Reading Plan 
Daily Bible Reading (daily) October 17
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Matthew 16:1--19:30

Context
The Demand for a Sign

16:1 Now when the Pharisees 1  and Sadducees 2  came to test Jesus, 3  they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. 4  16:2 He 5  said, “When evening comes you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red,’ 16:3 and in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, because the sky is red and darkening.’ 6  You know how to judge correctly the appearance of the sky, 7  but you cannot evaluate the signs of the times. 16:4 A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” Then 8  he left them and went away.

The Yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees

16:5 When the disciples went to the other side, they forgot to take bread. 16:6 “Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees 9  and Sadducees.” 10  16:7 So 11  they began to discuss this among themselves, saying, “It is because we brought no bread.” 16:8 When Jesus learned of this, 12  he said, “You who have such little faith! 13  Why are you arguing 14  among yourselves about having no bread? 16:9 Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? 16:10 Or the seven loaves for the four thousand and how many baskets you took up? 16:11 How could you not understand that I was not speaking to you about bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees!” 16:12 Then they understood that he had not told them to be on guard against the yeast in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees.

Peter’s Confession

16:13 When 15  Jesus came to the area of Caesarea Philippi, 16  he asked his disciples, 17  “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” 16:14 They answered, “Some say John the Baptist, others Elijah, 18  and others Jeremiah or one of the prophets.” 16:15 He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” 16:16 Simon Peter answered, 19  “You are the Christ, 20  the Son of the living God.” 16:17 And Jesus answered him, 21  “You are blessed, Simon son of Jonah, because flesh and blood 22  did not reveal this to you, but my Father in heaven! 16:18 And I tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades 23  will not overpower it. 16:19 I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven.” 16:20 Then he instructed his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ. 24 

First Prediction of Jesus’ Death and Resurrection

16:21 From that time on 25  Jesus began to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem 26  and suffer 27  many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law, 28  and be killed, and on the third day be raised. 16:22 So Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him: 29  “God forbid, 30  Lord! This must not happen to you!” 16:23 But he turned and said to Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to me, because you are not setting your mind on God’s interests, but on man’s.” 31  16:24 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “If anyone wants to become my follower, 32  he must deny 33  himself, take up his cross, 34  and follow me. 16:25 For whoever wants to save his life 35  will lose it, 36  but whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. 16:26 For what does it benefit a person 37  if he gains the whole world but forfeits his life? Or what can a person give in exchange for his life? 16:27 For the Son of Man will come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done. 38  16:28 I tell you the truth, 39  there are some standing here who will not 40  experience 41  death before they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.” 42 

The Transfiguration

17:1 Six days later 43  Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John the brother of James, 44  and led them privately up a high mountain. 17:2 And he was transfigured before them. 45  His 46  face shone like the sun, and his clothes became white as light. 17:3 Then Moses 47  and Elijah 48  also appeared before them, talking with him. 17:4 So 49  Peter said 50  to Jesus, “Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, I will make 51  three shelters 52  – one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” 17:5 While he was still speaking, a 53  bright cloud 54  overshadowed 55  them, and a voice from the cloud said, 56  “This is my one dear Son, 57  in whom I take great delight. Listen to him!” 58  17:6 When the disciples heard this, they were overwhelmed with fear and threw themselves down with their faces to the ground. 59  17:7 But Jesus came and touched them. “Get up,” he said. “Do not be afraid.” 17:8 When 60  they looked up, all they saw was Jesus alone.

17:9 As they were coming down from the mountain, Jesus commanded them, 61  “Do not tell anyone about the vision until the Son of Man is raised from the dead.” 17:10 The disciples asked him, 62  “Why then do the experts in the law 63  say that Elijah must come first?” 17:11 He 64  answered, “Elijah does indeed come first and will restore all things. 17:12 And I tell you that Elijah has already come. Yet they did not recognize him, but did to him whatever they wanted. In 65  the same way, the Son of Man will suffer at their hands.” 17:13 Then the disciples understood that he was speaking to them about John the Baptist.

