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Psalms 119

Psalm 119 1 

א (Alef)

119:1 How blessed are those whose actions are blameless, 2 

who obey 3  the law of the Lord.

119:2 How blessed are those who observe his rules,

and seek him with all their heart,

119:3 who, moreover, do no wrong,

but follow in his footsteps. 4 

119:4 You demand that your precepts

be carefully kept. 5 

119:5 If only I were predisposed 6 

to keep your statutes!

119:6 Then I would not be ashamed,

if 7  I were focused on 8  all your commands.

119:7 I will give you sincere thanks, 9 

when I learn your just regulations.

119:8 I will keep your statutes.

Do not completely abandon me! 10 

ב (Bet)

119:9 How can a young person 11  maintain a pure life? 12 

By guarding it according to your instructions! 13 

119:10 With all my heart I seek you.

Do not allow me to stray from your commands!

119:11 In my heart I store up 14  your words, 15 

so I might not sin against you.

119:12 You deserve praise, 16  O Lord!

Teach me your statutes!

119:13 With my lips I proclaim

all the regulations you have revealed. 17 

119:14 I rejoice in the lifestyle prescribed by your rules 18 

as if 19  they were riches of all kinds. 20 

119:15 I will meditate on 21  your precepts

and focus 22  on your behavior. 23 

119:16 I find delight 24  in your statutes;

I do not forget your instructions. 25 

ג (Gimel)

119:17 Be kind to your servant!

Then I will live 26  and keep 27  your instructions. 28 

119:18 Open 29  my eyes so I can truly see 30 

the marvelous things in your law!

119:19 I am like a foreigner in this land. 31 

Do not hide your commands from me!

119:20 I desperately long to know 32 

your regulations at all times.

119:21 You reprimand arrogant people.

Those who stray from your commands are doomed. 33 

119:22 Spare me 34  shame and humiliation,

for I observe your rules.

119:23 Though rulers plot and slander me, 35 

your servant meditates on your statutes.

119:24 Yes, I find delight in your rules;

they give me guidance. 36 

ד (Dalet)

119:25 I collapse in the dirt. 37 

Revive me with your word! 38 

119:26 I told you about my ways 39  and you answered me.

Teach me your statutes!

119:27 Help me to understand what your precepts mean! 40 

Then I can meditate 41  on your marvelous teachings. 42 

119:28 I collapse 43  from grief.

Sustain me by your word! 44 

119:29 Remove me from the path of deceit! 45 

Graciously give me 46  your law!

119:30 I choose the path of faithfulness;

I am committed to 47  your regulations.

119:31 I hold fast 48  to your rules.

O Lord, do not let me be ashamed!

119:32 I run along the path of your commands,

for you enable me to do so. 49 

ה (He)

119:33 Teach me, O Lord, the lifestyle prescribed by your statutes, 50 

so that I might observe it continually. 51 

119:34 Give me understanding so that I might observe your law,

and keep it with all my heart. 52 

119:35 Guide me 53  in the path of your commands,

for I delight to walk in it. 54 

119:36 Give me a desire for your rules, 55 

rather than for wealth gained unjustly. 56 

119:37 Turn my eyes away from what is worthless! 57 

Revive me with your word! 58 

119:38 Confirm to your servant your promise, 59 

which you made to the one who honors you. 60 

119:39 Take away the insults that I dread! 61 

Indeed, 62  your regulations are good.

119:40 Look, I long for your precepts.

Revive me with your deliverance! 63 

ו (Vav)

119:41 May I experience your loyal love, 64  O Lord,

and your deliverance, 65  as you promised. 66 

119:42 Then I will have a reply for the one who insults me, 67 

for I trust in your word.

119:43 Do not completely deprive me of a truthful testimony, 68 

for I await your justice.

119:44 Then I will keep 69  your law continually

now and for all time. 70 

119:45 I will be secure, 71 

for I seek your precepts.

119:46 I will speak 72  about your regulations before kings

and not be ashamed.

119:47 I will find delight in your commands,

which I love.

119:48 I will lift my hands to 73  your commands,

which I love,

and I will meditate on your statutes.

ז (Zayin)

119:49 Remember your word to your servant,

for you have given me hope.

119:50 This 74  is what comforts me in my trouble,

for your promise revives me. 75 

119:51 Arrogant people do nothing but scoff at me. 76 

Yet I do not turn aside from your law.

119:52 I remember your ancient regulations, 77 

O Lord, and console myself. 78 

119:53 Rage takes hold of me because of the wicked,

those who reject your law.

