take the statement as generalizing; the psalmist affirms that the
745 tn Heb “he will answer him.”
746 tn Heb “from his holy heavens.”
748 tn Heb “these in chariots and these in horses.” No verb appears; perhaps the verb “invoke” is to be supplied from the following line. In this case the idea would be that some “invoke” (i.e., trust in) their military might for victory (cf. NEB “boast”; NIV “trust”; NRSV “take pride”). Verse 8 suggests that the “some/others” mentioned here are the nation’s enemies.
749 tn The grammatical construction (conjunction + pronominal subject) highlights the contrast between God’s faithful people and the others mentioned in the previous line.
750 tn Heb “we invoke the name of.” The Hiphil of זָכַר (zakhar), when combined with the phrase “in the name,” means “to invoke” (see Josh 23:7; Isa 48:1; Amos 6:10). By invoking the
751 tn Or “stumble and fall down.”
752 tn The grammatical construction (conjunction + pronominal subject) highlights the contrast between God’s victorious people and the defeated enemies mentioned in the previous line. The perfect verbal forms either generalize or, more likely, state rhetorically the people’s confidence as they face the approaching battle. They describe the demise of the enemy as being as good as done.
753 tn Or “rise up and remain upright.” On the meaning of the Hitpolel of עוּד (’ud), see HALOT 795 s.v. I עוד. The verbal forms (a perfect followed by a prefixed form with vav [ו] consecutive) either generalize or, more likely, state rhetorically the people’s confidence as they face the approaching battle.
754 tc This translation assumes an emendation of the verbal form הוֹשִׁיעָה (hoshi’ah). As it stands, the form is an imperative. In this case the people return to the petitionary mood with which the psalm begins (“O
755 tn If the imperative is retained in the preceding line, then the prefixed verbal form is best taken as a jussive of prayer, “may he answer us.” However, if the imperative in the previous line is emended to a perfect, the prefixed form is best taken as imperfect, “he will answer us” (see the note on the word “king” at the end of the previous line).
756 tn Heb “in the day we call.”
758 tn Heb “in your strength.” The translation interprets the pronominal suffix as subjective, rather than merely descriptive (or attributive).
759 tn Heb “and in your deliverance, how greatly he rejoices.”
760 tn The translation assumes the perfect verbal forms in v. 2 are generalizing, stating factually what God typically does for the king. Another option is to take them as present perfects, “you have granted…you have not refused.” See v. 4, which mentions a specific request for a long reign.
761 tn Heb “and the request of his lips you do not refuse.”
762 tn Or “meet him [with].”
763 tn Heb “good.”
764 sn You bring him rich blessings. The following context indicates that God’s “blessings” include deliverance/protection, vindication, sustained life, and a long, stable reign (see also Pss 3:8; 24:5).
766 tn Heb “you have granted him length of days forever and ever.” The phrase “length of days,” when used of human beings, usually refers to a lengthy period of time (such as one’s lifetime). See, for example, Deut 30:20; Job 12:12; Ps 91:16; Prov 3:2, 16; Lam 5:20. The additional phrase “forever and ever” is hyperbolic. While it seems to attribute eternal life to the king (see Pss 61:6-7; 72:5 as well), the underlying reality is the king’s enduring dynasty. He will live on, as it were, through his descendants, who will continue to rule over his kingdom long after he has passed off the scene.
767 tn Or “great glory.”
770 tn The active participle draws attention to the ongoing nature of the action.
771 tn Traditionally “the Most High’s.” The divine title “Most High” (עֶלְיוֹן, ’elyon) pictures God as the exalted ruler of the universe who vindicates the innocent and judges the wicked. Note the focus of vv. 8-12 and see Ps 47:2.
772 tn Another option is to translate the imperfect verbal form as future, “he will not be upended” (cf. NRSV “he shall not be moved”). Even if one chooses this option, the future tense must be understood in a generalizing sense.
773 tn The king is now addressed. One could argue that the
774 tn Heb “your hand finds.” The idiom pictures the king grabbing hold of his enemies and defeating them (see 1 Sam 23:17). The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 8-12 may be translated with the future tense, as long as the future is understood as generalizing.
775 tn Heb “your right hand finds those who hate you.”
776 tn Heb “you make them like a furnace of fire.” Although many modern translations retain the literal Hebrew, the statement is elliptical. The point is not that he makes them like a furnace, but like an object burned in a furnace (cf. NEB, “at your coming you shall plunge them into a fiery furnace”).
778 tn Heb “the
779 tn Heb “fruit.” The next line makes it clear that offspring is in view.
780 tn Heb “seed.”
781 tn Heb “sons of man.”
782 tn Or “for.”
783 tn Heb “they extend against you harm.” The perfect verbal forms in v. 11 are taken as generalizing, stating factually what the king’s enemies typically do. Another option is to translate with the past tense (“they intended…planned”).
785 tn Heb “they lack ability.”
786 tn Heb “you make them a shoulder,” i.e., “you make them turn and run, showing the back of their neck and shoulders.”
787 tn Heb “with your bowstrings you fix against their faces,” i.e., “you fix your arrows on the bowstrings to shoot at them.”
788 tn Heb “in your strength,” but English idiom does not require the pronoun.
sn The psalm concludes with a petition to the Lord, asking him to continue to intervene in strength for the king and nation.
789 tn Heb “sing praise.”
790 sn Psalm 22. The psalmist cries out to the Lord for deliverance from his dangerous enemies, who have surrounded him and threaten his life. Confident that the Lord will intervene, he then vows to thank the Lord publicly for his help and anticipates a time when all people will recognize the Lord’s greatness and worship him.
791 tn Heb “according to the doe of the dawn.” Apparently this refers to a particular musical tune or style.
793 tn Heb “far from my deliverance [are] the words of my groaning.” The Hebrew noun שְׁאָגָה (shÿ’agah) and its related verb שָׁאַג (sha’ag) are sometimes used of a lion’s roar, but they can also describe human groaning (see Job 3:24 and Pss 32:3 and 38:8.
794 tn Heb “there is no silence to me.”
795 tn Heb “[O] one who sits [on] the praises of Israel.” The verb “receiving” is supplied in the translation for clarity. The metaphorical language pictures the
796 tn Heb “fathers.”
797 tn The words “in you” are supplied in the translation. They are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).
798 tn Or “were not ashamed.”
799 tn The grammatical construction (conjunction + pronoun) highlights the contrast between the psalmist’s experience and that of his ancestors. When he considers God’s past reliability, it only heightens his despair and confusion, for God’s present silence stands in stark contrast to his past saving acts.
800 tn The metaphor expresses the psalmist’s self-perception, which is based on how others treat him (see the following line).
801 tn Or “not a human being.” The psalmist perceives himself as less than human.
802 tn Heb “a reproach of man and despised by people.”
803 tn Or “scoff at, deride, mock.”
804 tn Heb “they separate with a lip.” Apparently this refers to their verbal taunting.
806 tn The words “they say” are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons. The psalmist here quotes the sarcastic taunts of his enemies.
807 tn Heb “roll [yourself].” The Hebrew verb גלל here has the sense of “commit” (see Prov 16:3). The imperatival form in the Hebrew text indicates the enemies here address the psalmist. Since they refer to him in the third person in the rest of the verse, some prefer to emend the verb to a perfect, “he commits himself to the
808 tn Heb “Let him”; the referent (the
809 tn Heb “Let him”; the referent (the
sn This statement does not necessarily reflect the enemies’ actual belief, but it does reflect the psalmist’s confession. The psalmist’s enemies sarcastically appeal to God to help him, because he claims to be an object of divine favor. However, they probably doubted the reality of his claim.
811 tn Or “the one who pulled me.” The verb is derived from either גָחָה (gakhah; see HALOT 187 s.v. גחה) or גִּיחַ (giyakh; see BDB 161 s.v. גִּיחַ) and seems to carry the nuance “burst forth” or “pull out.”
812 tn Heb “upon you I was cast from [the] womb.”
813 tn Heb “from the womb of my mother you [have been] my God.”
sn Despite the enemies’ taunts, the psalmist is certain of his relationship with God, which began from the time of his birth (from the time I came out of my mother’s womb).
814 tn Heb “and there is no helper.”
815 sn The psalmist figuratively compares his enemies to dangerous bulls.
817 tn “They” refers to the psalmist’s enemies, who in the previous verse are described as “powerful bulls.”
819 tn Heb “a lion ripping and roaring.”
820 tn Heb “like water I am poured out.”
821 sn The heart is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s strength and courage.
822 tc Heb “my strength” (כֹּחִי, kokhiy), but many prefer to emend the text to חִכִּי (khikiy, “my palate”; cf. NEB, NRSV “my mouth”) assuming that an error of transposition has occurred in the traditional Hebrew text.
823 tn Cf. NEB “my jaw”; NASB, NRSV “my jaws”; NIV “the roof of my mouth.”
825 sn The imperfect verbal form draws attention to the progressive nature of the action. The psalmist is in the process of dying.
826 tn Or “for.”