The Disciples’ Failure to Heal

17:14 When 66  they came to the crowd, a man came to him, knelt before him, 17:15 and said, “Lord, have mercy on my son, because he has seizures 67  and suffers terribly, for he often falls into the fire and into the water. 17:16 I brought him to your disciples, but 68  they were not able to heal him.” 17:17 Jesus answered, 69  “You 70  unbelieving 71  and perverse generation! How much longer 72  must I be with you? How much longer must I endure 73  you? 74  Bring him here to me.” 17:18 Then 75  Jesus rebuked 76  the demon and it came out of him, and the boy was healed from that moment. 17:19 Then the disciples came 77  to Jesus privately and said, “Why couldn’t we cast it out?” 17:20 He told them, “It was because of your little faith. I tell you the truth, 78  if you have faith the size of 79  a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; nothing 80  will be impossible for you.”

17:21 [[EMPTY]] 81 

17:22 When 82  they gathered together in Galilee, Jesus told them, “The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. 83  17:23 They will kill him, and on the third day he will be raised.” And they became greatly distressed.

The Temple Tax

17:24 After 84  they arrived in Capernaum, 85  the collectors of the temple tax 86  came to Peter and said, “Your teacher pays the double drachma tax, doesn’t he?” 17:25 He said, “Yes.” When Peter came into the house, Jesus spoke to him first, 87  “What do you think, Simon? From whom do earthly kings collect tolls or taxes – from their sons 88  or from foreigners?” 17:26 After he said, “From foreigners,” Jesus said to him, “Then the sons 89  are free. 17:27 But so that we don’t offend them, go to the lake and throw out a hook. Take the first fish that comes up, and when you open its mouth, you will find a four drachma coin. 90  Take that and give it to them for me and you.”

Questions About the Greatest

18:1 At that time the disciples came to Jesus saying, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” 18:2 He called a child, had him stand among them, 18:3 and said, “I tell you the truth, 91  unless you turn around and become like little children, 92  you will never 93  enter the kingdom of heaven! 18:4 Whoever then humbles himself like this little child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 18:5 And whoever welcomes 94  a child like this in my name welcomes me.

18:6 “But if anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, 95  it would be better for him to have a huge millstone 96  hung around his neck and to be drowned in the open sea. 97  18:7 Woe to the world because of stumbling blocks! It 98  is necessary that stumbling blocks come, but woe to the person through whom they come. 18:8 If 99  your hand or your foot causes you to sin, 100  cut it off and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life crippled or lame than to have 101  two hands or two feet and be thrown into eternal fire. 18:9 And if your eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye than to have 102  two eyes and be thrown into fiery hell. 103 

The Parable of the Lost Sheep

18:10 “See that you do not disdain one of these little ones. For I tell you that their angels in heaven always see the face of my Father in heaven. 18:11 [[EMPTY]] 104  18:12 What do you think? If someone 105  owns a hundred 106  sheep and one of them goes astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine on the mountains and go look for the one that went astray? 107  18:13 And if he finds it, I tell you the truth, 108  he will rejoice more over it than over the ninety-nine that did not go astray. 18:14 In the same way, your Father in heaven is not willing that one of these little ones be lost.

Restoring Christian Relationships

18:15 “If 109  your brother 110  sins, 111  go and show him his fault 112  when the two of you are alone. If he listens to you, you have regained your brother. 18:16 But if he does not listen, take one or two others with you, so that at the testimony of two or three witnesses every matter may be established. 113  18:17 If 114  he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church. If 115  he refuses to listen to the church, treat him like 116  a Gentile 117  or a tax collector. 118 

18:18 “I tell you the truth, 119  whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven. 18:19 Again, I tell you the truth, 120  if two of you on earth agree about whatever you ask, my Father in heaven will do it for you. 121  18:20 For where two or three are assembled in my name, I am there among them.”