119:54 Your statutes have been my songs 79 

in the house where I live. 80 

119:55 I remember your name during the night, O Lord,

and I will keep 81  your law.

119:56 This 82  has been my practice,

for I observe your precepts.

ח (Khet)

119:57 The Lord is my source of security. 83 

I have determined 84  to follow your instructions. 85 

119:58 I seek your favor 86  with all my heart.

Have mercy on me as you promised! 87 

119:59 I consider my actions 88 

and follow 89  your rules.

119:60 I keep your commands

eagerly and without delay. 90 

119:61 The ropes of the wicked tighten around 91  me,

but I do not forget your law.

119:62 In the middle of the night I arise 92  to thank you

for your just regulations.

119:63 I am a friend to all your loyal followers, 93 

and to those who keep your precepts.

119:64 O Lord, your loyal love fills the earth.

Teach me your statutes!

ט (Tet)

119:65 You are good 94  to your servant,

O Lord, just as you promised. 95 

119:66 Teach me proper discernment 96  and understanding!

For I consider your commands to be reliable. 97 

119:67 Before I was afflicted I used to stray off, 98 

but now I keep your instructions. 99 

119:68 You are good and you do good.

Teach me your statutes!

119:69 Arrogant people smear my reputation with lies, 100 

but I observe your precepts with all my heart.

119:70 Their hearts are calloused, 101 

but I find delight in your law.

119:71 It was good for me to suffer,

so that I might learn your statutes.

119:72 The law you have revealed is more important to me

than thousands of pieces of gold and silver. 102 

י (Yod)

119:73 Your hands made me and formed me. 103 

Give me understanding so that I might learn 104  your commands.

119:74 Your loyal followers will be glad when they see me, 105 

for I find hope in your word.

119:75 I know, Lord, that your regulations 106  are just.

You disciplined me because of your faithful devotion to me. 107 

119:76 May your loyal love console me,

as you promised your servant. 108 

119:77 May I experience your compassion, 109  so I might live!

For I find delight in your law.

119:78 May the arrogant be humiliated, for they have slandered me! 110 

But I meditate on your precepts.

119:79 May your loyal followers 111  turn to me,

those who know your rules.

119:80 May I be fully committed to your statutes, 112 

so that I might not be ashamed.

כ (Kaf)

119:81 I desperately long for 113  your deliverance.

I find hope in your word.

119:82 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your promise to be fulfilled. 114 

I say, 115  “When will you comfort me?”

119:83 For 116  I am like a wineskin 117  dried up in smoke. 118 

I do not forget your statutes.

119:84 How long must your servant endure this? 119 

When will you judge those who pursue me?

119:85 The arrogant dig pits to trap me, 120 

which violates your law. 121 

119:86 All your commands are reliable.

I am pursued without reason. 122  Help me!

119:87 They have almost destroyed me here on the earth,

but I do not reject your precepts.

119:88 Revive me with 123  your loyal love,

that I might keep 124  the rules you have revealed. 125 

ל (Lamed)

119:89 O Lord, your instructions endure;

they stand secure in heaven. 126 

119:90 You demonstrate your faithfulness to all generations. 127 

You established the earth and it stood firm.

119:91 Today they stand firm by your decrees,

for all things are your servants.

119:92 If I had not found encouragement in your law, 128 

I would have died in my sorrow. 129 

119:93 I will never forget your precepts,

for by them you have revived me.

119:94 I belong to you. Deliver me!

For I seek your precepts.

119:95 The wicked prepare to kill me, 130 

yet I concentrate on your rules.

119:96 I realize that everything has its limits,

but your commands are beyond full comprehension. 131 

מ (Mem)

119:97 O how I love your law!

All day long I meditate on it.

119:98 Your commandments 132  make me wiser than my enemies,

for I am always aware of them.

119:99 I have more insight than all my teachers,

for I meditate on your rules.

119:100 I am more discerning than those older than I,

for I observe your precepts.

119:101 I stay away 133  from the evil path,

so that I might keep your instructions. 134 

119:102 I do not turn aside from your regulations,

for you teach me.

119:103 Your words are sweeter

in my mouth than honey! 135 

119:104 Your precepts give me discernment.

Therefore I hate all deceitful actions. 136 

נ (Nun)

119:105 Your word 137  is a lamp to walk by,

and a light to illumine my path. 138 

119:106 I have vowed and solemnly sworn

to keep your just regulations.

119:107 I am suffering terribly.