827 tn Heb “like a lion, my hands and my feet.” This reading is often emended because it is grammatically awkward, but perhaps its awkwardness is by rhetorical design. Its broken syntax may be intended to convey the panic and terror felt by the psalmist. The psalmist may envision a lion pinning the hands and feet of its victim to the ground with its paws (a scene depicted in ancient Near Eastern art), or a lion biting the hands and feet. The line has been traditionally translated, “they pierce my hands and feet,” and then taken as foreshadowing the crucifixion of Christ. Though Jesus does appropriate the language of this psalm while on the cross (compare v. 1 with Matt 27:46 and Mark 15:34), the NT does not cite this verse in describing the death of Jesus. (It does refer to vv. 7-8 and 18, however. See Matt 27:35, 39, 43; Mark 15:24, 29; Luke 23:34; John 19:23-24.) If one were to insist on an emendation of כָּאֲרִי (ka’ariy, “like a lion”) to a verb, the most likely verbal root would be כָּרָה (karah, “dig”; see the LXX). In this context this verb could refer to the gnawing and tearing of wild dogs (cf. NCV, TEV, CEV). The ancient Greek version produced by Symmachus reads “bind” here, perhaps understanding a verbal root כרך, which is attested in later Hebrew and Aramaic and means “to encircle, entwine, embrace” (see HALOT 497-98 s.v. כרך and Jastrow 668 s.v. כָּרַךְ). Neither one of these proposed verbs can yield a meaning “bore, pierce.”
829 tn Heb “they.” The masculine form indicates the enemies are in view. The referent (the psalmist’s enemies) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
830 tn Heb “they gaze, they look upon me.”
831 tn Heb “casting lots.” The precise way in which this would have been done is not certain.
832 tn Heb “O my strength.”
833 tn Heb “hurry to my help.”
834 tn Or “my life.”
835 tn The verb “save” is supplied in the translation; it is understood by ellipsis (see “deliver” in the preceding line).
836 tn Heb “my only one.” The psalmist may mean that his life is precious, or that he feels isolated and alone.
837 tn Heb “from the hand.” Here “hand” is understood by metonymy as a reference to the “paw” and thus the “claws” of the wild dogs.
839 tn The Hebrew term רֵמִים (remim) appears to be an alternate spelling of רְאֵמִים (rÿ’emim, “wild oxen”; see BDB 910 s.v. רְאֵם).
840 tn Heb “and from the horns of the wild oxen you answer me.” Most take the final verb with the preceding prepositional phrase. Some understand the verb form as a relatively rare precative perfect, expressing a wish or request (see IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d). However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew. (See the discussion at Ps 3:7.) Others prefer to take the perfect in its usual indicative sense. The psalmist, perhaps in response to an oracle of salvation, affirms confidently that God has answered him, assuring him that deliverance is on the way. The present translation takes the prepositional phrase as parallel to the preceding “from the mouth of the lion” and as collocated with the verb “rescue” at the beginning of the verse. “You have answered me” is understood as a triumphant shout which marks a sudden shift in tone and introduces the next major section of the psalm. By isolating the statement syntactically, the psalmist highlights the declaration.
843 tn Heb “fear him.”
844 tn Or “affliction”; or “need.”
845 sn In this verse the psalmist refers to himself in the third person and characterizes himself as oppressed.
846 tn Heb “he did not hide his face from him.” For other uses of the idiom “hide the face” meaning “ignore,” see Pss 10:11; 13:1; 51:9. Sometimes the idiom carries the stronger idea of “reject” (see Pss 27:9; 88:14).
847 tn Heb “heard.”
848 tn Heb “from with you [is] my praise.”
849 tn Heb “my vows I will fulfill before those who fear him.” When asking the
850 sn Eat and be filled. In addition to praising the Lord, the psalmist also offers a thank offering to the Lord and invites others to share in a communal meal.
851 tn Heb “may your heart[s].”
852 tn Heb “may all the ends of the earth remember and turn to the
853 tn Heb “families of the nations.”
854 tn Heb “before you.”
855 tn Heb “for to the
856 tn Heb “fat [ones].” This apparently refers to those who are healthy and robust, i.e., thriving. In light of the parallelism, some prefer to emend the form to יְשֵׁנֵי (yÿsheney, “those who sleep [in the earth]”; cf. NAB, NRSV), but דִּשְׁנֵי (dishney, “fat [ones]”) seems to form a merism with “all who descend into the grave” in the following line. The psalmist envisions all people, whether healthy or dying, joining in worship of the
857 tn Heb “eat and worship.” The verb forms (a perfect followed by a prefixed form with vav [ו] consecutive) are normally used in narrative to relate completed actions. Here the psalmist uses the forms rhetorically as he envisions a time when the
858 tn Heb “all of the ones going down [into] the dust.” This group stands in contrast to those mentioned in the previous line. Together the two form a merism encompassing all human beings – the healthy, the dying, and everyone in between.
859 tn Heb “and his life he does not revive.”
860 tn Heb “offspring.”
861 tn Heb “it will be told concerning the Lord to the generation.” The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).
862 tn Heb “his righteousness.” Here the noun צִדָקָה (tsidaqah) refers to the Lord’s saving deeds whereby he vindicates the oppressed.
863 tn Heb “to a people [to be] born that he has acted.” The words “they will tell” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
864 sn Psalm 23. In vv. 1-4 the psalmist pictures the Lord as a shepherd who provides for his needs and protects him from danger. The psalmist declares, “The Lord is my shepherd,” and then extends and develops that metaphor, speaking as if he were a sheep. In vv. 5-6 the metaphor changes as the psalmist depicts a great royal banquet hosted by the Lord. The psalmist is a guest of honor and recipient of divine favor, who enjoys unlimited access to the divine palace and the divine presence.
865 sn The LORD is my shepherd. The opening metaphor suggests the psalmist is assuming the role of a sheep. In vv. 1b-4 the psalmist extends the metaphor and explains exactly how the LORD is like a shepherd to him. At the surface level the language can be understood in terms of a shepherd’s relationship to his sheep. The translation of vv. 1-4 reflects this level. But, of course, each statement also points to an underlying reality.
866 tn The imperfect verbal form is best understood as generalizing; the psalmist highlights his typical or ongoing experience as a result of having the LORD as his shepherd (habitual present use). The next verse explains more specifically what he means by this statement.
867 tn Heb “he makes me lie down in lush pastures.” The Hiphil verb ????????????? (yarbitseniy) has a causative-modal nuance here (see IBHS 445-46 §27.5 on this use of the Hiphil), meaning “allows me to lie down” (see also Jer 33:12). The point is that the shepherd takes the sheep to lush pastures and lets em eat and rest there. Both imperfect verbal forms in v. 2 are generalizing and highlight the psalmist’s typical experience.
868 tn Both genitives in v. 2 indicate an attribute of the noun they modify: ??????? (deshe’) characterizes the pastures as “lush” (i.e., rich with vegetation), while ???????? (mÿnukhot) probably characterizes the water as refreshing. In this case the plural indicates an abstract quality. Some take ???????? in the sense of “still, calm” (i.e., as describing calm pools in contrast to dangerous torrents) but it is unlikely that such a pastoral scene is in view. Shepherds usually watered their sheep at wells (see Gen 29:2-3; Exod 2:16-19). Another option is to take ???????? as “resting places” and to translate, “water of/at the resting places” (i.e., a genitive of location; see IBHS 147-48 §9.5.2e).
sn Within the framework of the metaphor, the psalmist/sheep is declaring in v. 2 that his shepherd provides the essentials for physical life. At a deeper level the psalmist may be referring to more than just physical provision, though that would certainly be included.
869 tn The appearance of the Hebrew term ???????? (nafshi), traditionally translated “my soul,” might suggest a spiritualized interpretation for the first line of v. 3. However, at the surface level of the shepherd/sheep metaphor, this is unlikely. When it occurs with a pronominal suffix ?????? (nefesh) is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. ?????? 4.a). In this context, where the statement most naturally refers to the physical provision just described, the form is best translated simply “me.” The accompanying verb (a Polel form [factitive use] of ????? [shuv]), if referring to the physical provision just described, carries the nuance “refresh, restore strength.”
870 tn The imperfect verbal forms in v. 3 (????????? [yÿshovev] and ????????? [yakheniy]), like those in vv. 1-2, highlight what is typical of the shepherd/sheep relationship.
871 tn The attributive genitive ????? (tsedeq) is traditionally translated “righteousness” here, as if designating a moral or ethical quality. But this seems unlikely, for it modifies ?????????? (ma’ggÿley, “paths”). Within the shepherd/sheep metaphor, the phrase likely refers to “right” or “correct” paths, i.e. ones that lead to pastures, wells, or the fold. While ????? usually does carry a moral or ethical nuance, it can occasionally refer to less abstract things, such as weights and offerings. In this context, which emphasizes divine provision and protection, the underlying reality is probably God’s providential guidance. The psalmist is confident that God takes him down paths that will ultimately lead to something beneficial, not destructive.