18:21 Then Peter came to him and said, “Lord, how many times must I forgive my brother 122  who sins against me? As many as seven times?” 18:22 Jesus said to him, “Not seven times, I tell you, but seventy-seven times! 123 

The Parable of the Unforgiving Slave

18:23 “For this reason, the kingdom of heaven is like a king who wanted to settle accounts with his slaves. 124  18:24 As 125  he began settling his accounts, a man who owed ten thousand talents 126  was brought to him. 18:25 Because 127  he was not able to repay it, 128  the lord ordered him to be sold, along with 129  his wife, children, and whatever he possessed, and repayment to be made. 18:26 Then the slave threw himself to the ground 130  before him, saying, 131  ‘Be patient with me, and I will repay you everything.’ 18:27 The lord had compassion on that slave and released him, and forgave him the debt. 18:28 After 132  he went out, that same slave found one of his fellow slaves who owed him one hundred silver coins. 133  So 134  he grabbed him by the throat and started to choke him, 135  saying, ‘Pay back what you owe me!’ 136  18:29 Then his fellow slave threw himself down and begged him, 137  ‘Be patient with me, and I will repay you.’ 18:30 But he refused. Instead, he went out and threw him in prison until he repaid the debt. 18:31 When 138  his fellow slaves saw what had happened, they were very upset and went and told their lord everything that had taken place. 18:32 Then his lord called the first slave 139  and said to him, ‘Evil slave! I forgave you all that debt because you begged me! 18:33 Should you not have shown mercy to your fellow slave, just as I showed it to you?’ 18:34 And in anger his lord turned him over to the prison guards to torture him 140  until he repaid all he owed. 18:35 So also my heavenly Father will do to you, if each of you does not forgive your 141  brother 142  from your heart.”

Questions About Divorce

19:1 Now when 143  Jesus finished these sayings, he left Galilee and went to the region of Judea beyond the Jordan River. 144  19:2 Large crowds followed him, and he healed them there.

19:3 Then some Pharisees 145  came to him in order to test him. They asked, “Is it lawful 146  to divorce a wife for any cause?” 147  19:4 He answered, “Have you not read that from the beginning the Creator made them male and female, 148  19:5 and said, ‘For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and will be united with his wife, and the two will become one flesh’? 149  19:6 So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate.” 19:7 They said to him, “Why then did Moses command us to give a certificate of dismissal and to divorce her?” 150  19:8 Jesus 151  said to them, “Moses permitted you to divorce your wives because of your hard hearts, 152  but from the beginning it was not this way. 19:9 Now I say to you that whoever divorces his wife, except for immorality, and marries another commits adultery.” 19:10 The 153  disciples said to him, “If this is the case of a husband with a wife, it is better not to marry!” 19:11 He 154  said to them, “Not everyone can accept this statement, except those to whom it has been given. 19:12 For there are some eunuchs who were that way from birth, 155  and some who were made eunuchs 156  by others, 157  and some who became eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. The one who is able to accept this should accept it.”

Jesus and Little Children

19:13 Then little children were brought to him for him to lay his hands on them and pray. 158  But the disciples scolded those who brought them. 159  19:14 But Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.” 160  19:15 And he placed his hands on them and went on his way. 161 

The Rich Young Man

19:16 Now 162  someone came up to him and said, “Teacher, what good thing must I do to gain eternal life?” 19:17 He said to him, “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. But if you want to enter into life, keep the commandments.” 19:18 “Which ones?” he asked. Jesus replied, “Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, 19:19 honor your father and mother, 163  and love your neighbor as yourself.” 164  19:20 The young man said to him, “I have wholeheartedly obeyed 165  all these laws. 166  What do I still lack?” 19:21 Jesus said to him, “If you wish to be perfect, go sell your possessions and give the money 167  to the poor, and you will have treasure 168  in heaven. Then come, follow me.” 19:22 But when the young man heard this he went away sorrowful, for he was very rich. 169 

