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Acts 13

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The Church at Antioch Commissions Barnabas and Saul

13:1 Now there were these prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch: 1  Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, 2  Lucius the Cyrenian, 3  Manaen (a close friend of Herod 4  the tetrarch 5  from childhood 6 ) and Saul. 13:2 While they were serving 7  the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, “Set apart 8  for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 13:3 Then, after they had fasted 9  and 10  prayed and placed their hands 11  on them, they sent them off.

Paul and Barnabas Preach in Cyprus

13:4 So Barnabas and Saul, 12  sent out by the Holy Spirit, went down to Seleucia, 13  and from there they sailed to Cyprus. 14  13:5 When 15  they arrived 16  in Salamis, 17  they began to proclaim 18  the word of God in the Jewish synagogues. 19  (Now they also had John 20  as their assistant.) 21  13:6 When they had crossed over 22  the whole island as far as Paphos, 23  they found a magician, a Jewish false prophet named Bar-Jesus, 24  13:7 who was with the proconsul 25  Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. The proconsul 26  summoned 27  Barnabas and Saul and wanted to hear 28  the word of God. 13:8 But the magician Elymas 29  (for that is the way his name is translated) 30  opposed them, trying to turn the proconsul 31  away from the faith. 13:9 But Saul (also known as Paul), 32  filled with the Holy Spirit, 33  stared straight 34  at him 13:10 and said, “You who are full of all deceit and all wrongdoing, 35  you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness – will you not stop making crooked the straight paths of the Lord? 36  13:11 Now 37  look, the hand of the Lord is against 38  you, and you will be blind, unable to see the sun for a time!” Immediately mistiness 39  and darkness came over 40  him, and he went around seeking people 41  to lead him by the hand. 13:12 Then when the proconsul 42  saw what had happened, he believed, 43  because he was greatly astounded 44  at the teaching about 45  the Lord.

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Antioch

13:13 Then Paul and his companions put out to sea 46  from Paphos 47  and came to Perga 48  in Pamphylia, 49  but John 50  left them and returned to Jerusalem. 51  13:14 Moving on from 52  Perga, 53  they arrived at Pisidian Antioch, 54  and on the Sabbath day they went into 55  the synagogue 56  and sat down. 13:15 After the reading from the law and the prophets, 57  the leaders of the synagogue 58  sent them a message, 59  saying, “Brothers, 60  if you have any message 61  of exhortation 62  for the people, speak it.” 63  13:16 So Paul stood up, 64  gestured 65  with his hand and said,

“Men of Israel, 66  and you Gentiles who fear God, 67  listen: 13:17 The God of this people Israel 68  chose our ancestors 69  and made the people great 70  during their stay as foreigners 71  in the country 72  of Egypt, and with uplifted arm 73  he led them out of it. 13:18 For 74  a period of about forty years he put up with 75  them in the wilderness. 76  13:19 After 77  he had destroyed 78  seven nations 79  in the land of Canaan, he gave his people their land as an inheritance. 80  13:20 All this took 81  about four hundred fifty years. After this 82  he gave them judges until the time of 83  Samuel the prophet. 13:21 Then they asked for a king, and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, who ruled 84  forty years. 13:22 After removing him, God 85  raised up 86  David their king. He testified about him: 87 I have found David 88  the son of Jesse to be a man after my heart, 89  who will accomplish everything I want him to do.’ 90  13:23 From the descendants 91  of this man 92  God brought to Israel a Savior, Jesus, just as he promised. 93  13:24 Before 94  Jesus 95  arrived, John 96  had proclaimed a baptism for repentance 97  to all the people of Israel. 13:25 But while John was completing his mission, 98  he said repeatedly, 99  ‘What do you think I am? I am not he. But look, one is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the sandals on his feet!’ 100  13:26 Brothers, 101  descendants 102  of Abraham’s family, 103  and those Gentiles among you who fear God, 104  the message 105  of this salvation has been sent to us. 13:27 For the people who live in Jerusalem and their rulers did not recognize 106  him, 107  and they fulfilled the sayings 108  of the prophets that are read every Sabbath by condemning 109  him. 110  13:28 Though 111  they found 112  no basis 113  for a death sentence, 114  they asked Pilate to have him executed. 13:29 When they had accomplished 115  everything that was written 116  about him, they took him down 117  from the cross 118  and placed him 119  in a tomb. 13:30 But God raised 120  him from the dead, 13:31 and 121  for many days he appeared to those who had accompanied 122  him from Galilee to Jerusalem. These 123  are now his witnesses to the people. 13:32 And we proclaim to you the good news about the promise to our ancestors, 124  13:33 that this promise 125  God has fulfilled to us, their children, by raising 126  Jesus, as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘You are my Son; 127  today I have fathered you.’ 128  13:34 But regarding the fact that he has raised Jesus 129  from the dead, never 130  again to be 131  in a state of decay, God 132  has spoken in this way: ‘I will give you 133  the holy and trustworthy promises 134  made to David.’ 135  13:35 Therefore he also says in another psalm, 136 You will not permit your Holy One 137  to experience 138  decay.’ 139  13:36 For David, after he had served 140  God’s purpose in his own generation, died, 141  was buried with his ancestors, 142  and experienced 143  decay, 13:37 but the one 144  whom God raised up did not experience 145  decay. 13:38 Therefore let it be known to you, brothers, that through this one 146  forgiveness of sins is proclaimed to you, 13:39 and by this one 147  everyone who believes is justified 148  from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify 149  you. 150  13:40 Watch out, 151  then, that what is spoken about by 152  the prophets does not happen to you:

13:41Look, you scoffers; be amazed and perish! 153 

For I am doing a work in your days,

a work you would never believe, even if someone tells you.’” 154 

13:42 As Paul and Barnabas 155  were going out, 156  the people 157  were urging 158  them to speak about these things 159  on the next Sabbath. 13:43 When the meeting of the synagogue 160  had broken up, 161  many of the Jews and God-fearing proselytes 162  followed Paul and Barnabas, who were speaking with them and were persuading 163  them 164  to continue 165  in the grace of God.

13:44 On the next Sabbath almost the whole city assembled together to hear the word of the Lord. 166  13:45 But when the Jews saw the crowds, they were filled with jealousy, 167  and they began to contradict 168  what Paul was saying 169  by reviling him. 170  13:46 Both Paul and Barnabas replied courageously, 171  “It was necessary to speak the word of God 172  to you first. Since you reject it and do not consider yourselves worthy 173  of eternal life, we 174  are turning to the Gentiles. 175  13:47 For this 176  is what the Lord has commanded us: ‘I have appointed 177  you to be a light 178  for the Gentiles, to bring salvation 179  to the ends of the earth.’” 180  13:48 When the Gentiles heard this, they began to rejoice 181  and praise 182  the word of the Lord, and all who had been appointed for eternal life 183  believed. 13:49 So the word of the Lord was spreading 184  through the entire region. 13:50 But the Jews incited 185  the God-fearing women of high social standing and the prominent men of the city, stirred up persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and threw them out 186  of their region. 13:51 So after they shook 187  the dust off their feet 188  in protest against them, they went to Iconium. 189  13:52 And the disciples were filled with joy 190  and with the Holy Spirit.

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1 sn Antioch was a city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia).

map For location see JP1-F2; JP2-F2; JP3-F2; JP4-F2.

2 sn Simeon may well have been from North Africa, since the Latin loanword Niger refers to someone as “dark-complexioned.”

3 sn The Cyrenian refers to a native of the city of Cyrene, on the coast of northern Africa west of Egypt.

4 sn Herod is generally taken as a reference to Herod Antipas, who governed Galilee from 4 b.c. to a.d. 39, who had John the Baptist beheaded, and who is mentioned a number of times in the gospels.

5 tn Or “the governor.”

sn A tetrarch was a ruler with rank and authority lower than a king, who ruled only with the approval of the Roman authorities. This was roughly equivalent to being governor of a region. Several times in the NT, Herod tetrarch of Galilee is called a king (Matt 14:9, Mark 6:14-29), reflecting popular usage.

6 tn Or “(a foster brother of Herod the tetrarch).” The meaning “close friend from childhood” is given by L&N 34.15, but the word can also mean “foster brother” (L&N 10.51). BDAG 976 s.v. σύντροφας states, “pert. to being brought up with someone, either as a foster-brother or as a companion/friend,” which covers both alternatives. Context does not given enough information to be certain which is the case here, although many modern translations prefer the meaning “close friend from childhood.”