872 tn The Hebrew term ???? (shem, “name”) refers here to the shepherd’s reputation. (The English term “name” is often used the same way.) The statement ??????? ?????? (lÿma’an shÿmo, “for the sake of his name”) makes excellent sense within the framework of the shepherd/sheep metaphor. Shepherds, who sometimes hired out their services, were undoubtedly concerned about their vocational reputation. To maintain their reputation as competent shepherds, they had to know the “lay of the land” and make sure they led the sheep down the right paths to the proper destinations. The underlying reality is a profound theological truth: God must look out for the best interests of the one he has promised to protect, because if he fails to do so, his faithfulness could legitimately be called into question and his reputation damaged.
873 tn The Piel of נָחַם (nakham), when used with a human object, means “comfort, console.” But here, within the metaphorical framework, it refers to the way in which a shepherd uses his implements to assure the sheep of his presence and calm their nerves. The underlying reality is the emotional stability God provides the psalmist during life threatening situations.
tn The Hebrew term ????????? (tsalmavet) has traditionally been understood as a compound noun meaning “shadow of death” (??? [tsel] + ????? [mavet]; see BDB 853 s.v. ?????????). Other scholars prefer to vocalize the form ???????? (tsalmut) and understand it as an abstract noun (from the root ?????, tsalam) meaning “darkness.” An examination of the word’s usage favors the latter derivation. It is frequently associated with darkness/night and contrasted with light/morning (see Job 3:5; 10:21-22; 12:22; 24:17; 28:3; 34:22; Ps 107:10, 14; Isa 9:1; Jer 13:16; Amos 5:8). In some cases the darkness described is associated with the realm of death (Job 10:21-22; 38:17), but this is a metaphorical application of the word and does not reflect its inherent meaning. If the word does indeed mean “darkness,” it modifies ????? (gay’, “valley, ravine”) quite naturally. At the metaphorical level, v. 4 pictures the shepherd taking his sheep through a dark ravine where predators might lurk. The life-threatening situations faced by the psalmist are the underlying reality behind the imagery.
874 tn The imperfect verbal forms in v. 4, as in vv. 1-3, highlight what is typical in the psalmist’s experience.
875 tn The Hebrew term ??? (ra’) is traditionally translated “evil” here, perhaps suggesting a moral or ethical nuance. But at the level of the metaphor, the word means “danger, injury, harm,” as a sheep might experience from a predator. The life-threatening dangers faced by the psalmist, especially the enemies mentioned in v. 5, are the underlying reality.
876 tn The Piel of ????? (nakham), when used with a human object, means “comfort, console.” But here, within the metaphorical framework, it refers to the way in which a shepherd uses his implements to assure the sheep of his presence and calm their nerves. The underlying reality is the emotional stability God provides the psalmist during life threatening situations.
877 sn In v. 5 the metaphor switches. (It would be very odd for a sheep to have its head anointed and be served wine.) The background for the imagery is probably the royal banquet. Ancient Near Eastern texts describe such banquets in similar terms to those employed by the psalmist. (See M. L. Barre and J. S. Kselman, “New Exodus, Covenant, and Restoration in Psalm 23,” The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth, 97-127.) The reality behind the imagery is the Lord’s favor. Through his blessings and protection he demonstrates to everyone, including dangerous enemies, that the psalmist has a special relationship with him.
878 tn The imperfect verbal form in v. 5a carries on the generalizing mood of vv. 1-4. However, in v. 5b the psalmist switches to a perfect (דִּשַּׁנְתָּ, dishanta), which may have a generalizing force as well. But then again the perfect is conspicuous here and may be present perfect in sense, indicating that the divine host typically pours oil on his head prior to seating him at the banquet table. The verb דָשַׁן (dashan; the Piel is factitive) is often translated “anoint,” but this is misleading, for it might suggest a symbolic act of initiation into royal status. One would expect the verb מָשָׁח (mashan) in this case; דָשַׁן here describes an act of hospitality extended to guests and carries the nuance “refresh.” In Prov 15:30 it stands parallel to “make happy” and refers to the effect that good news has on the inner being of its recipient.
879 tn The rare noun רְַָויָה (rÿvayah) is derived from the well-attested verb רָוָה (ravah, “be saturated, drink one’s fill”). In this context, where it describes a cup, it must mean “filled up,” but not necessarily to overflowing.
880 tn The noun חֶסֶד (khesed; v. 6) has been the subject of several monographs. G. R. Clark concludes that חֶסֶד “is not merely an attitude or an emotion; it is an emotion that leads to an activity beneficial to the recipient.” He explains that an act of חֶסֶד is “a beneficent action performed, in the context of a deep and enduring commitment between two persons or parties, by one who is able to render assistance to the needy party who in the circumstances is unable to help him- or herself.” (See G. R. Clark, The Word Hesed in the Hebrew Bible [JSOTSup], 267.) HALOT 336-37 s.v. defines the word as “loyalty,” or “faithfulness.” Other appropriate meanings might be “commitment” and “devotion.”
881 tn The use of רָדַף (radaf, “pursue, chase”) with טוֹב וָחֶסֶד (tov vakhesed, “goodness and faithfulness”) as subject is ironic. This is the only place in the entire OT where either of these nouns appears as the subject of this verb רָדַף (radaf, “pursue”). This verb is often used to describe the hostile actions of enemies. One might expect the psalmist’s enemies (see v. 5) to chase him, but ironically God’s “goodness and faithfulness” (which are personified and stand by metonymy for God himself) pursue him instead. The word “pursue” is used outside of its normal context in an ironic manner and creates a unique, but pleasant word picture of God’s favor (or a kind God) “chasing down” the one whom he loves.
882 tn Heb “all the days of my life.”
883 tn The verb form וְשַׁבְתִּי (vÿshavtiy) is a Qal perfect (with vav [ו] consecutive), first common singular, from שׁוּב (shuv, “return”) and should be translated, “and I will return.” But this makes no sense when construed with the following phrase, “in the house of the
884 tn Heb “the house of the
885 tn The phrase אֹרֶךְ יָמִים (’orekh yamim, “length of days”) is traditionally translated “forever.” However, this phrase, when used elsewhere of people, usually refers to a lengthy period of time, such as one’s lifetime, and does not mean “forever” in the sense of eternity. (Cf. Deut 30:20; Job 12:12; Ps 91:16; Prov 3:2, 16; Lam 5:20.) Furthermore, the parallel phrase “all the days of my life” suggests this more limited meaning. Psalm 21:4, where the phrase is followed by “forever and ever,” may be an exception, though the juxtaposition of the phrases may be an example of intensification, where the second phrase goes beyond the limits of the first, rather than synonymity. Even if one takes both expressions as referring to eternal life, the language is part of the king’s hyperbolic description of the
886 sn Psalm 24. The psalmist affirms the universal kingship of the sovereign creator, reminds his people that only the morally pure are qualified to worship him, and celebrates his splendor as a mighty warrior king.
887 tn The prefixed verbal form is understood as a preterite, referring to the creation of the world.
888 sn He…established it upon the ocean currents. The description reflects ancient Israelite prescientific cosmology, which is based on outward appearances. The language also suggests that God’s creative work involved the subjugation of chaos, symbolized by the sea.
891 tn Heb “the innocent of hands and the pure of heart.” The “hands” allude to one’s actions, the “heart” to one’s thought life and motives.
892 tn Heb “who does not lift up for emptiness my life.” The first person pronoun on נַפְשִׁי (nafshiy, “my life”) makes little sense here; many medieval Hebrew
893 tn Heb “and does not swear an oath deceitfully.”
894 tn Heb “he (the righteous individual described in v. 4) lifts up a blessing from the
895 tn “and vindication from the God of his deliverance.”
sn This verse presents a somewhat idealized view of Jacob’s descendants as devoted worshipers of the Lord.
897 tn Heb “lift up your heads.” The gates of the Lord’s dwelling place are here personified. The idiom “lift up the head” often means “be confident, bold” (see Judg 8:28; Job 10:15; Ps 83:2; Zech 1:21).
898 tn Heb “lift yourselves up.”
899 tn Or “king of glory.”
900 tn Following the imperatives of the preceding lines, the prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
902 tn Traditionally, “the
903 sn Psalm 25. The psalmist asks for divine protection, guidance and forgiveness as he affirms his loyalty to and trust in the Lord. This psalm is an acrostic; every verse begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet, except for v. 18, which, like v. 19, begins with ר (resh) instead of the expected ק (qof). The final verse, which begins with פ (pe), stands outside the acrostic scheme.
905 tn Heb “those who deal in treachery in vain.” The adverb רֵיקָם (reqam, “in vain”) probably refers to the failure (or futility) of their efforts. Another option is to understand it as meaning “without cause” (cf. NIV “without excuse”; NRSV “wantonly treacherous”).
907 sn The
908 tn That is, “remember” with the intention of repeating.
909 tn Heb “for from antiquity [are] they.”
910 tn Heb “do not remember,” with the intention of punishing.