19:23 Then Jesus said to his disciples, “I tell you the truth, 170  it will be hard for a rich person to enter the kingdom of heaven! 19:24 Again I say, 171  it is easier for a camel 172  to go through the eye of a needle 173  than for a rich person to enter into the kingdom of God.” 19:25 The 174  disciples were greatly astonished when they heard this and said, “Then who can be saved?” 175  19:26 Jesus 176  looked at them and replied, “This is impossible for mere humans, 177  but for God all things are possible.” 19:27 Then Peter said 178  to him, “Look, 179  we have left everything to follow you! 180  What then will there be for us?” 19:28 Jesus 181  said to them, “I tell you the truth: 182  In the age when all things are renewed, 183  when the Son of Man sits on his glorious throne, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging 184  the twelve tribes of Israel. 19:29 And whoever has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or fields for my sake will receive a hundred times as much 185  and will inherit eternal life. 19:30 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.

1 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

2 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

3 tn The object of the participle πειράζοντες (peirazontes) is not given in the Greek text but has been supplied here for clarity.

4 sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him.

5 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.” The construction has been simplified in the translation and δέ (de) has not been translated.

6 tn Or “red and gloomy” (L&N 14.56).

7 tn Grk “The face of the sky you know how to discern.”

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

9 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

10 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.

11 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ saying about the Pharisees and Sadducees.

12 tn Or “becoming aware of it.”

13 tn Grk “Those of little faith.”

14 tn Or “discussing.”

15 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

16 map For location see Map1 C1; Map2 F4.

17 tn Grk “he asked his disciples, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has been left untranslated.

18 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.

19 tn Grk “And answering, Simon Peter said.”

20 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

21 tn Grk “answering, Jesus said to him.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant, but the syntax of this phrase has been modified for clarity.

22 tn The expression “flesh and blood” could refer to “any human being” (so TEV, NLT; cf. NIV “man”), but it could also refer to Peter himself (i.e., his own intuition; cf. CEV “You didn’t discover this on your own”). Because of the ambiguity of the referent, the phrase “flesh and blood” has been retained in the translation.

23 tn Or “and the power of death” (taking the reference to the gates of Hades as a metonymy).

sn In the OT, Hades was known as Sheol. It is the place where the unrighteous will reside (Matt 11:23; Luke 16:23; Rev 20:13-14). Some translations render this by its modern equivalent, “hell”; others see it as a reference to the power of death.

24 tc Most mss (א2 C W Ï lat bo) have “Jesus, the Christ” (᾿Ιησοῦς ὁ Χριστός, Ihsou" Jo Cristo") here, while D has “Christ Jesus” (ὁ Χριστὸς ᾿Ιησοῦς). On the one hand, this is a much harder reading than the mere Χριστός, because the name Jesus was already well known for the disciples’ master – both to them and to others. Whether he was the Messiah is the real focus of the passage. But this is surely too hard a reading: There are no other texts in which the Lord tells his disciples not to disclose his personal name. Further, it is plainly a motivated reading in that scribes had the proclivity to add ᾿Ιησοῦς to Χριστός or to κύριος (kurio", “Lord”), regardless of whether such was appropriate to the context. In this instance it clearly is not, and it only reveals that scribes sometimes, if not often, did not think about the larger interpretive consequences of their alterations to the text. Further, the shorter reading is well supported by א* B L Δ Θ Ë1,13 565 700 1424 al it sa.

tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.

25 tn Grk “From then.”

26 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

27 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.

28 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

29 tn Grk “began to rebuke him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

30 tn Grk “Merciful to you.” A highly elliptical expression: “May God be merciful to you in sparing you from having to undergo [some experience]” (L&N 88.78). A contemporary English equivalent is “God forbid!”

31 tn Grk “people.”

32 tn Grk “to come after me.”

33 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.

34 sn To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.

35 tn Or “soul” (throughout vv. 25-26).

36 sn The point of the saying whoever wants to save his life will lose it is that if one comes to Jesus then rejection by many will certainly follow. If self-protection is a key motivation, then one will not respond to Jesus and will not be saved. One who is willing to risk rejection will respond and find true life.