O Lord, revive me with your word! 139 

119:108 O Lord, please accept the freewill offerings of my praise! 140 

Teach me your regulations!

119:109 My life is in continual danger, 141 

but I do not forget your law.

119:110 The wicked lay a trap for me,

but I do not wander from your precepts.

119:111 I claim your rules as my permanent possession,

for they give me joy. 142 

119:112 I am determined to obey 143  your statutes

at all times, to the very end.

ס (Samek)

119:113 I hate people with divided loyalties, 144 

but I love your law.

119:114 You are my hiding place and my shield.

I find hope in your word.

119:115 Turn away from me, you evil men,

so that I can observe 145  the commands of my God. 146 

119:116 Sustain me as you promised, 147  so that I will live. 148 

Do not disappoint me! 149 

119:117 Support me, so that I will be delivered.

Then I will focus 150  on your statutes continually.

119:118 You despise 151  all who stray from your statutes,

for they are deceptive and unreliable. 152 

119:119 You remove all the wicked of the earth like slag. 153 

Therefore I love your rules. 154 

119:120 My body 155  trembles 156  because I fear you; 157 

I am afraid of your judgments.

ע (Ayin)

119:121 I do what is fair and right. 158 

Do not abandon me to my oppressors!

119:122 Guarantee the welfare of your servant! 159 

Do not let the arrogant oppress me!

119:123 My eyes grow tired as I wait for your deliverance, 160 

for your reliable promise to be fulfilled. 161 

119:124 Show your servant your loyal love! 162 

Teach me your statutes!

119:125 I am your servant. Give me insight,

so that I can understand 163  your rules.

119:126 It is time for the Lord to act –

they break your law!

119:127 For this reason 164  I love your commands

more than gold, even purest gold.

119:128 For this reason I carefully follow all your precepts. 165 

I hate all deceitful actions. 166 

פ (Pe)

119:129 Your rules are marvelous.

Therefore I observe them.

119:130 Your instructions are a doorway through which light shines. 167 

They give 168  insight to the untrained. 169 

119:131 I open my mouth and pant,

because I long 170  for your commands.

119:132 Turn toward me and extend mercy to me,

as you typically do to your loyal followers. 171 

119:133 Direct my steps by your word! 172 

Do not let any sin dominate me!

119:134 Deliver me 173  from oppressive men,

so that I can keep 174  your precepts.

119:135 Smile 175  on your servant!

Teach me your statutes!

119:136 Tears stream down from my eyes, 176 

because people 177  do not keep your law.

צ (Tsade)

119:137 You are just, O Lord,

and your judgments are fair.

119:138 The rules you impose are just, 178 

and absolutely reliable.

119:139 My zeal 179  consumes 180  me,

for my enemies forget your instructions. 181 

119:140 Your word is absolutely pure,

and your servant loves it!

119:141 I am insignificant and despised,

yet I do not forget your precepts.

119:142 Your justice endures, 182 

and your law is reliable. 183 

119:143 Distress and hardship confront 184  me,

yet I find delight in your commands.

119:144 Your rules remain just. 185 

Give me insight so that I can live. 186 

ק (Qof)

119:145 I cried out with all my heart, “Answer me, O Lord!

I will observe your statutes.”

119:146 I cried out to you, “Deliver me,

so that I can keep 187  your rules.”

119:147 I am up before dawn crying for help.

I find hope in your word.

119:148 My eyes anticipate the nighttime hours,

so that I can meditate on your word.

119:149 Listen to me 188  because of 189  your loyal love!

O Lord, revive me, as you typically do! 190 

119:150 Those who are eager to do 191  wrong draw near;

they are far from your law.

119:151 You are near, O Lord,

and all your commands are reliable. 192 

119:152 I learned long ago that

you ordained your rules to last. 193 

ר (Resh)

119:153 See my pain and rescue me!

For I do not forget your law.

119:154 Fight for me 194  and defend me! 195 

Revive me with your word!

119:155 The wicked have no chance for deliverance, 196 

for they do not seek your statutes.

119:156 Your compassion is great, O Lord.

Revive me, as you typically do! 197 

119:157 The enemies who chase me are numerous. 198 

Yet I do not turn aside from your rules.

119:158 I take note of the treacherous and despise them,

because they do not keep your instructions. 199 

119:159 See how I love your precepts!

O Lord, revive me with your loyal love!