911 sn That is, the sins characteristic of youths, who lack moral discretion and wisdom.
912 tn Heb “according to your faithfulness, remember me, you, for the sake of your goodness, O
913 tn Heb “good and just.”
914 tn Heb “teaches sinners in the way.”
915 tn The prefixed verbal form is jussive; the psalmist expresses his prayer.
916 tn Heb “may he guide the humble into justice.” The Hebrew term עֲנָוִים (’anavim, “humble”) usually refers to the oppressed, but in this context, where the psalmist confesses his sin and asks for moral guidance, it apparently refers to sinners who humble themselves before God and seek deliverance from their sinful condition.
917 tn The prefixed verbal form is interpreted as a jussive (it stands parallel to the jussive form, “may he guide”).
918 tn Heb “all the paths of the
919 tn Heb “to the ones who keep his covenant and his testimonies.”
920 tn Heb “name.” By forgiving the sinful psalmist, the
921 sn Forgive my sin, because it is great. The psalmist readily admits his desperate need for forgiveness.
922 tn Heb “Who is this man, the one who fears the
924 tn Or “offspring”; Heb “seed.”
925 tn Or “earth.”
926 tn Heb “the advice of the
927 tn Heb “and his covenant, to make them know.”
928 tn Heb “my eyes continually [are] toward the
930 tn That is, helpless and vulnerable.
931 tc Heb “the distresses of my heart, they make wide.” The text makes little if any sense as it stands, unless this is an otherwise unattested intransitive use of the Hiphil of רָחַב (rakhav, “be wide”). It is preferable to emend the form הִרְחִיבוּ (hirkhivu; Hiphil perfect third plural “they make wide”) to הַרְחֵיב (harkhev; Hiphil imperative masculine singular “make wide”). (The final vav [ו] can be joined to the following word and taken as a conjunction.) In this case one can translate, “[in/from] the distresses of my heart, make wide [a place for me],” that is, “deliver me from the distress I am experiencing.” For the expression “make wide [a place for me],” see Ps 4:1.
932 tn Heb “from my distresses lead me out.”
933 tn Heb “lift up all my sins.”
934 tn Heb “see my enemies for they are numerous, and [with] violent hatred they hate me.”
935 tn Or “my life.”
936 tn Or “redeem.”
937 tn Heb “his distresses.”
sn O God, rescue Israel from all their distress. It is possible that the psalmist speaks on behalf of the nation throughout this entire psalm. Another option is that v. 22 is a later addition to the psalm which applies an original individual lament to the covenant community. If so, it may reflect an exilic setting.
939 tn Heb “for I in my integrity walk.”
940 tn Heb “evaluate my kidneys and my heart.” The kidneys and heart were viewed as the seat of one’s volition, conscience, and moral character.
941 tn Heb “for your faithfulness [is] before my eyes.”
942 tn Heb “and I walk about in your loyalty.”
sn The psalmist’s awareness of the Lord’s faithfulness and…loyalty toward him motivates him to remain loyal to the Lord and to maintain his moral purity.
943 tn Heb “sit.”
944 tn Heb “go.” The psalmist uses the imperfect form of the verb to emphasize that he does not make a practice of associating with such people.
945 tn Heb “[those who] conceal themselves.”
946 tn Heb “assembly, company.”
947 tn Heb “sit.” The psalmist uses the imperfect form of the verb to emphasize that he does not make a practice of associating with such people.
948 tn Heb “I wash my hands in innocence.” The psalmist uses an image from cultic ritual to picture his moral lifestyle. The imperfect verbal emphasizes that this is his habit.
949 tn Heb “so I can go around your altar” (probably in ritual procession). Following the imperfect of the preceding line, the cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose or result.
950 tn Heb “to cause to be heard the sound of thanksgiving.”
951 tn The two infinitival forms (both with prefixed preposition -לְ, lamed) give the purpose for his appearance at the altar.
952 tn Heb “the dwelling of your house.”
953 tn Heb “the place of the abode of your splendor.”
954 tn Heb “do not gather up my life with.”
955 tn Heb “or with men of bloodshed my life.” The verb is supplied; it is understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).
956 tn Heb “who [have] in their hands evil.”
957 tn Heb “and their right hand is full of a bribe.”
958 tn Heb “and I in my integrity walk.” The psalmist uses the imperfect verbal form to emphasize this is his practice. The construction at the beginning of the verse (conjunction + pronoun) highlights the contrast between the psalmist and the sinners mentioned in vv. 9-10.
959 tn Or “redeem me.”
960 tn Heb “my foot stands in a level place.”
962 tn Heb “the
963 tn Heb “Whom shall I fear?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “No one!”
964 tn Heb “Of whom shall I be afraid?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “No one!”
965 tn Heb “draw near to me.”
967 tn Heb “my adversaries and my enemies against me.” The verb “draw near” (that is, “attack”) is understood by ellipsis; see the previous line.
968 tn The Hebrew verbal forms are perfects. The translation assumes the psalmist is generalizing here, but another option is to take this as a report of past experience, “when evil men attacked me…they stumbled and fell.”
969 tn Heb “my heart does not fear.”
970 tn Heb “if war rises up against me.”
971 tn Heb “in this [i.e., “during this situation”] I am trusting.”
972 tn Heb “my living.”
974 tn Or “beauty.”
975 tn Or “for he will.” The translation assumes the כִּי (ki) is asseverative here, rather than causal.
976 tn Heb “he will hide me in his hut.”
977 tn Or “trouble.”
978 tn Heb “tent.”
981 tn Heb “and now my head will be lifted up over my enemies all around me.”
982 tn Heb “I will sacrifice in his tent sacrifices of a shout for joy” (that is, “sacrifices accompanied by a joyful shout”).
983 tn Heb “my voice.”
984 tc Heb “concerning you my heart says, ‘Seek my face.’” The verb form “seek” is plural, but this makes no sense here, for the psalmist is addressed. The verb should be emended to a singular form. The first person pronominal suffix on “face” also makes little sense, unless it is the voice of the
987 tn Or “[source of] help.”
988 tn Or “though my father and mother have abandoned me.”
989 tn Heb “gather me in”; or “receive me.”
993 tn Heb “do not give me over to the desire of my enemies.”
994 tn Heb “for they have risen up against me, lying witnesses and a testifier of violence.” The form יָפֵחַ (yafeakh) is traditionally understood as a verb meaning “snort, breathe out”: “for false witnesses are risen up against me, and such as breathe out cruelty” (KJV; cf. BDB 422 s.v.). A better option is to take the form as a noun meaning “a witness” (or “testifier”). See Prov 6:19; 12:17; 14:5, 25; 19:5, 9, and Hab 2:3.
995 tn In the Hebrew text the sentence is incomplete: “If I had not believed [I would] see the goodness of the
996 tn Or “wait.”
997 tn Heb “be strong and let your heart be confident.”
1000 tn Heb “do not be deaf from me.”
1001 tn Heb “lest [if] you are silent from me.”
1002 tn Heb “I will be equal with.”
1003 tn Heb “the pit.” The noun בּוֹר (bor, “pit, cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead.
1004 sn I lift my hands. Lifting one’s hands toward God was a gesture of prayer.
1005 tn The Hebrew term דְּבִיר (dÿvir, “temple”) actually refers to the most holy place within the sanctuary.
1006 tn Heb “workers of wickedness.”
1007 tn Heb “speakers of peace with their neighbors.”
1008 tn Heb “and evil [is] in their heart[s].”
1009 tn Heb “Give to them according to their work, and according to the evil of their deeds. According to the work of their hands give to them. Return their due to them.” The highly repetitive style reflects the psalmist’s agitated emotional state and draws attention to his yearning for justice.
1010 tn Heb “or the work of his hands.” In this context “the
1011 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the
1012 tn Heb “will tear them down and not rebuild them.” The ungodly are compared to a structure that is permanently demolished.
1013 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
1014 sn He has heard my plea for mercy. The psalmist’s mood abruptly changes at this point, because the Lord responded positively to his petition and assured him that he would deliver him.
1015 tn Heb “The
1016 tn Heb “in him my heart trusts.”
1017 tn Or “I am helped.”
1018 tn Heb “and my heart exults.”
1019 tn Heb “and from my song I will thank him.” As pointed in the Hebrew text, מִשִּׁירִי (mishiri) appears to be “from my song,” but the preposition “from” never occurs elsewhere with the verb “to thank” (Hiphil of יָדָה, yadah). Perhaps משׁיר is a noun form meaning “song.” If so, it can be taken as an adverbial accusative, “and [with] my song I will thank him.” See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 236.
1020 tn Heb “the
1021 tn Heb “he [is] a refuge of help for his anointed one.” The noun מָשִׁיחַ (mashiakh, “anointed one”) refers to the Davidic king, who perhaps speaks as representative of the nation in this psalm. See Pss 2:2; 18:50; 20:6; 84:9; 89:38, 51; 132:10, 17.
1022 tn Or “bless.”
1023 tn Heb “your inheritance.” The parallelism (note “your people”) indicates that Israel is in view.