37 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.

38 sn An allusion to Pss 28:4; 62:12; cf. Prov 24:12.

39 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

40 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is the strongest possible.

41 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).

42 sn Several suggestions have been made as to the referent for the phrase the Son of Man coming in his kingdom: (1) the transfiguration itself, which immediately follows in the narrative; (2) Jesus’ resurrection and ascension; (3) the coming of the Spirit; (4) Christ’s role in the Church; (5) the destruction of Jerusalem; (6) Jesus’ second coming and the establishment of the kingdom. The reference to six days later in 17:1 seems to indicate that Matthew had the transfiguration in mind insofar as it was a substantial prefiguring of the consummation of the kingdom (although this interpretation is not without its problems). As such, the transfiguration would be a tremendous confirmation to the disciples that even though Jesus had just finished speaking of his death (in vv. 21-23), he was nonetheless the promised Messiah and things were proceeding according to God’s plan.

43 tn Grk “And after six days.”

44 tn Grk “John his brother” with “his” referring to James.

45 sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw Jesus transfigured, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).

46 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

47 tn Grk “And behold, Moses.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

48 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).

49 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the appearance of Moses and Elijah prompted Peter’s comment.

50 tn Grk “Peter answering said.” This construction is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

51 tc Instead of the singular future indicative ποιήσω (poihsw, “I will make”), most witnesses (C3 D L W Θ [Φ] 0281 Ë[1],13 33 Ï lat sy co) have the plural aorist subjunctive ποιήσωμεν (poihswmen, “let us make”). But since ποιήσωμεν is the reading found in the parallel accounts in Mark and Luke, it is almost surely a motivated reading. Further, the earliest and best witnesses, as well as a few others (א B C* 700 pc) have ποιήσω. It is thus more likely that the singular verb is authentic.

52 tn Or “booths,” “dwellings” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).

sn Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and wanted to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals by making three shelters (one for each). It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the next verse makes it clear that it was not enough honor.

53 tn Grk “behold, a.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated here or in the following clause because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

54 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.

55 tn Or “surrounded.”

56 tn Grk “behold, a voice from the cloud, saying.” This is an incomplete sentence in Greek which portrays intensity and emotion. The participle λέγουσα (legousa) was translated as a finite verb in keeping with English style.

57 tn Grk “my beloved Son,” or “my Son, the beloved [one].” The force of ἀγαπητός (agaphtos) is often “pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished” (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).

58 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.

59 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

60 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

61 tn Grk “Jesus commanded them, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant and has not been translated.

62 tn Grk “asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.

63 tn Or “do the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.

64 tn Grk “And answering, he said.” This has been simplified in the translation.

65 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

66 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

67 tn Grk “he is moonstruck,” possibly meaning “lunatic” (so NAB, NASB), although now the term is generally regarded as referring to some sort of seizure disorder such as epilepsy (L&N 23.169; BDAG 919 s.v. σεληνιάζομαι).

68 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

69 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.

70 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, (w), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”

71 tn Or “faithless.”

sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 30; Isa 59:8.

72 tn Grk “how long.”

73 tn Or “put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.

74 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.

75 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then.”

76 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).

77 tn Grk “coming, the disciples said.” The participle προσελθόντες (proselqontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.

78 tn Grk “For truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

79 tn Grk “faith as,” “faith like.”

80 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

81 tc Many important mss (א* B Θ 0281 33 579 892* pc e ff1 sys,c sa) do not include 17:21 “But this kind does not go out except by prayer and fasting.” The verse is included in א2 C D L W Ë1,13 Ï lat, but is almost certainly not original. As B. M. Metzger notes, “Since there is no satisfactory reason why the passage, if originally present in Matthew, should have been omitted in a wide variety of witnesses, and since copyists frequently inserted material derived from another Gospel, it appears that most manuscripts have been assimilated to the parallel in Mk 9.29” (TCGNT 35). The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number as well, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

82 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

83 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV “into human hands”; TEV, CEV “to people”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.