7 tn This term is frequently used in the LXX of the service performed by priests and Levites in the tabernacle (Exod 28:35, 43; 29:30; 30:20; 35:19; 39:26; Num 1:50; 3:6, 31) and the temple (2 Chr 31:2; 35:3; Joel 1:9, 13; 2:17, and many more examples). According to BDAG 591 s.v. λειτουργέω 1.b it is used “of other expression of religious devotion.” Since the previous verse described the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, it is probable that the term here describes two of them (Barnabas and Saul) as they were serving in that capacity. Since they were not in Jerusalem where the temple was located, general religious service is referred to here.

8 tn Or “Appoint.”

9 tn The three aorist participles νηστεύσαντες (nhsteusante"), προσευξάμενοι (proseuxamenoi), and ἐπιθέντες (epiqente") are translated as temporal participles. Although they could indicate contemporaneous time when used with an aorist main verb, logically here they are antecedent. On fasting and prayer, see Matt 6:5, 16; Luke 2:37; 5:33; Acts 14:23.

10 tn Normally English style, which uses a coordinating conjunction between only the last two elements of a series of three or more, would call for omission of “and” here. However, since the terms “fasting and prayer” are something of a unit, often linked together, the conjunction has been retained here.

11 sn The placing of hands on Barnabas and Saul (traditionally known as “the laying on of hands”) refers to an act picturing the commission of God and the church for the task at hand.

12 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Barnabas and Saul) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 sn Seleucia was the port city of Antioch in Syria.

14 sn Cyprus was a large island in the Mediterranean off the south coast of Asia Minor.

15 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

16 tn The participle γενόμενοι (genomenoi) is taken temporally.

17 sn Salamis was a city on the southeastern coast of the island of Cyprus. This was a commercial center and a center of Judaism.

18 tn The imperfect verb κατήγγελλον (kathngellon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

19 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

20 sn John refers here to John Mark (see Acts 12:25).

21 tn The word ὑπηρέτης (Juphreth") usually has the meaning “servant,” but it is doubtful John Mark fulfilled that capacity for Barnabas and Saul. He was more likely an apprentice or assistant to them.

sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.

22 tn Or “had passed through,” “had traveled through.”

23 sn Paphos. A city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. It was the seat of the Roman proconsul.

24 sn Named Bar-Jesus. “Jesus” is the Latin form of the name “Joshua.” The Aramaic “bar” means “son of,” so this man was surnamed “son of Joshua.” The scene depicts the conflict between Judaism and the emerging new faith at a cosmic level, much like the Simon Magus incident in Acts 8:9-24. Paul’s ministry looks like Philip’s and Peter’s here.

25 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

26 tn Grk “This one”; the referent (the proconsul) is specified in the translation for clarity.

27 tn Grk “summoning Barnabas and Saul, wanted to hear.” The participle προσκαλεσάμενος (proskalesameno") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

28 sn The proconsul…wanted to hear the word of God. This description of Sergius Paulus portrays him as a sensitive, secular Gentile leader.

29 tn On the debate over what the name “Elymas” means, see BDAG 320 s.v. ᾿Ελύμας. The magician’s behavior is more directly opposed to the faith than Simon Magus’ was.

30 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

31 sn The proconsul was the Roman official who ruled over a province traditionally under the control of the Roman senate.

32 sn A parenthetical note by the author.

33 sn This qualifying clause in the narrative indicates who represented God in the dispute.

34 tn Or “gazed intently.”

35 tn Or “unscrupulousness.”

36 sn “You who…paths of the Lord?” This rebuke is like ones from the OT prophets: Jer 5:27; Gen 32:11; Prov 10:7; Hos 14:9. Five separate remarks indicate the magician’s failings. The closing rhetorical question of v. 10 (“will you not stop…?”) shows how opposed he is to the way of God.

37 tn Grk “And now.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

38 tn Grk “upon,” but in a negative sense.

39 sn The term translated mistiness here appears in the writings of the physician Galen as a medical technical description of a person who is blind. The picture of judgment to darkness is symbolic as well. Whatever power Elymas had, it represented darkness. Magic will again be an issue in Acts 19:18-19. This judgment is like that of Ananias and his wife in Acts 5:1-11.