1024 tn Heb “shepherd them and lift them up.”
1025 tn Or “forever.”
1026 sn Psalm 29. In this hymn of praise the psalmist calls upon the heavenly assembly to acknowledge the royal splendor of the Lord. He describes the Lord’s devastating power as revealed in the thunderstorm and affirms that the Lord exerts this awesome might on behalf of his people. In its original context the psalm was a bold polemic against the Canaanite storm god Baal, for it affirms that the Lord is the real king who controls the elements of the storm, contrary to pagan belief. See R. B. Chisholm, Jr., “The Polemic against Baalism in Israel’s Early History and Literature,” BSac 150 (1994): 280-82.
1027 tc Heb “sons of gods,” or “sons of God.” Though אֵלִים (’elim) is vocalized as a plural form (“gods”) in the MT, it is likely that the final mem is actually enclitic, rather than a plural marker. In this case one may read “God.” Some, following a Qumran text and the LXX, also propose the phrase occurred in the original text of Deut 32:8.
tn The phrase בְּנֵי אֵלִים (bÿney ’elim, “sons of gods” or “sons of God”) occurs only here and in Ps 89:6 (89:7 HT). In Ps 89 the “sons of gods/God” are also called “the assembly of the holy ones” and “council of the holy ones.” The heavenly assembly, comprised of so-called “angels” and other supernatural beings, appears to be in view. See Job 5:1; 15:15 and Zech 14:5, where these supernatural beings are referred to as “holy ones.” In Canaanite mythological texts the divine council of the high god El is referred to as “the sons of El.” The OT apparently borrows the Canaanite phrase and applies it to the supernatural beings that surround the heavenly throne.
1028 tn Or “ascribe to the
1029 tn Heb “ascribe to the
1030 tn That is, properly dressed for the occasion.
1031 tn Heb “the voice of the
1032 tn The Hebrew perfect verbal form is probably descriptive. In dramatic fashion the psalmist portrays the
1033 tn Traditionally “many waters.” The geographical references in the psalm (Lebanon, Sirion, Kadesh) suggest this is a reference to the Mediterranean Sea (see Ezek 26:19; 27:26). The psalmist describes a powerful storm moving in from the sea and sweeping over the mountainous areas north of Israel. The “surging waters” may symbolize the hostile enemies of God who seek to destroy his people (see Pss 18:17; 32:6; 77:20; 93:4; 144:7; Isa 17:13; Jer 51:55; Ezek 26:19; Hab 3:15). In this case the
1034 tn Heb “the voice of the
1035 tn Heb “the voice of the
1036 tn The Hebrew participial form draws attention to the durative nature of the action being described.
1037 tn The prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) consecutive here and in v. 6a carry on the descriptive function of the preceding participle (see GKC 329 §111.u). The verb שָׁבַר (shavar) appears in the Qal in the first line of the verse, and in the Piel in the second line. The verb, which means “break” in the Qal, appears thirty-six times in the Piel, always with multiple objects (the object is either a collective singular or grammatically plural or dual form). The Piel may highlight the repetition of the pluralative action, or it may suggest an intensification of action, indicating repeated action comprising a whole, perhaps with the nuance “break again and again, break in pieces.” Another option is to understand the form as resultative: “make broken” (see IBHS 404-7 §24.3).
1040 sn Lebanon and Sirion are compared to frisky young animals (a calf…a young ox) who skip and jump. The thunderous shout of the Lord is so powerful, one can see the very mountains shake on the horizon.
1041 tn The verb normally means “to hew [stone or wood],” or “to hew out.” In Hos 6:5 it seems to mean “cut in pieces,” “knock down,” or perhaps “hack” (see F. I. Andersen and D. N. Freedman, Hosea [AB], 428). The Ugaritic cognate can mean “assault.” In v. 7 the verb seems to have a similar meaning, perhaps “attack, strike.” The phrase “flames of fire” is an adverbial accusative; the
1042 sn The
1043 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal forms are descriptive in function; the psalmist depicts the action as underway.
1044 sn Kadesh. The references to Lebanon and Sirion in v. 6 suggest this is a reference to the northern Kadesh, located north of Damascus, not the southern Kadesh mentioned so often in the OT. See M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:178.
1045 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form is descriptive in function; the psalmist depicts the action as underway.
1046 tc Heb “the deer.” Preserving this reading, some translate the preceding verb, “causes [the deer] to give premature birth” (cf. NEB, NASB). But the Polel of חוּל/חִיל (khul/khil) means “give birth,” not “cause to give birth,” and the statement “the
1047 tn The verb is used in Joel 1:7 of locusts stripping the leaves from a tree. The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the descriptive function of the preceding imperfect. See GKC 329 §111.t.
1048 tn The usual form of the plural of יַעַר (ya’ar, “forest”) is יְעָרִים (yÿ’arim). For this reason some propose an emendation to יְעָלוֹת (yÿ’alot, “female mountain goats”) which would fit nicely in the parallelism with “deer” (cf. NEB “brings kids early to birth”). In this case one would have to understand the verb חָשַׂף (khasaf) to mean “cause premature birth,” an otherwise unattested homonym of the more common חָשַׂף (“strip bare”).
sn The Lord’s thunderous shout is accompanied by high winds which damage the trees of the forest.
1049 tn Heb “In his temple, all of it says, ‘Glory.’”
1050 tn The noun מַּבּוּל (mabbul, “flood”) appears only here and in Gen 6-11, where it refers to the Noahic flood. Some see a reference to that event here. The presence of the article (perhaps indicating uniqueness) and the switch to the perfect verbal form (which could be taken as describing a past situation) might support this. However, the immediate context indicates that the referent of מַּבּוּל is the “surging waters” mentioned in v. 3. The article indicates waters that are definite in the mind of the speaker and the perfect is probably descriptive in function, like “thunders” in v. 3. However, even though the historical flood is not the primary referent here, there may be a literary allusion involved. The psalmist views the threatening chaotic sea as a contemporary manifestation of the destructive waters of old.
1051 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the descriptive function of the preceding perfect.
1054 tn Heb “blesses his people with peace.” The Hebrew term שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) probably refers here to the protection and prosperity experienced by God’s people after the
1055 sn Psalm 30. The author thanks the Lord for delivering him from death and urges others to join him in praise. The psalmist experienced divine discipline for a brief time, but when he cried out for help the Lord intervened and restored his favor.
1056 tn Heb “a song of the dedication of the house.” The referent of “house” is unclear. It is possible that David wrote this psalm for the dedication ceremony of Solomon’s temple. Another possibility is that the psalm was used on the occasion of the dedication of the second temple following the return from exile, or on the occasion of the rededication of the temple in Maccabean times.
1057 tn Elsewhere the verb דָּלָה (dalah) is used of drawing water from a well (Exod 2:16, 19; Prov 20:5). The psalmist was trapped in the pit leading to Sheol (see v. 3), but the
1058 tn Or “rejoice.”
1060 tn Or “my life.”
1061 tn Heb “you kept me alive from those descending into the pit.” The Hebrew noun בוֹר (bor, “pit, cistern”) is sometimes used of the grave and/or the realm of the dead. The translation follows the consonantal Hebrew text (Kethib); the marginal reading (Qere) has, “you kept me alive so that I did not go down into the pit.”
1063 tn Heb “to his holy remembrance.” The noun זֵכֵר (zekher, “remembrance”) here refers to the name of the
1064 tn Heb “for [there is] a moment in his anger, [but] life in his favor.” Because of the parallelism with “moment,” some understand חַיִּים (khayyim) in a quantitative sense: “lifetime” (cf. NIV, NRSV). However, the immediate context, which emphasizes deliverance from death (see v. 3), suggests that חַיִּים has a qualitative sense: “physical life” or even “prosperous life” (cf. NEB “in his favour there is life”).
1065 tn Heb “in the evening weeping comes to lodge, but at morning a shout of joy.” “Weeping” is personified here as a traveler who lodges with one temporarily.
1066 sn In my self-confidence I said… Here the psalmist begins to fill in the background of the crisis referred to in the earlier verses. He had been arrogant and self-confident, so the Lord withdrew his protection and allowed trouble to invade his life (vv. 8-11).
1067 tn Heb “in your good favor you caused to stand for my mountain strength.” Apparently this means “you established strength for my mountain” (“mountain” in this case representing his rule, which would be centered on Mt. Zion) or “you established strength as my mountain” (“mountain” in this case being a metaphor for security).
1071 tn Heb “What profit [is there] in my blood?” “Blood” here represents his life.
1073 tn Heb “dust.” The words “of the grave” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
1074 tn The rhetorical questions anticipate the answer, “Of course not!”
sn According to the OT, those who descend into the realm of death/Sheol are cut off from God’s mighty deeds and from the worshiping covenant community that experiences divine intervention (Pss 6:5; 88:10-12; Isa 38:18). In his effort to elicit a positive divine response, the psalmist reminds God that he will receive no praise or glory if he allows the psalmist to die. Dead men do not praise God!