84 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

85 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.

86 tn Grk “Collectors of the double drachma.” This is a case of metonymy, where the coin formerly used to pay the tax (the double drachma coin, or δίδραχμον [didracmon]) was put for the tax itself (cf. BDAG 241 s.v.). Even though this coin was no longer in circulation in NT times and other coins were used to pay the tax, the name for the coin was still used to refer to the tax itself.

sn The temple tax refers to the half-shekel tax paid annually by male Jews to support the temple (Exod 30:13-16).

87 tn Grk “spoke first to him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

88 sn The phrase their sons may mean “their citizens,” but the term “sons” has been retained here in order to preserve the implicit comparison between the Father and his Son, Jesus.

89 sn See the note on the phrase their sons in the previous verse.

90 sn The four drachma coin was a stater (στατήρ, stathr), a silver coin worth four drachmas. One drachma was equivalent to one denarius, the standard pay for a day’s labor (L&N 6.80).

91 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

92 sn The point of the comparison become like little children has more to do with a child’s trusting spirit, as well as willingness to be dependent and receive from others, than any inherent humility the child might possess.

93 tn The negation in Greek (οὐ μή, ou mh) is very strong here.

94 tn This verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).

95 tn The Greek term σκανδαλίζω (skandalizw), translated here “causes to sin” can also be translated “offends” or “causes to stumble.”

96 tn Grk “the millstone of a donkey.” This refers to a large flat stone turned by a donkey in the process of grinding grain (BDAG 661 s.v. μύλος 2; L&N 7.68-69). The same term is used in the parallel account in Mark 9:42.

sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.

97 tn The term translated “open” here (πελάγει, pelagei) refers to the open sea as opposed to a stretch of water near a coastline (BDAG 794 s.v. πέλαγος). A similar English expression would be “the high seas.”

98 tn Grk “For it.” Here γάρ (gar) has not been translated.

99 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

100 sn In Greek there is a wordplay that is difficult to reproduce in English here. The verb translated “causes…to sin” (σκανδαλίζω, skandalizw) comes from the same root as the word translated “stumbling blocks” (σκάνδαλον, skandalon) in the previous verse.

101 tn Grk “than having.”

102 tn Grk “than having.”

103 tn Grk “the Gehenna of fire.”

sn See the note on the word hell in 5:22.

104 tc The most important mss (א B L* Θ* Ë1,13 33 892* pc e ff1 sys sa) do not include 18:11 “For the Son of Man came to save the lost.” The verse is included in D Lmg W Θc 078vid Ï lat syc,p,h, but is almost certainly not original, being borrowed, as it were, from the parallel in Luke 19:10. The present translation follows NA27 in omitting the verse number as well, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.

105 tn Grk “a certain man.” The Greek word ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used here in a somewhat generic sense.

106 sn This individual with a hundred sheep is a shepherd of modest means, as flocks often had up to two hundred head of sheep.

107 sn Look for the one that went astray. The parable pictures God’s pursuit of the sinner. On the image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd, see John 10:1-18.

108 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

109 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. All the “if” clauses in this paragraph are third class conditions in Greek.

110 tn The Greek term “brother” can mean “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a) whether male or female. It can also refer to siblings, though here it is used in a broader sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God. Therefore, because of the familial connotations, “brother” has been retained in the translation here in preference to the more generic “fellow believer” (“fellow Christian” would be anachronistic in this context).

111 tc ‡ The earliest and best witnesses lack “against you” after “if your brother sins.” It is quite possible that the shorter reading in these witnesses (א B, as well as 0281 Ë1 579 pc sa) occurred when scribes either intentionally changed the text (to make it more universal in application) or unintentionally changed the text (owing to the similar sound of the end of the verb ἁμαρτήσῃ [Jamarthsh] and the prepositional phrase εἰς σέ [eis se]). However, if the mss were normally copied by sight rather than by sound, especially in the early centuries of Christianity, such an unintentional change is not as likely for these mss. And since scribes normally added material rather than deleted it for intentional changes, on balance, the shorter reading appears to be original. NA27 includes the words in brackets, indicating doubts as to their authenticity.