119:160 Your instructions are totally reliable;

all your just regulations endure. 200 

שׂ/שׁ (Sin/Shin)

119:161 Rulers pursue me for no reason,

yet I am more afraid of disobeying your instructions. 201 

119:162 I rejoice in your instructions,

like one who finds much plunder. 202 

119:163 I hate and despise deceit;

I love your law.

119:164 Seven 203  times a day I praise you

because of your just regulations.

119:165 Those who love your law are completely secure; 204 

nothing causes them to stumble. 205 

119:166 I hope for your deliverance, O Lord,

and I obey 206  your commands.

119:167 I keep your rules;

I love them greatly.

119:168 I keep your precepts and rules,

for you are aware of everything I do. 207 

ת (Tav)

119:169 Listen to my cry for help, 208  O Lord!

Give me insight by your word!

119:170 Listen to my appeal for mercy! 209 

Deliver me, as you promised. 210 

119:171 May praise flow freely from my lips,

for you teach me your statutes.

119:172 May my tongue sing about your instructions, 211 

for all your commands are just.

119:173 May your hand help me,

for I choose to obey 212  your precepts.

119:174 I long for your deliverance, O Lord;

I find delight in your law.

119:175 May I 213  live and praise you!

May your regulations help me! 214 

119:176 I have wandered off like a lost sheep. 215 

Come looking for your servant,

for I do not forget your commands.

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1 sn Psalm 119. The psalmist celebrates God’s law and the guidance it provides his people. He expresses his desire to know God’s law thoroughly so that he might experience the blessings that come to those who obey it. This lengthy psalm exhibits an elaborate acrostic pattern. The psalm is divided into twenty-two sections (corresponding to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet), each of which is comprised of eight verses. Each of the verses in the first section (vv. 1-8) begins with the letter alef (א), the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This pattern continues throughout the psalm as each new section highlights a successive letter of the alphabet. Each verse in section two (vv. 9-16) begins with the second letter of the alphabet, each verse in section three (vv. 17-24) with the third letter, etc. This rigid pattern creates a sense of order and completeness and may have facilitated memorization.

2 tn Heb “[Oh] the happiness of those who are blameless of way.”

3 tn Heb “walk in.”

4 tn Heb “walk in his ways.”

5 tn Heb “you, you commanded your precepts, to keep, very much.”

6 tn Heb “if only my ways were established.”

7 tn Or “when.”

8 tn Heb “I gaze at.”

9 tn Heb “I will give you thanks with an upright heart.”

10 tn Heb “do not abandon me to excess.” For other uses of the phrase עַד מְאֹד (’ad mÿod, “to excess”), see Ps 38:6, 8.

11 tn Heb “young man.” Hebrew wisdom literature often assumes and reflects the male-oriented perspective of ancient Israelite society. The principle of the psalm is certainly applicable to all people, regardless of their gender or age. To facilitate modern application, the gender specific “young man” has been translated with the more neutral “young person.”

12 tn Heb “purify his path.”

13 tn Heb “by keeping according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”

14 tn Or “hide.”

15 tn Heb “your word.” Some medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural, “your words.”

16 tn Heb “[are] blessed.”

17 tn Heb “of your mouth.”

18 tn Heb “in the way of your rules.”

19 tn Heb “as upon,” meaning “as if” (see 2 Chr 32:19).

20 tn Heb “all wealth.” The phrase refers to all kinds of wealth and riches. See Prov 1:13; 6:31; 24:4; Ezek 27:12, 18.

21 tn The cohortative verbal forms in this verse express the psalmist’s resolve.

22 tn Heb “gaze [at].”

23 tn Heb “ways” (referring figuratively to God’s behavior here).

24 tn The imperfects in this verse emphasize the attitude the psalmist maintains toward God’s law. Another option is to translate with the future tense, “I will find delight…I will not forget.”

25 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as the LXX read the plural here.

26 tn The prefixed verbal form is probably a cohortative indicating purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

27 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the imperative that begins the verse.

28 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss as well as several ancient versions read the plural here.

29 tn Heb “uncover.” The verb form גַּל (gal) is an apocopated Piel imperative from גָּלָה (galah, see GKC 214 §

30 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

31 tn Heb “I am a resident alien in the land.” Resident aliens were especially vulnerable and in need of help. They needed to know the social and legal customs of the land to avoid getting into trouble. The translation (note the addition of “like”) assumes the psalmist is speaking metaphorically, not literally.

32 tn Heb “my soul languishes for longing for.”

33 tn Heb “accursed.” The traditional punctuation of the Hebrew text takes “accursed” with the previous line (“arrogant, accursed ones”), but it is preferable to take it with the second line as the predicate of the statement.