1075 tn Heb “be a helper to me.”
1076 sn Covered me with joy. “Joy” probably stands metonymically for festive attire here.
1077 tn Heb “so that”; or “in order that.”
1078 tn Heb “glory.” Some view כָבוֹד (khavod, “glory”) here as a metonymy for man’s inner being (see BDB 459 s.v. II כָּבוֹד 5), but it is preferable to emend the form to כְּבֵדִי (kÿvediy, “my liver”). Like the heart, the liver is viewed as the seat of one’s emotions. See also Pss 16:9; 57:9; 108:1, as well as H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament, 64, and M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:90. For an Ugaritic example of the heart/liver as the source of joy, see G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 47-48: “her [Anat’s] liver swelled with laughter, her heart was filled with joy, the liver of Anat with triumph.” “Heart” is used in the translation above for the sake of English idiom; the expression “my liver sings” would seem odd indeed to the modern reader.
1079 tn Or “forever.”
1080 sn Psalm 31. The psalmist confidently asks the Lord to protect him. Enemies threaten him and even his friends have abandoned him, but he looks to the Lord for vindication. In vv. 19-24, which were apparently written after the Lord answered the prayer of vv. 1-18, the psalmist thanks the Lord for delivering him.
1081 tn Heb “in your vindication rescue me.”
1082 tn Heb “turn toward me your ear.”
1083 tn Heb “become for me a rocky summit of refuge.”
1084 tn Heb “a house of strongholds to deliver me.”
1086 tn Heb “name.” The Hebrew term שֵׁם (shem, “name”) refers here to the
1087 tn The present translation assumes that the imperfect verbal forms are generalizing, “you lead me and guide me.” Other options are to take them as an expression of confidence about the future, “you will lead me and guide me” (cf. NASB), or as expressing a prayer, “lead me and guide me” (cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV).
1088 tn Heb “bring me out.” The translation assumes that the imperfect verbal form expresses the psalmist’s confidence about the future. Another option is to take the form as expressing a prayer, “free me.”
1089 tn Heb “my spirit.” The noun רוּחַ (ruakh, “spirit”) here refers to the animating spirit that gives the psalmist life.
1090 tn Or “redeem.” The perfect verbal form is understood here as anticipatory, indicating rhetorically the psalmist’s certitude and confidence that God will intervene. The psalmist is so confident of God’s positive response to his prayer that he can describe his deliverance as if it had already happened. Another option is to take the perfect as precative, expressing a wish or request (“rescue me”; cf. NIV). See IBHS 494-95 §30.5.4c, d. However, not all grammarians are convinced that the perfect is used as a precative in biblical Hebrew.
1092 tn Heb “you know the distresses of my life.”
1093 tn Heb “you cause my feet to stand.”
1094 tn Or perhaps, “are swollen.”
1096 tn Heb “my breath and my stomach [grow weak].” Apparently the verb in the previous line (“grow dim, be weakened”) is to be understood here. The Hebrew term נפשׁ can mean “life,” or, more specifically, “throat, breath.” The psalmist seems to be lamenting that his breathing is impaired because of the physical and emotional suffering he is forced to endure.
1097 tn Heb “and my years in groaning.”
1098 tn Heb “stumbles in.”
1099 tn Heb “grow weak.”
1100 tn Heb “because of all my enemies I am a reproach.”
1101 tc Heb “and to my neighbors, exceedingly.” If the MT is retained, then these words probably go with what precedes. However the syntactical awkwardness of the text suggests it is textually corrupt. P. C. Craigie (Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 258) suggests that the initial mem (מ) on מְאֹד (me’od, “exceedingly”) be understood as an enclitic mem (ם) which was originally suffixed to the preceding form and then later misinterpreted. The resulting form אֵד (’ed) can then be taken as a defectively written form of אֵיד (’ed, “calamity”). If one follows this emendation, then the text reads literally, “and to my neighbors [I am one who experiences] calamity.” The noun פַחַד (fakhad, “[object of] horror”) occurs in the next line; אֵיד and פַחַד appear in parallelism elsewhere (see Prov 1:26-27).
1102 tn Heb “and [an object of ] horror to those known by me.”
1103 tn Heb “I am forgotten, like a dead man, from [the] heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the center of one’s thoughts.
1104 tn Heb “I am like a broken jar.” One throws away a broken jar without a second thought because it is considered worthless and useless.
1105 tn Heb “the report of many.”
1106 tn Heb “the terror from all around.”
1107 tn Heb “in your hand [are] my times.”
1108 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”
1109 tn The verb יִדְּמוּ (yiddÿmu) is understood as a form of דָּמַם (damam, “wail, lament”). Another option is to take the verb from דָּמַם (“be quiet”; see BDB 198-99 s.v. I דָּמַם), in which case one might translate, “May they lie silent in the grave.”
1110 tn Heb “the [ones which].”
1111 tn Or “godly.”
1112 tn Or “How abundant are your blessings!”
1113 tn Heb “for those who fear you.”
1114 tn “Taking shelter” in the
1115 tn Heb “you work [your favor] for the ones seeking shelter in you before the sons of men.”
1116 tn The noun רֹכֶס (rokhes) occurs only here. Its meaning is debated; some suggest “snare,” while others propose “slander” or “conspiracy.”
1117 tn Heb “you hide them in the hiding place of your face from the attacks of man.” The imperfect verbal forms in this verse draw attention to God’s typical treatment of the faithful.
1118 tn Heb “you conceal them in a shelter from the strife of tongues.”
1119 tn Heb “blessed [be] the
1120 tn Heb “for he caused his faithfulness to be amazing to me in a besieged city.” The psalmist probably speaks figuratively here. He compares his crisis to being trapped in a besieged city, but the
1121 tn Heb “and I, I said in my haste.”
1122 tn Heb “from before your eyes.”
1124 tn The participial forms in the second and third lines characterize the Lord as one who typically protects the faithful and judges the proud.
1125 tn Heb “be strong and let your heart[s] be confident.”
1126 sn Psalm 32. The psalmist recalls the agony he experienced prior to confessing his sins and affirms that true happiness comes when one’s sins are forgiven. He then urges others not to be stubborn, but to turn to God while forgiveness is available, for God extends his mercy to the repentant, while the wicked experience nothing but sorrow.
1127 tn The meaning of the Hebrew term מַשְׂכִּיל (maskil) is uncertain. The word is derived from a verb meaning “to be prudent; to be wise.” Various options are: “a contemplative song,” “a song imparting moral wisdom,” or “a skillful [i.e., well-written] song.” The term occurs in the superscriptions of Pss 32, 42, 44, 45, 52-55, 74, 78, 88, 89, and 142, as well as in Ps 47:7.
1128 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15). Here it refers to the relief that one experiences when one’s sins are forgiven.
1129 tn Heb “lifted up.”
1130 tn Heb “covered over.”
1131 tn Heb “man.” The word choice reflects the perspective of the psalmist, who is male. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender and age specific “man” has been translated with the more neutral “one.”
1132 tn Heb “blessed [is] the man to whom the
1133 sn In whose spirit there is no deceit. The point is not that the individual is sinless and pure. In this context, which focuses on confession and forgiveness of sin, the psalmist refers to one who refuses to deny or hide his sin, but instead honestly confesses it to God.
1134 tn Heb “when I was silent.”
1135 tn Heb “my bones became brittle.” The psalmist pictures himself as aging and growing physically weak. Trying to cover up his sin brought severe physical consequences.
1136 tn Heb “your hand was heavy upon me.”
1137 tc Heb “my [?] was turned.” The meaning of the Hebrew term לְשַׁד (lÿshad) is uncertain. A noun לָשָׁד (lashad, “cake”) is attested in Num 11:8, but it would make no sense to understand that word in this context. It is better to emend the form to לְשֻׁדִּי (lÿshuddiy, “to my destruction”) and understand “your hand” as the subject of the verb “was turned.” In this case the text reads, “[your hand] was turned to my destruction.” In Lam 3:3 the author laments that God’s “hand” was “turned” (הָפַךְ, hafakh) against him in a hostile sense.
sn You tried to destroy me. The psalmist’s statement reflects his perspective. As far as he was concerned, it seemed as if the Lord was trying to kill him.
1138 tn The translation assumes that the plural form indicates degree. If one understands the form as a true plural, then one might translate, “in the times of drought.”
1139 sn Summer. Perhaps the psalmist suffered during the hot season and perceived the very weather as being an instrument of divine judgment. Another option is that he compares his time of suffering to the uncomfortable and oppressive heat of summer.
1141 tn Heb “the wrongdoing of my sin.” By joining synonyms for “sin” in this way, the psalmist may be emphasizing the degree of his wrongdoing.
1143 tn Heb “at a time of finding.” This may mean, “while there is time to ‘find’ [the
1144 tn The Hebrew term רַק (raq) occasionally has an asseverative force.
1145 sn The surging water is here a metaphor for trouble that endangers one’s life.
1147 tn Heb “[with] shouts of joy of deliverance you surround me.”