112 tn Grk “go reprove him.”

113 sn A quotation from Deut 19:15.

114 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

115 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

116 tn Grk “let him be to you as.”

117 tn Or “a pagan.”

118 sn To treat him like a Gentile or a tax collector means not to associate with such a person. See the note on tax collectors in 5:46.

119 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

120 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

121 tn Grk “if two of you…agree about whatever they ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven.” The passive construction has been translated as an active one in keeping with contemporary English style, and the pronouns, which change from second person plural to third person plural in the Greek text, have been consistently translated as second person plural.

122 tn Here the term “brother” means “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a), whether male or female. Concerning the familial connotations, see also the note on the first occurrence of this term in v. 15.

123 tn Or “seventy times seven,” i.e., an unlimited number of times. See L&N 60.74 and 60.77 for the two possible translations of the phrase.

124 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.

125 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

126 sn A talent was a huge sum of money, equal to 6,000 denarii. One denarius was the usual day’s wage for a worker. L&N 6.82 states, “a Greek monetary unit (also a unit of weight) with a value which fluctuated, depending upon the particular monetary system which prevailed at a particular period of time (a silver talent was worth approximately six thousand denarii with gold talents worth at least thirty times that much).”

127 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

128 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

129 tn Grk “and his wife.”

130 tn Grk “falling therefore the slave bowed down to the ground.” The redundancy of this expression signals the desperation of the slave in begging for mercy.

131 tc The majority of mss (א L W 058 0281 Ë1,13 33 Ï it syp,h co) begin the slave’s plea with “Lord” (κύριε, kurie), though a few important witnesses lack this vocative (B D Θ 700 pc lat sys,c Or Chr). Understanding the parable to refer to the Lord, scribes would be naturally prone to add the vocative here, especially as the slave’s plea is a plea for mercy. Thus, the shorter reading is more likely to be authentic.

132 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

133 tn Grk “one hundred denarii.” The denarius was a silver coin worth about a day’s wage for a laborer; this would be about three month’s pay.

134 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so.” A new sentence was started at this point in the translation in keeping with the tendency of contemporary English style to use shorter sentences.

135 tn Grk “and he grabbed him and started choking him.”

136 tn The word “me” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

137 tn Grk “begged him, saying.” The participle λέγων (legwn) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.

138 tn Grk “Therefore when.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.

139 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the first slave mentioned in v. 24) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

140 tn Grk “handed him over to the torturers,” referring specifically to guards whose job was to torture prisoners who were being questioned. According to L&N 37.126, it is difficult to know for certain in this instance whether the term actually envisions torture as a part of the punishment or is simply a hyperbole. However, in light of the following verse and Jesus’ other warning statements in Matthew about “fiery hell,” “the outer darkness,” etc., it is best not to dismiss this as mere imagery.

141 tn Grk “his.” The pronoun has been translated to follow English idiom (the last pronoun of the verse [“from your heart”] is second person plural in the original).

142 tn Here the term “brother” means “fellow believer” or “fellow Christian” (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a), whether male or female. Concerning the familial connotations, see also the note on the first occurrence of this term in v. 15.

143 tn Grk “it happened when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

144 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. The region referred to here is sometimes known as Transjordan (i.e., “across the Jordan”).

145 tn Grk “And Pharisees.”

sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.

146 tc ‡ Most mss have either ἀνθρώπῳ (anqrwpw, “for a man” [so א2 C D W Θ 087 Ë1,13 33 Ï latt]) or ἀνδρί (andri, “for a husband” [1424c pc]) before the infinitive ἀπολῦσαι (apolusai, “to divorce”). The latter reading is an assimilation to the parallel in Mark; the former reading may have been motivated by the clarification needed (especially to give the following αὐτοῦ [autou, “his”] an antecedent). But a few significant mss (א* B L Γ 579 [700] 1424* pc) have neither noun. As the harder reading, it seems to best explain the rise of the others. NA27, however, reads ἀνθρώπῳ here.