34 tn Heb “roll away from upon me.” Some derive the imperatival form גַּל (gal) from גָּלָה (galah, “uncover,” as in v. 18), but here the form is from גָּלַל (galal, “roll”; see Josh 5:9, where חֶרְפָּה [kherpah, “shame; reproach”] also appears as object of the verb). Some, following the lead of a Dead Sea scroll (11QPsa), emend the form to גֹּל (gol).

35 tn Heb “though rulers sit, about me they talk together.” (For another example of the Niphal of דָּבַר (davar) used with a suffixed form of the preposition ב, see Ezek 33:30.)

36 tn Heb “men of my counsel.” That is, God’s rules are like advisers to the psalmist, for they teach him how to live in a godly manner that refutes the accusations of his enemies.

37 tn Heb “my soul clings to the dirt.” The Hebrew term נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “being; soul”) with a pronominal suffix is often equivalent to a pronoun, especially in poetry (see BDB 660 s.v. נֶפֶשׁ 4.a).

38 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”

39 tn Heb “my ways I proclaimed.”

40 tn Heb “the way of your precepts make me understand.”

41 tn The cohortative with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

42 tn Heb “your amazing things,” which refers here to the teachings of the law (see v. 18).

43 tn Some translate “my soul weeps,” taking the verb דָלַף (dalaf) from a root meaning “to drip; to drop” (BDB 196 s.v. דֶּלַף). On the basis of cognate evidence from Arabic and Akkadian, HALOT 223 s.v. II דלף proposes a homonymic root here, meaning “be sleepless.” Following L. C. Allen (Psalms 101-150 [WBC], 127, 135) the translation assumes that the verb is cognate with Ugaritic dlp, “to collapse; to crumple” in CTA 2 iv. 17, 26. See G. R. Driver, Canaanite Myths and Legends, 44, 144.

44 tn Heb “according to your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural “your words.”

45 tn The “path of deceit” refers to a lifestyle characterized by deceit and disloyalty to God. It stands in contrast to the “way of faithfulness” in v. 30.

46 tn Heb “be gracious to me.” The verb is used metonymically here for “graciously giving” the law. (See Gen 33:5, where Jacob uses this verb in describing how God had graciously given him children.)

47 tn BDB 1000-1001 s.v. I שָׁוָה derives the verb from the first homonym listed, meaning “to agree with; to be like; to resemble.” It here means (in the Piel stem) “to be accounted suitable,” which in turn would mean by metonymy “to accept; to be committed to.” Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonym meaning “to place; to set,” but in this case an elliptical prepositional phrase must be understood, “I place your regulations [before me]” (see Ps 16:8).

48 tn Or “cling to.”

49 tn Heb “for you make wide my heart.” The “heart” is viewed here as the seat of the psalmist’s volition and understanding. The Lord gives the psalmist the desire and moral understanding that are foundational to the willing obedience depicted metaphorically in the preceding line. In Isa 60:5 the expression “your heart will be wide” means “your heart will swell with pride,” but here the nuance appears to be different.

50 tn Heb “the way of your statutes.”

51 tn Heb “and I will keep it to the end.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative. The Hebrew term עֵקֶב (’eqev) is understood to mean “end” here. Another option is to take עֵקֶב (’eqev) as meaning “reward” here (see Ps 19:11) and to translate, “so that I might observe it and be rewarded.”

52 tn The two prefixed verbal forms with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the introductory imperative.

53 tn Or “make me walk.”

54 tn Heb “for in it I delight.”

55 tn Heb “turn my heart to your rules.”

56 tn Heb “and not unjust gain.”

57 tn Heb “Make my eyes pass by from looking at what is worthless.”

58 tn Heb “by your word.”

59 tn Heb “word.”

60 tn Heb “which [is] for your fear,” that is, the promise made to those who exhibit fear of God.

61 tn Heb “my reproach that I fear.”

62 tn Or “for.”

63 tn Or “righteousness.”

64 tn Heb “and may your loyal love come to me.”

65 tn Or “salvation” (so many English versions).

66 tn Heb “according to your word.”

67 tn Heb “and I will answer [the] one who insults me a word.” The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the jussive (see v. 41).

68 tn Heb “do not snatch from my mouth a word of truth to excess.” The psalmist wants to be able to give a reliable testimony about the Lord’s loyal love (vv. 41-42), but if God does not intervene, the psalmist will be deprived of doing so, for the evidence of such love (i.e., deliverance) will be lacking.