1148 tn The second person pronominal forms in this verse are singular. The psalmist addresses each member of his audience individually (see also the note on the word “eye” in the next line). A less likely option (but one which is commonly understood) is that the
1149 tn Heb “I will instruct you and I will teach you in the way [in] which you should walk.”
1150 tn Heb “I will advise, upon you my eye,” that is, “I will offer advice [with] my eye upon you.” In 2 Chr 20:12 the statement “our eye is upon you” means that the speakers are looking to the
1151 tn The verb form is plural (i.e., “do not all of you be”); the psalmist addresses the whole group.
1152 tn Heb “like a horse, like a mule without understanding.”
1153 tn Heb “with a bridle and bit, its [?] to hold, not to come near to you.” The meaning of the Hebrew noun עֲדִי (’adiy) is uncertain. Normally the word refers to “jewelry,” so some suggest the meaning “trappings” here (cf. NASB). Some emend the form to לְחֵיהֶם (lÿkhehem, “their jawbones”) but it is difficult to see how the present Hebrew text, even if corrupt, could have derived from this proposed original reading. P. C. Craigie (Psalms 1-50 [WBC], 265) takes the form from an Arabic root and translates “whose gallop.” Cf. also NRSV “whose temper must be curbed.”
1154 tn Heb “many [are the] pains of evil [one].” The singular form is representative here; the typical evildoer, representative of the larger group of wicked people, is in view.
1155 tn Heb “but the one who trusts in the
1156 tn Heb “all [you] pure of heart.” The “heart” is here viewed as the seat of one’s moral character and motives. The “pure of heart” are God’s faithful followers who trust in and love the
1158 sn A new song is appropriate because the Lord is constantly intervening in the lives of his people in fresh and exciting ways.
1159 tn Heb “play skillfully with a loud shout.”
1161 tn Heb “word.” In this context, which depicts the
1162 tn Or “upright.”
1163 tn Heb “and all his work [is] in faithfulness.”
1164 tn Heb “loves.” The verb “loves” is here metonymic; the
1165 tn Heb “fills the earth.”
1166 tn Heb “word.”
1167 tn Heb “and by the breath of his mouth all their host.” The words “were created” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons; they are understood by ellipsis (note “were made” in the preceding line). The description is consistent with Gen 1:16, which indicates that God spoke the heavenly luminaries into existence.
1168 tn Heb “[he] gathers like a pile the waters of the sea.” Some prefer to emend נֵד (ged, “heap, pile”; cf. NASB) to נֹד (nod, “bottle”; cf. NRSV; NIV “into jars”), but “pile” is used elsewhere to describe water that the
1170 tn In this context “fear” probably means “to demonstrate respect for the
1171 tn That is, “all the earth” in the first line of v. 8. The apparent antecedent of the masculine subject of the verbs in v. 9 (note וַיֶּהִי [vayyehiy] and וַיַּעֲמֹד [vayya’amod]) is “earth” or “world,” both of which are feminine nouns. However, כָּל (kol, “all”) may be the antecedent, or the apparent lack of agreement may be explained by the collective nature of the nouns involved here (see GKC 463 §145.e).
1172 tn Heb “he commanded.”
1173 tn Heb “breaks” or “destroys.” The Hebrew perfect verbal forms here and in the next line generalize about the
1174 tn Heb “thoughts.”
1175 tn Heb “the thoughts of his heart for generation to generation.” The verb “abides” is supplied in the translation. The
1176 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1; 2:12; 34:9; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
1177 tn Heb “inheritance.”
1179 tn Heb “all the sons of men.”
1180 tn Heb “the one who forms together their heart[s].” “Heart” here refers to human nature, composed of intellect, emotions and will. The precise force of יָחַד (yakhad, “together”) is unclear here. The point seems to be that the
1181 tn Heb “a lie [is] the horse for victory.”
1182 tn Heb “look, the eye of the
1183 tn Heb “for the ones who wait for his faithfulness.”
1184 tn Heb “to save from death their live[s].”
1185 tn Heb “and to keep them alive in famine.”
1186 tn Or “our lives.” The suffixed form of נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being, life”) is often equivalent to a pronoun in poetic texts.
1187 tn Or “[source of] help.”
1188 tn Or “protector.”
1189 tn Heb “let your faithfulness, O
1190 tn Or “just as.”
1191 sn Psalm 34. In this song of thanksgiving the psalmist praises God for delivering him from distress. He encourages others to be loyal to the Lord, tells them how to please God, and assures them that the Lord protects his servants. The psalm is an acrostic; vv. 1-21 begin with successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet. (Verse 6 begins with the letter he (ה) and v. 7 with the letter zayin (ז). The letter vav (ו), which comes between ה and ז, seems to be omitted, although it does appear at the beginning of v. 6b. The final verse of the psalm, which begins with the letter pe (פ), is outside the acrostic scheme.
1192 tn Heb “By David, when he changed his sense before Abimelech and he drove him away and he went.”
sn Pretended to be insane. The psalm heading appears to refer to the account in 1 Sam 21:10-15 which tells how David, fearful that King Achish of Gath might kill him, pretended to be insane in hopes that the king would simply send him away. The psalm heading names the king Abimelech, not Achish, suggesting that the tradition is confused on this point. However, perhaps “Abimelech” was a royal title, rather than a proper name. See P. C. Craigie, Psalms 1-50 (WBC), 278.
1193 tn Heb “bless.”
1194 tn Heb “continually [will] his praise [be] in my mouth.”
1197 tn Or “exalt.”
1198 tn Heb “I sought the
1199 tc Heb “they look to him and are radiant and their faces are not ashamed.” The third person plural subject (“they”) is unidentified; there is no antecedent in the Hebrew text. For this reason some prefer to take the perfect verbal forms in the first line as imperatives, “look to him and be radiant” (cf. NEB, NRSV). Some medieval Hebrew
1200 tn The pronoun refers back to “this oppressed man,” namely, the psalmist.
1201 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the
1202 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
1203 tn The prefixed verb with vav (ו) consecutive here carries the same generalizing force as the active participle in the first line. See GKC 329 §111.u.
1204 tn This verb is normally used of tasting or savoring food. The metaphor here appears to compare the
1205 tn The Hebrew noun is an abstract plural. The word often refers metonymically to the happiness that God-given security and prosperity produce (see Pss 1:1, 3; 2:12; 41:1; 65:4; 84:12; 89:15; 106:3; 112:1; 127:5; 128:1; 144:15).
1206 tn Heb “man.” The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, we translate the gender and age specific “man” with the more neutral “one.”
1207 tn “Taking shelter” in the
1208 tn Heb “fear.”
1209 tn Heb “O holy ones of his.”
1210 tn Heb “those who fear him.”
1212 tn Heb “Who is the man who desires life?” The rhetorical question is used to grab the audience’s attention. “Life” probably refers here to quality of life, not just physical existence or even duration of life. See the following line.
1213 tn Heb “[Who] loves days to see good?”
1214 tn Heb “guard your tongue from evil.”
1215 tn Heb “and your lips from speaking deception.”
1216 tn Or “do good.”
1217 tn Heb “seek peace and pursue it.”
1218 tn Heb “the eyes of the
1219 tn Heb “the face of the
1222 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
1223 tn Heb “the crushed in spirit.”
1224 tn The Hebrew text uses the singular form; the representative or typical godly person is envisioned.
1225 tn Or “trials.”
1226 tn The Hebrew imperfect verbal form highlights the generalizing statement and draws attention to the fact that the
1227 tn Heb “him,” agreeing with the singular form in the preceding line.
1228 tn The Hebrew participial form suggests such protection is characteristic.
1229 tn That is, he protects the godly from physical harm.
1230 sn Not one of them is broken. The author of the Gospel of John saw a fulfillment of these words in Jesus’ experience on the cross (see John 19:31-37), for the Roman soldiers, when they saw that Jesus was already dead, did not break his legs as was customarily done to speed the death of crucified individuals. John’s use of the psalm seems strange, for the statement in its original context suggests that the Lord protects the godly from physical harm. Jesus’ legs may have remained unbroken, but he was brutally and unjustly executed by his enemies. John seems to give the statement a literal sense that is foreign to its original literary context by applying a promise of divine protection to a man who was seemingly not saved by God. However, John saw in this incident a foreshadowing of Jesus’ ultimate deliverance and vindication. His unbroken bones were a reminder of God’s commitment to the godly and a sign of things to come. Jesus’ death on the cross was not the end of the story; God vindicated him, as John goes on to explain in the following context (John 19:38-20:18).
1231 tn Heb “evil kills the wicked [one].” The singular form is representative; the typical evil person is envisioned. The Hebrew imperfect verbal form draws attention to the typical nature of the action.
1232 tn Heb “are guilty,” but the verb is sometimes used metonymically with the meaning “to suffer the consequences of guilt,” the effect being substituted for the cause.
1233 tn Heb “redeems the life of his servants.” The Hebrew participial form suggests such deliverance is characteristic.