40 tn Grk “fell on.”

41 tn The noun χειραγωγός (ceiragwgo") is plural, so “people” is used rather than singular “someone.”

42 sn See the note on proconsul in v. 8.

43 sn He believed. The faith of the proconsul in the face of Jewish opposition is a theme of the rest of Acts. Paul has indeed become “a light to the Gentiles” (Acts 13:47).

44 tn The translation “greatly astounded” for ἐκπλησσόμενος (ekplhssomeno") is given by L&N 25.219.

45 tn Grk “of,” but this could give the impression the Lord himself had done the teaching (a subjective genitive) when actually the Lord was the object of the teaching (an objective genitive).

46 tn BDAG 62 s.v. ἀνάγω 4, “as a nautical t.t. (. τὴν ναῦν put a ship to sea), mid. or pass. ἀνάγεσθαι to begin to go by boat, put out to sea.”

47 sn Paphos was a city on the southwestern coast of the island of Cyprus. See Acts 13:6.

48 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor. The journey from Paphos to Perga is about 105 mi (175 km).

49 sn Pamphylia was a province in the southern part of Asia Minor.

50 sn That is, John Mark.

51 sn Returned to Jerusalem. John Mark had originally accompanied them from Jerusalem (see Acts 12:25). John Mark’s decision to leave became an issue later for Barnabas and Paul (Acts 15:36-39).

map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.

52 tn Or “Passing by.”

53 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

54 tn Or “at Antioch in Pisidia.”

sn Pisidian Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 100 mi (160 km) north of Perga. It was both a Roman colony and the seat of military and civil authority in S. Galatia. One had to trek over the Taurus Mountains to get there, since the city was 3,600 ft (1,100 m) above sea level.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2; JP4-E2.

55 tn Grk “going into the synagogue they sat down.” The participle εἰσελθόντες (eiselqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

56 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

57 sn After the reading from the law and the prophets. In the 1st century Jewish synagogue, it was customary after the reading of the Torah (law) and prophets for men to give exhortation from the scriptures.

58 tn Normally ἀρχισυνάγωγος (arcisunagwgo") refers to the “president of a synagogue” (so BDAG 139 s.v. and L&N 53.93). Since the term is plural here, however, and it would sound strange to the English reader to speak of “the presidents of the synagogue,” the alternative translation “leaders” is used. “Rulers” would also be acceptable, but does not convey quite the same idea.

59 tn Grk “sent to them”; the word “message” is an understood direct object. Direct objects in Greek were often omitted when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

60 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

61 tn Or “word.”

62 tn Or “encouragement.”

63 tn Or “give it.”

64 tn This participle, ἀναστάς (anasta"), and the following one, κατασείσας (kataseisa"), are both translated as adverbial participles of attendant circumstance.

65 tn Or “motioned.”

66 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context involving an address to a synagogue gathering, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Paul’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.

67 tn Grk “and those who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44.

68 tn Or “people of Israel.”

69 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”

sn Note how Paul identifies with his audience by referring to our ancestors. He speaks as a Jew. God’s design in history is the theme of the speech. The speech is like Stephen’s, only here the focus is on a promised Son of David.

70 tn That is, in both numbers and in power. The implication of greatness in both numbers and in power is found in BDAG 1046 s.v. ὑψόω 2.

71 tn Or “as resident aliens.”

72 tn Or “land.”

73 sn Here uplifted arm is a metaphor for God’s power by which he delivered the Israelites from Egypt. See Exod 6:1, 6; 32:11; Deut 3:24; 4:34; Ps 136:11-12.

74 tn Grk “And for.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

75 tn For this verb, see BDAG 1017 s.v. τροποφορέω (cf. also Deut 1:31; Exod 16:35; Num 14:34).

76 tn Or “desert.”

77 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

78 tn The participle καθελών (kaqelwn) is taken temporally.

79 sn Seven nations. See Deut 7:1.

80 tn Grk “he gave their land as an inheritance.” The words “his people” are supplied to complete an ellipsis specifying the recipients of the land.

81 tn The words “all this took” are not in the Greek text, but are supplied to make a complete statement in English. There is debate over where this period of 450 years fits and what it includes: (1) It could include the years in Egypt, the conquest of Canaan, and the distribution of the land; (2) some connect it with the following period of the judges. This latter approach seems to conflict with 1 Kgs 6:1; see also Josephus, Ant. 8.3.1 (8.61).