69 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the negated jussive (see v. 43).

70 tn Or “forever and ever.”

71 tn Heb “and I will walk about in a wide place.” The cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive gives a further consequence of the anticipated positive divine response (see vv. 43-44). Another option is to take the cohortative as expressing the psalmist’s request. In this case one could translate, “and please give me security.”

72 tn The series of four cohortatives with prefixed vav (ו) conjunctive in vv. 46-48 list further consequences of the anticipated positive divine response to the request made in v. 43.

73 tn Lifting the hands is often associated with prayer (Pss 28:2; 63:4; Lam 2:19). (1) Because praying to God’s law borders on the extreme, some prefer to emend the text to “I lift up my hands to you,” eliminating “your commands, which I love” as dittographic. In this view these words were accidentally repeated from the previous verse. (2) However, it is possible that the psalmist closely associates the law with God himself because he views the law as the expression of the divine will. (3) Another option is that “lifting the hands” does not refer to prayer here, but to the psalmist’s desire to receive and appropriate the law. (4) Still others understand this to be an action praising God’s commands (so NCV; cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

74 tn The demonstrative “this” refers back to the hope just mentioned or forward to the statement in the second line concerning the promise’s power to revive. See the note on the word “me” at the end of the verse for further discussion.

75 tn The hope generated by the promise (see v. 49b) brings comfort because (note “for” at the beginning of the line) the promise revives the psalmist’s spirits. Another option is to take כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line in the sense of “that,” in which case “this” refers to the promise’s power to revive.

76 tn Heb “scoff at me to excess.”

77 tn Heb “I remember your regulations from of old.” The prepositional phrase “from of old” apparently modifies “your regulations,” alluding to the fact that God revealed them to Israel in the distant past. Another option is to understand the prepositional phrase as modifying the verb, in which case one might translate, “I have long remembered your regulations.”

78 tn Or “find comfort.”

79 tn Heb “songs were your statutes to me.”

80 tn Heb “in the house of my dwelling place.” Some take the Hebrew noun מָגוֹר (magor) in the sense of “temporary abode,” and see this as a reference to the psalmist’s status as a resident alien (see v. 19). But the noun can refer to a dwelling place in general (see Ps 55:15).

81 tn The cohortative verbal form expresses the psalmist’s resolve to obey the law.

82 tn Heb “this has been to me.” The demonstrative “this” (1) refers back to the practices mentioned in vv. 54-55, or (2) looks forward to the statement in the second line, in which case the כִּי (ki) at the beginning of the second line should be translated “that.”

83 tn Heb “my portion [is] the Lord.” The psalmist compares the Lord to landed property, which was foundational to economic stability in ancient Israel (see Ps 16:5).

84 tn Heb “I said.”

85 tn Heb “to keep your words” (see v. 9).

86 tn Heb “I appease your face.”

87 tn Heb “according to your word.”

88 tn Heb “my ways.”

89 tn Heb “and I turn my feet toward.”

90 tn Heb “I hurry and I do not delay to keep your commands.”

91 tn Heb “surround.”

92 tn The psalmist uses an imperfect verbal form to emphasize that this is his continuing practice.

93 tn Heb “to all who fear you.”

94 tn Heb “do good.”

95 tn Heb “according to your word.”

96 tn Heb “goodness of taste.” Here “taste” refers to moral and ethical discernment.

97 tn Heb “for I believe in your commands.”

98 tn Heb “before I suffered, I was straying off.”

99 tn Heb “your word.”

100 tn Heb “smear over me a lie.”

101 tn Heb “their heart is insensitive like fat.”

102 tn Heb “better to me [is] the law of your mouth than thousands of gold and silver.”

103 tn Heb “made me and established me.” The two verbs also appear together in Deut 32:6, where God, compared to a father, is said to have “made and established” Israel.

104 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

105 tn Heb “those who fear you will see me and rejoice.”

106 tn In this context (note the second line) the Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּטִים (mishpatim), which so often refers to the regulations of God’s law elsewhere in this psalm, may refer instead to his decisions or disciplinary judgment.

107 tn Heb “and [in] faithfulness you afflicted me.”

108 tn Heb “according to your word to your servant.”

109 tn Heb “and may your compassion come to me.”

110 tn Heb “for [with] falsehood they have denied me justice.”

111 tn Heb “those who fear you.”

112 tn Heb “may my heart be complete in your statutes.”

113 tn Heb “my soul pines for.” See Ps 84:2.