1234 tn “Taking shelter” in the
1236 tn Or “contend.”
1237 tn Two different types of shields are mentioned here. See also Ezek 38:4. Many modern translations render the first term (translated here “small shield”) as “buckler” (cf. NASB “buckler and shield”; the order is often reversed in the translation, apparently for stylistic reasons: cf. NEB, NIV, NRSV “shield and buckler”). The English term “buckler,” referring to a small round shield held on the arm to protect the upper body, is unfamiliar to many modern readers, so the term “small shield” was used in the present translation for clarity.
1238 tn Or “javelin.” On the meaning of this word, which occurs only here in the Hebrew Bible, see M. Dahood, Psalms (AB), 1:210-11.
1239 tn Heb “draw out spear and lance to meet.”
1240 tn Heb “say to me,” or “say to my soul.”
1244 tn Heb “as the
1245 tn The prefixed verbal form is distinctly jussive, indicating this is a prayer.
1246 tc Heb “for without cause they hid for me a pit of their net, without cause they dug for my life.” It appears that the words “pit” and “net” have been transposed. “Net” goes with the verb “hid” in the first line (see v. 8, as well as Pss 9:15; 31:4), while “pit” goes with the verb “dug” in the second line (see Ps 7:15).
1247 tn Heb “let destruction [which] he does not know come to him.” The singular is used of the enemy in v. 8, probably in a representative or collective sense. The psalmist has more than one enemy, as vv. 1-7 make clear.
1249 tn Heb “then my soul will rejoice in the
1250 tn Heb “all my bones will say.”
1251 tn Heb “[the one who] rescues.” The substantival participle in the Hebrew text characterizes God as one who typically rescues the oppressed.
1252 tn Heb “from [the one who is] too strong for him.” The singular forms are used in a representative sense. The typical oppressed individual and typical oppressor are in view.
1253 tn Heb “the oppressed [one] and needy [one] from [the one who] robs him.” As in the previous line, the singular forms are used in a representative sense.
1254 tn Heb “witnesses of violence rise up.”
1255 tn Heb “[that] which I do not know they ask me.”
1256 tn Heb “they repay me evil instead of good.”
1257 tn Heb “[there is] bereavement to my soul.”
1258 tn Heb “as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth.” Sackcloth was worn by mourners. When the psalmist’s enemies were sick, he was sorry for their misfortune and mourned for them.
1259 sn Fasting was also a practice of mourners. By refraining from normal activities, such as eating food, the mourner demonstrated the sincerity of his sorrow.
1260 tn Heb “and my prayer upon my chest will return.” One could translate, “but my prayer was returning upon my chest,” but the use of the imperfect verbal form sets this line apart from the preceding and following lines (vv. 13a, 14), which use the perfect to describe the psalmist’s past actions.
1261 tn Heb “like a friend, like a brother to me I walked about.”
1263 tn Heb “like mourning for a mother [in] sorrow I bowed down.”
1264 tn Heb “they gathered together against me, stricken [ones], and I did not know.” The Hebrew form נֵכִים (nekhim, “stricken ones” ?) is problematic. Some suggest an emendation to נָכְרִים[כְ] (kÿnokhÿrim, “foreigners”) or “like foreigners,” which would fit with what follows, “[like] foreigners that I do not recognize.” Perhaps the form should be read as a Qal active participle, נֹכִים (nokhim, “ones who strike”) from the verbal root נָכָה (nakhah, “to strike”). The Qal of this verb is unattested in biblical Hebrew, but the peal (basic) stem appears in Old Aramaic (J. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire [BibOr], 114; DNWSI 1:730.) In this case one might translate, “attackers gathered together against me though I was not aware of it” (cf. NASB “smiters”; NEB, NRSV “ruffians”; NIV “attackers”).
1266 tc The MT reads “as profane [ones] of mockers of food,” which is nonsensical. The present translation assumes (1) an emendation of בְּחַנְפֵי (bÿkhanfey, “as profane men”) to בְּחַנְפִי (bekhanfiy, “when I tripped”; preposition + Qal infinitive construct from II חָנַף [“limp”] + first common singular pronominal suffix) and (2) an emendation of לַעֲגֵי מָעוֹג (la’agey ma’og, “mockers of food”) to עָגוּ[ם]לַעְגָּ (la’gam ’agu, “[with] taunting they taunted”; masculine plural noun with enclitic mem + Qal perfect third common plural from לַּעַג [la’ag, “taunt”]).
1267 tn Heb “gnashing at me with their teeth.” The infinitive absolute adds a complementary action – they gnashed with their teeth as they taunted.
1268 tn Heb “O Lord, how long will you see?”
1269 tn Heb “bring back, restore.”
1270 tn Or “my life.”
1271 tn Heb “my only one.” The psalmist may mean that his life is precious, or that he feels isolated and alone (see Ps 22:20). The verb “guard” is supplied in the translation, because the verb “rescue” is understood by ellipsis (see the previous line).
1273 tn Heb “among numerous people.”
1275 tn Heb “rejoice.”
1276 tn Heb “[do not let] those who hate me without cause pinch [i.e., wink] an eye.” The negative particle is understood in the second line by ellipsis (see the preceding line). In the Book of Proverbs “winking an eye” is associated with deceit and trickery (see 6:13; 10:10; 16:30).
1277 tn Heb “for they do not speak peace.”
1279 tn Heb “and they cause their mouth to be wide against me.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here carries on the generalizing mood of the previous verse. For other examples of this use of the prefixed verbal form with vav consecutive, see GKC 329 §111.t.
1281 tn Heb “you see, O
1283 tn Heb “for my justice.”
1284 tn Heb “for my cause.”
1285 tn Heb “rejoice.”
1286 tn Heb “in their heart[s].”
1287 tn Heb “Aha! Our desire!” The “desire” of the psalmist’s enemies is to triumph over him.
1288 tn Heb “may they be embarrassed and ashamed together, the ones who rejoice over my harm.”
1289 tn Heb “may they be clothed with shame and humiliation, the ones who magnify [themselves] against me.” The prefixed verbal forms in v. 26 are understood as jussives (see vv. 24b-25, where the negative particle אַל (’al) appears before the prefixed verbal forms, indicating they are jussives). The psalmist is calling down judgment on his enemies.
1291 tn The prefixed verbal form is taken as a jussive, “may the
1292 tn Heb “the one who desires the peace of his servant.”
1293 tn Heb “and my tongue will proclaim your justice.”
1294 tn Heb “all the day your praise.” The verb “proclaim” is understood by ellipsis in the second line (see the previous line).
1295 sn Psalm 36. Though evil men plan to harm others, the psalmist is confident that the Lord is the just ruler of the earth who gives and sustains all life. He prays for divine blessing and protection and anticipates God’s judgment of the wicked.
1296 tn In the Hebrew text the word נאם (“oracle”) appears at the beginning of the next verse (v. 2 in the Hebrew text because the superscription is considered v. 1). The resulting reading, “an oracle of rebellion for the wicked [is] in the midst of my heart” (cf. NIV) apparently means that the psalm, which foresees the downfall of the wicked, is a prophetic oracle about the rebellion of the wicked which emerges from the soul of the psalmist. One could translate, “Here is a poem written as I reflected on the rebellious character of evil men.” Another option, followed in the translation above, is to attach נאם (nÿ’um, “oracle”) with the superscription. For another example of a Davidic poem being labeled an “oracle,” see 2 Sam 23:1.
1297 tn Heb “[the] rebellion of an evil man [is] in the midst of my heart.” The translation assumes a reading “in the midst of his heart” (i.e., “to the core”) instead of “in the midst of my heart,” a change which finds support in a a few medieval Hebrew
1298 tn Heb “there is no dread of God before his eyes.” The phrase “dread of God” refers here to a healthy respect for God which recognizes that he will punish evil behavior.
1299 tn Heb “for it causes to be smooth to him in his eyes to find his sin to hate.” The meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. Perhaps the point is this: His rebellious attitude makes him reject any notion that God will hold him accountable. His attitude also prevents him from recognizing and repudiating his sinful ways.
1300 tn Heb “he ceases to exhibit wisdom to do good.” The Hiphil forms are exhibitive, indicating the outward expression of an inner attitude.
1301 tn Heb “he takes a stand in a way [that is] not good.” The word “way” here refers metaphorically to behavior or life style.
1303 tn Heb “[is] in the heavens.”
1305 tn Heb “mountains of God.” The divine name אֵל (’el, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
1306 tn Or “deliver.”
1307 sn God’s justice/fairness is firm and reliable like the highest mountains and as abundant as the water in the deepest sea. The psalmist uses a legal metaphor to describe God’s preservation of his creation. Like a just judge who vindicates the innocent, God protects his creation from destructive forces.
1308 tn Or “valuable.”
1309 tn Heb “and the sons of man in the shadow of your wings find shelter.” The preservation of physical life is in view, as the next verse makes clear.
1310 tn Heb “for with you is the fountain of life, in your light we see light.” Water (note “fountain”) and light are here metaphors for life.