82 tn Grk “And after these things.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

83 tn The words “the time of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

84 tn The words “who ruled” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. They have been supplied as a clarification for the English reader. See Josephus, Ant. 6.14.9 (6.378).

85 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

86 sn The expression raised up refers here to making someone king. There is a wordplay here: “raising up” refers to bringing someone onto the scene of history, but it echoes with the parallel to Jesus’ resurrection.

87 tn Grk “about whom.” The relative pronoun (“whom”) was replaced by the pronoun “him” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek. The verb εἶπεν (eipen) has not been translated (literally “he said testifying”) because it is redundant when combined with the participle μαρτυρήσας (marturhsa", “testifying”). Instead the construction of verb plus participle has been translated as a single English verb (“testified”).

88 sn A quotation from Ps 89:20.

89 sn A quotation from 1 Sam 13:14.

90 tn Or “who will perform all my will,” “who will carry out all my wishes.”

91 tn Or “From the offspring”; Grk “From the seed.”

sn From the descendants (Grk “seed”). On the importance of the seed promise involving Abraham, see Gal 3:6-29.

92 sn The phrase this man is in emphatic position in the Greek text.

93 tn Grk “according to [his] promise.” The comparative clause “just as he promised” is less awkward in English.

sn Just as he promised. Note how Paul describes Israel’s history carefully to David and then leaps forward immediately to Jesus. Paul is expounding the initial realization of Davidic promise as it was delivered in Jesus.

94 tn Grk “John having already proclaimed before his coming a baptism…,” a genitive absolute construction which is awkward in English. A new sentence was begun in the translation at this point.

95 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the context for clarity, since God is mentioned in the preceding context and John the Baptist in the following clause.

96 sn John refers here to John the Baptist.

97 tn Grk “a baptism of repentance”; the genitive has been translated as a genitive of purpose.

98 tn Or “task.”

99 tn The verb ἔλεγεν (elegen) has been translated as an iterative imperfect, since John undoubtedly said this or something similar on numerous occasions.

100 tn Literally a relative clause, “of whom I am not worthy to untie the sandals of his feet.” Because of the awkwardness of this construction in English, a new sentence was begun here.

101 tn Grk “Men brothers,” but this is both awkward and unnecessary in English.

102 tn Grk “sons”

103 tn Or “race.”

104 tn Grk “and those among you who fear God,” but this is practically a technical term for the category called God-fearers, Gentiles who worshiped the God of Israel and in many cases kept the Mosaic law, but did not take the final step of circumcision necessary to become a proselyte to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Note how Paul includes God-fearing Gentiles as recipients of this promise.

105 tn Grk “word.”

106 tn BDAG 12-13 s.v. ἀγνοέω 1.b gives “not to know w. acc. of pers.” as the meaning here, but “recognize” is a better translation in this context because recognition of the true identity of the one they condemned is the issue. See Acts 2:22-24; 4:26-28.

107 tn Grk “this one.”

108 tn Usually φωνή (fwnh) means “voice,” but BDAG 1071-72 s.v. φωνή 2.c has “Also of sayings in scripture…Ac 13:27.”

sn They fulfilled the sayings. The people in Jerusalem and the Jewish rulers should have known better, because they had the story read to them weekly in the synagogue.

109 tn The participle κρίναντες (krinante") is instrumental here.

110 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

111 tn Grk “And though.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

112 tn The participle εὑρόντες (Jeuronte") has been translated as a concessive adverbial participle.

113 sn No basis. Luke insists on Jesus’ innocence again and again in Luke 23:1-25.

114 tn Grk “no basis for death,” but in this context a sentence of death is clearly indicated.

115 tn Or “carried out.”

116 sn That is, everything that was written in OT scripture.

117 tn Grk “taking him down from the cross, they placed him.” The participle καθελόντες (kaqelonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

118 tn Grk “tree,” but frequently figurative for a cross. The allusion is to Deut 21:23. See Acts 5:30; 10:39.

119 tn The word “him” is not in the Greek text but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.

120 sn See the note on the phrase “raised up” in v. 22, which is the same Greek verb used here.

121 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the conjunction “and” and the pronoun “he” at this point to improve the English style.