114 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your word.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See Ps 69:3.

115 tn Heb “saying.”

116 tn Or “even though.”

117 tn The Hebrew word נֹאד (nod, “leather container”) refers to a container made from animal skin which is used to hold wine or milk (see Josh 9:4, 13; Judg 4:19; 1 Sam 16:20).

118 tn Heb “in the smoke.”

119 tn Heb “How long are the days of your servant?”

120 tn Heb “for me.”

121 tn Heb “which [is] not according to your law.”

122 sn God’s commands are a reliable guide to right and wrong. By keeping them the psalmist is doing what is right, yet he is still persecuted.

123 tn Heb “according to.”

124 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

125 tn Heb “of your mouth.”

126 tn Heb “Forever, O Lord, your word stands firm in heaven,” or “Forever, O Lord, [is] your word; it stands firm in heaven.” The translation assumes that “your word” refers here to the body of divine instructions contained in the law (note the frequent references to the law in vv. 92-96). See vv. 9, 16-17, 57, 101, 105, 130, 139 and 160-61. The reference in v. 86 to God’s law being faithful favors this interpretation. Another option is that “your word” refers to God’s assuring word of promise, mentioned in vv. 25, 28, 42, 65, 74, 81, 107, 114, 147 and 169. In this case one might translate, “O Lord, your promise is reliable, it stands firm in heaven.”

127 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation [is] your faithfulness.”

128 tn Heb “if your law had not been my delight.”

129 tn Or “my suffering.”

130 tn Heb “the wicked wait for me to kill me.”

131 tn Heb “to every perfection I have seen an end, your command is very wide.” God’s law is beyond full comprehension, which is why the psalmist continually studies it (vv. 95, 97).

132 tn The plural form needs to be revocalized as a singular in order to agree with the preceding singular verb and the singular pronoun in the next line. The Lord’s “command” refers here to the law (see Ps 19:8).

133 tn Heb “I hold back my feet.”

134 tn Heb “your word.” Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural.

135 tn Heb “How smooth they are to my palate, your word, more than honey to my mouth.” A few medieval Hebrew mss, as well as several other ancient witnesses, read the plural “your words,” which can then be understood as the subject of the plural verb “they are smooth.”

136 tn Heb “every false path.”

137 tn Many medieval Hebrew mss read the plural (“words”).

138 tn Heb “[is] a lamp for my foot and a light for my path.”

139 tn Heb “according to your word.”

140 tn Heb “of my mouth.”

141 tn Heb “my life [is] in my hands continually.”

142 tn Heb “for the joy of my heart [are] they.”

143 tn Heb “I turn my heart to do.”

144 tn Heb “divided ones.” The word occurs only here; it appears to be derived from a verbal root, attested in Arabic, meaning “to split” (see HALOT 762 s.v. *סֵעֵף). Since the psalmist is emphasizing his unswerving allegiance to God and his law, the term probably refers to those who lack such loyalty. The translation is similar to that suggested by L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 131.

145 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

146 tn The psalmist has already declared that he observes God’s commands despite persecution, so here the idea must be “so that I might observe the commands of my God unhindered by threats.”

147 tn Heb “according to your word.”

148 tn The prefixed verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

149 tn Heb “do not make me ashamed of my hope.” After the Hebrew verb בּוֹשׁ (bosh, “to be ashamed”) the preposition מִן (min, “from”) often introduces the reason for shame.

150 tn Or “and that I might focus.” The two cohortatives with vav (ו) conjunctive indicate purpose/result after the imperative at the beginning of the verse.

151 tn The Hebrew verb סָלָה (salah, “to disdain”) occurs only here and in Lam 1:15. Cognate usage in Aramaic and Akkadian, as well as Lam 1:15, suggest it may have a concrete nuance of “to throw away.”

152 tn Heb “for their deceit [is] falsehood.”

153 sn Traditionally “dross” (so KJV, ASV, NIV). The metaphor comes from metallurgy; “slag” is the substance left over after the metallic ore has been refined.

154 sn As he explains in the next verse, the psalmist’s fear of judgment motivates him to obey God’s rules.

155 tn Heb “my flesh.”

156 tn The Hebrew verb סָמַר (samar, “to tremble”) occurs only here and in Job 4:15.

157 tn Heb “from fear of you.” The pronominal suffix on the noun is an objective genitive.

158 tn Heb “do justice and righteousness.”

159 tn Heb “be surety for your servant for good.”