122 sn Those who had accompanied him refers to the disciples, who knew Jesus in ministry. Luke is aware of resurrection appearances in Galilee though he did not relate any of them in Luke 24.

123 tn Grk “who.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the demonstrative pronoun “these” and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who for many days appeared” and “who are now his witnesses”) following one another.

124 tn Or “to our forefathers”; Grk “the fathers.”

125 tn Grk “that this”; the referent (the promise mentioned in the previous verse) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn This promise refers to the promise of a Savior through the seed (descendants) of David that is proclaimed as fulfilled (Rom 1:1-7).

126 tn Or “by resurrecting.” The participle ἀναστήσας (anasthsa") is taken as instrumental here.

sn By raising (i.e., by resurrection) tells how this promise came to be realized, though again the wordplay also points to his presence in history through this event (see the note on “raised up” in v. 22).

127 sn You are my Son. The key to how the quotation is used is the naming of Jesus as “Son” to the Father. The language is that of kingship, as Ps 2 indicates. Here is the promise about what the ultimate Davidic heir would be.

128 tn Grk “I have begotten you.” The traditional translation for γεγέννηκα (gegennhka, “begotten”) is misleading to the modern English reader because it is no longer in common use. Today one speaks of “fathering” a child in much the same way speakers of English formerly spoke of “begetting a child.”

sn A quotation from Ps 2:7.

129 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

130 tn Although μηκέτι (mhketi) can mean “no longer” or “no more,” the latter is more appropriate here, since to translate “no longer” in this context could give the reader the impression that Jesus did experience decay before his resurrection. Since the phrase “no more again to be” is somewhat awkward in English, the simpler phrase “never again to be” was used instead.

131 tn The translation “to be in again” for ὑποστρέφω (Jupostrefw) is given in L&N 13.24.

132 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

133 tn The pronoun “you” is plural here. The promises of David are offered to the people.

134 tn Or “the trustworthy decrees made by God to David.” The phrase τὰ ὅσια Δαυὶδ τὰ πιστά (ta Josia Dauid ta pista) is “compressed,” that is, in a very compact or condensed form. It could be expanded in several different ways. BDAG 728 s.v. ὅσιος 3 understands it to refer to divine decrees: “I will grant you the sure decrees of God relating to David.” BDAG then states that this quotation from Isa 55:3 is intended to show that the following quotation from Ps 16:10 could not refer to David himself, but must refer to his messianic descendant (Jesus). L&N 33.290 render the phrase “I will give to you the divine promises made to David, promises that can be trusted,” although they also note that τὰ ὅσια in Acts 13:34 can mean “divine decrees” or “decrees made by God.” In contemporary English it is less awkward to translate πιστά as an adjective (“trustworthy”). The concept of “divine decrees,” not very understandable to the modern reader, has been replaced by “promises,” and since God is the implied speaker in the context, it is clear that these promises were made by God.

135 sn A quotation from Isa 55:3. The point of this citation is to make clear that the promise of a Davidic line and blessings are made to the people as well.

136 tn Grk “Therefore he also says in another”; the word “psalm” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

137 tn The Greek word translated “Holy One” here (ὅσιόν, {osion) is related to the use of ὅσια (Josia) in v. 34. The link is a wordplay. The Holy One, who does not die, brings the faithful holy blessings of promise to the people.

138 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”

139 sn A quotation from Ps 16:10.

140 tn The participle ὑπηρετήσας (Juphrethsa") is taken temporally.

141 tn The verb κοιμάω (koimaw) literally means “sleep,” but it is often used in the Bible as a euphemism for the death of a believer.

142 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “was gathered to his fathers” (a Semitic idiom).

143 tn Grk “saw,” but the literal translation of the phrase “saw decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “looked at decay,” while here “saw decay” is really figurative for “experienced decay.” This remark explains why David cannot fulfill the promise.

144 sn The one whom God raised up refers to Jesus.

145 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “did not see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “did not look at decay,” while here “did not see decay” is really figurative for “did not experience decay.”

146 tn That is, Jesus. This pronoun is in emphatic position in the Greek text. Following this phrase in the Greek text is the pronoun ὑμῖν (Jumin, “to you”), so that the emphasis for the audience is that “through Jesus to you” these promises have come.