160 tn Heb “my eyes fail for your deliverance.” The psalmist has intently kept his eyes open, looking for God to intervene, but now his eyes are watery and bloodshot, impairing his vision. See the similar phrase in v. 82.

161 tn Heb “and for the word of your faithfulness.”

162 tn Heb “do with your servant according to your loyal love.”

163 tn or “know.” The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

164 tn “For this reason” connects logically with the statement made in v. 126. Because the judgment the psalmist fears (see vv. 119-120) is imminent, he remains loyal to God’s law.

165 tn Heb “for this reason all the precepts of everything I regard as right.” The phrase “precepts of everything” is odd. It is preferable to take the kaf (כ) on כֹּל (kol, “everything) with the preceding form as a pronominal suffix, “your precepts,” and the lamed (ל) with the following verb as an emphatic particle. See L. C. Allen, Psalms 101-150 (WBC), 138.

166 tn Heb “every false path.”

167 tn Heb “the doorway of your words gives light.” God’s “words” refer here to the instructions in his law (see vv. 9, 57).

168 tn Heb “it [i.e., the doorway] gives.”

169 tn Or “the [morally] naive,” that is, the one who is young and still in the process of learning right from wrong and distinguishing wisdom from folly. See Pss 19:7; 116:6.

170 tn The verb occurs only here in the OT.

171 tn Heb “according to custom toward the lovers of your name.” The “lovers of” God’s “name” are the Lord’s loyal followers. See Pss 5:11; 69:36; Isa 56:6.

172 tn God’s “word” refers here to his law (see v. 11).

173 tn Or “redeem me.”

174 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

175 tn Heb “cause your face to shine.”

176 tn Heb “[with] flowing streams my eyes go down.”

177 tn Heb “they”; even though somewhat generic, the referent (people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

178 tn Heb “you commanded [in] justice your rules.”

179 tn or “zeal.”

180 tn Heb “destroys,” in a hyperbolic sense.

181 tn Heb “your words.”

182 tn Heb “your justice [is] justice forever.”

183 tn Or “truth.”

184 tn Heb “find.”

185 tn Heb “just are your rules forever.”

186 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

187 tn The cohortative verbal form with vav (ו) conjunctive indicates purpose/result after the preceding imperative.

188 tn Heb “my voice.”

189 tn Heb “according to.”

190 tn Heb “according to your custom.”

191 tn Heb “those who pursue.”

192 tn Or “truth.”

193 tn Heb “long ago I knew concerning your rules, that forever you established them.” See v. 89 for the same idea. The translation assumes that the preposition מִן (min) prefixed to “your rules” introduces the object of the verb יָדַע (yada’), as in 1 Sam 23:23. Another option is that the preposition indicates source, in which case one might translate, “Long ago I realized from your rules that forever you established them” (cf. NIV, NRSV).

194 tn Or “argue my case.”

195 tn Heb “and redeem me.” The verb “redeem” casts the Lord in the role of a leader who protects members of his extended family in times of need and crisis (see Ps 19:14).

196 tn Heb “far from the wicked [is] deliverance.”

197 tn Heb “according to your customs.”

198 tn Heb “many [are] those who chase me and my enemies.”

199 tn Heb “your word.”

200 tn Heb “the head of your word is truth, and forever [is] all your just regulation.” The term “head” is used here of the “sum total” of God’s instructions.

201 tn Heb “and because of your instructions my heart trembles.” The psalmist’s healthy “fear” of the consequences of violating God’s instructions motivates him to obey them. See v. 120.

202 tn Heb “like one who finds great plunder.” See Judg 5:30. The image is that of a victorious warrior who finds a large amount of plunder on the field of battle.

203 tn The number “seven” is use rhetorically to suggest thoroughness.

204 tn Heb “great peace [is] to the lovers of your law.”

205 tn Heb “and there is no stumbling to them.”

206 tn Heb “do.”

207 tn Heb “for all my ways [are] before you.”

208 tn Heb “may my cry approach before you.”

209 tn Heb “may my appeal for mercy come before you.”

210 tn Heb “according to your speech.”

211 tn Heb “your word.”

212 tn The words “to obey” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarity.

213 tn Heb “my life.”

214 tn God’s regulations will “help” the psalmist by giving him moral and ethical guidance.

215 tn Heb “I stray like a lost sheep.” It is possible that the point of the metaphor is vulnerability: The psalmist, who is threatened by his enemies, feels as vulnerable as a straying, lost sheep. This would not suggest, however, that he has wandered from God’s path (see the second half of the verse, as well as v. 110).

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