147 sn This one refers here to Jesus.

148 tn Or “is freed.” The translation of δικαιωθῆναι (dikaiwqhnai) and δικαιοῦται (dikaioutai) in Acts 13:38-39 is difficult. BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 3 categorizes δικαιωθῆναι in 13:38 (Greek text) under the meaning “make free/pure” but categorizes δικαιοῦται in Acts 13:39 as “be found in the right, be free of charges” (BDAG 249 s.v. δικαιόω 2.b.β). In the interest of consistency both verbs are rendered as “justified” in this translation.

149 tn Or “could not free.”

150 tn Grk “from everything from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.” The passive construction has been converted to an active one in the translation, with “by the law of Moses” becoming the subject of the final clause. The words “from everything from which the law of Moses could not justify you” are part of v. 38 in the Greek text, but due to English style and word order must be placed in v. 39 in the translation.

151 sn The speech closes with a warning, “Watch out,” that also stresses culpability.

152 tn Or “in.”

153 tn Or “and die!”

154 sn A quotation from Hab 1:5. The irony in the phrase even if someone tells you, of course, is that Paul has now told them. So the call in the warning is to believe or else face the peril of being scoffers whom God will judge. The parallel from Habakkuk is that the nation failed to see how Babylon’s rising to power meant perilous judgment for Israel.

155 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

156 tn Or “were leaving.” The participle ἐξιόντων (exiontwn) is taken temporally.

157 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

158 tn Or “begging,” “inviting.”

159 tn Or “matters.”

160 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

161 tn BDAG 607 s.v. λύω 3 has “λυθείσης τ. συναγωγῆς when the meeting of the synagogue had broken up Ac 13:43.”

162 tn Normally the phrase σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν (sebomenoi ton qeon) refers to Gentiles (“God-fearers”) who believed in God, attended the synagogue, and followed the Mosaic law to some extent, but stopped short of undergoing circumcision. BDAG 918 s.v. σέβω 1.b lists in this category references in Acts 16:14; 18:7; with σεβόμενοι alone, Acts 13:50; 17:4, 17; the phrase is also found in Josephus, Ant. 14.7.2 (14.110). Unique to this particular verse is the combination σεβόμενοι προσηλύτων (sebomenoi proshlutwn). Later rabbinic discussion suggests that to be regarded as a proper proselyte, a Gentile male had to submit to circumcision. If that is the case here, these Gentiles in the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch should be regarded as full proselytes who had converted completely to Judaism and undergone circumcision. It is probably more likely, however, that προσηλύτων is used here in a somewhat looser sense (note the use of σεβομένας [sebomena"] alone to refer to women in Acts 13:50) and that these Gentiles were still in the category commonly called “God-fearers” without being full, technical proselytes to Judaism. See further K. G. Kuhn, TDNT 6:732-34, 743-44. Regardless, the point is that many Gentiles, as well as Jews, came to faith.

163 tn This is the meaning given for ἔπειθον (epeiqon) in this verse by BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.b.

164 tn Grk “who, as they were speaking with them, were persuading them.”

165 tn The verb προμένειν (promenein) is similar in force to the use of μένω (menw, “to reside/remain”) in the Gospel and Epistles of John.

166 tc Most mss (B* C E Ψ Ï sy bo) read θεοῦ (qeou, “of God”) here instead of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”). Other mss, among them some important early witnesses (Ì74 א A B2 33 81 323 945 1175 1739 al sa), read κυρίου. The external evidence favors κυρίου, though not decisively. Internally, the mention of “God” in v. 43, and especially “the word of God” in v. 46, would provide some temptation for scribes to assimilate the wording in v. 44 to these texts.

sn The word of the Lord is a technical expression in OT literature, often referring to a divine prophetic utterance (e.g., Gen 15:1, Isa 1:10, Jonah 1:1). In the NT it occurs 15 times: 3 times as ῥῆμα τοῦ κυρίου (rJhma tou kuriou; Luke 22:61, Acts 11:16, 1 Pet 1:25) and 12 times as λόγος τοῦ κυρίου (logo" tou kuriou; here and in vv. 48 and 49; Acts 8:25; 15:35, 36; 16:32; 19:10, 20; 1 Thess 1:8, 4:15; 2 Thess 3:1). As in the OT, this phrase focuses on the prophetic nature and divine origin of what has been said.

167 sn They were filled with jealousy. Their foolish response to the gospel is noted again (see Acts 5:17). The same verb is used in Acts 7:9; 17:5.

168 tn The imperfect verb ἀντέλεγον (antelegon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect in the logical sequence of events: After they were filled with jealousy, the Jewish opponents began to contradict what Paul said.

169 tn Grk “the things being said by Paul.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

170 tn The participle βλασφημοῦντες (blasfhmounte") has been regarded as indicating the means of the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as a finite verb (“and reviled him”) in keeping with contemporary English style. The direct object (“him”) is implied rather than expressed and could be impersonal (“it,” referring to what Paul was saying rather than Paul himself), but the verb occurs more often in contexts involving defamation or slander against personal beings (not always God). For a very similar context to this one, compare Acts 18:6. The translation “blaspheme” is not used because in contemporary English its meaning is more narrowly defined and normally refers to blasphemy against God (not what Paul’s opponents were doing here). The modern term “slandering” comes close to what was being done to Paul here.

171 tn Grk “Both Paul and Barnabas spoke out courageously and said.” The redundancy is removed in the translation and the verb “replied” is used in keeping with the logical sequence of events. The theme of boldness reappears: Acts 4:24-30; 9:27-28.

172 tn Grk “It was necessary that the word of God be spoken.” For smoothness and simplicity of English style, the passive construction has been converted to active voice in the translation.

173 tn Or “and consider yourselves unworthy.”

174 tn Grk “behold, we.” In this context ἰδού (idou) is not easily translated into English.

175 sn This turning to the Gentiles would be a shocking rebuke to 1st century Jews who thought they alone were the recipients of the promise.

176 tn Here οὕτως (Joutws) is taken to refer to what follows, the content of the quotation, as given for this verse by BDAG 742 s.v. οὕτω/οὕτως 2.

177 tn BDAG 1004 s.v. τίθημι 3.a has “τιθέναι τινὰ εἴς τι place/appoint someone to or for (to function as) someth….Ac 13:47.” This is a double accusative construction of object (“you”) and complement (“a light”).

178 sn Paul alludes here to the language of the Servant in Isaiah, pointing to Isa 42:6; 49:6. He and Barnabas do the work of the Servant in Isaiah.

179 tn Grk “that you should be for salvation,” but more simply “to bring salvation.”

180 sn An allusion to Isa 42:6 and 49:6. The expression the ends of the earth recalls Luke 3:6 and Acts 1:8. Paul sees himself and Barnabas as carrying out the commission of Luke 24:27. (See 2 Cor 6:2, where servant imagery also appears concerning Paul’s message.)

181 tn The imperfect verb ἔχαιρον (ecairon) and the following ἐδόξαζον (edoxazon) are translated as ingressive imperfects.

182 tn Or “glorify.” Although “honor” is given by BDAG 258 s.v. δοξάζω as a translation, it would be misleading here, because the meaning is “to honor in the sense of attributing worth to something,” while in contemporary English usage one speaks of “honoring” a contract in the sense of keeping its stipulations. It is not a synonym for “obey” in this context (“obey the word of the Lord”), but that is how many English readers would understand it.

183 sn Note the contrast to v. 46 in regard to eternal life.

184 tn BDAG 239 s.v. διαφέρω 1 has “spread” for διαφέρετο (diafereto) in connection with a teaching. This is the first summary since Acts 9:31.

185 tn For the translation of παρώτρυναν (parwtrunan) as “incited” see BDAG 780 s.v. παροτρύνω.

186 tn BDAG 299 s.v. ἐκβάλλω 1 has “throw out.” Once again, many Jews reacted to the message (Acts 5:17, 33; 6:11; 13:45).

187 tn The participle ἐκτιναξάμενοι (ektinaxamenoi) is taken temporally. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance (“So they shook…and went”).

188 sn Shaking the dust off their feet was a symbolic gesture commanded by Jesus to his disciples, Matt 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5. It shows a group of people as culpable before God.

189 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 90 mi (145 km) east southeast of Pisidian Antioch. It was the easternmost city of Phrygia.

190 sn The citizens of Pisidian Antioch were not discouraged by the persecution, but instead were filled with joy.



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