147 sn The question of the Pharisees was anything but sincere; they were asking it to test him. Jesus was now in the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas (i.e., Judea and beyond the Jordan) and it is likely that the Pharisees were hoping he might answer the question of divorce in a way similar to John the Baptist and so suffer the same fate as John, i.e., death at the hands of Herod (cf. 14:1-12). Jesus answered the question not on the basis of rabbinic custom and the debate over Deut 24:1, but rather from the account of creation and God’s original design.

148 sn A quotation from Gen 1:27; 5:2.

149 sn A quotation from Gen 2:24.

150 tc ‡ Although the majority of witnesses (B C W 078 087 Ë13 33 Ï syp,h) have αὐτήν (authn, “her”) after the infinitive ἀπολῦσαι (apolusai, “to divorce”), a variant lacks the αὐτήν. This shorter reading may be due to assimilation to the Markan parallel, but since it is attested in early and diverse witnesses (א D L Z Θ Ë1 579 700 pc lat) and since the parallel verse (Mark 10:4) already departs at many points, the shorter reading seems more likely to be original. The pronoun has been included in the translation, however, for clarity. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating reservations regarding its authenticity.

sn A quotation from Deut 24:1. The Pharisees were all in agreement that the OT permitted a man to write a certificate of dismissal and to divorce his wife (not vice-versa) and that remarriage was therefore sanctioned. But the two rabbinic schools of Shammai and Hillel differed on the grounds for divorce. Shammai was much stricter than Hillel and permitted divorce only in the case of sexual immorality. Hillel permitted divorce for almost any reason (cf. the Mishnah, m. Gittin 9.10).

151 tc A few important mss (א Φ pc) have the name “Jesus” here, but it is probably not original. Nevertheless, this translation routinely specifies the referents of pronouns to improve clarity, so that has been done here.

tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

152 tn Grk “heart” (a collective singular).

153 tc ‡ Some significant witnesses, along with the majority of later mss (Ì25 C D L W Z 078 Ë1,13 33 Ï lat sy samss bo), read αὐτοῦ (autou, “his”) after μαθηταί (maqhtai, “disciples”), but this looks to be a clarifying reading. Other early and important witnesses lack the pronoun (Ì71vid א B Θ e ff1 g1 sams mae), the reading adopted here. NA27 includes the pronoun in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

154 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

155 tn Grk “from the womb of the mother” (an idiom).

156 tn The verb εὐνουχίζω occurs twice in this verse, translated the first time as “made eunuchs” and the second time as “became eunuchs.” The term literally refers to castration. The second occurrence of the word in this verse is most likely figurative, though, referring to those who willingly maintain a life of celibacy for the furtherance of the kingdom (see W. D. Davies and D. C. Allison, Matthew [ICC], 3:23).

157 tn Grk “people.”

158 tn Grk “so that he would lay his hands on them and pray.”

159 tn Grk “the disciples scolded them.” In the translation the referent has been specified as “those who brought them,” since otherwise the statement could be understood to mean that the disciples scolded the children rather than their parents who brought them.

160 sn The kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark illustrates how everyone is important to God, even those whom others regard as insignificant.

161 tn Grk “went from there.”

162 tn Grk “And behold one came.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

163 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16; Deut 5:16-20.

164 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.

165 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.

166 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command – to give away all he had – revealed that internally he loved money more than God.

167 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

168 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: You will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.

169 tn Grk “he had many possessions.” This term (κτῆμα, kthma) is often used for land as a possession.

170 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

171 tn Grk “I say to you.”

172 tc A few late witnesses (579 1424 pc) read κάμιλον (kamilon, “rope”) for κάμηλον (kamhlon, “camel”), either through accidental misreading of the text or intentionally so as to soften Jesus’ words.

173 sn The eye of a needle refers to a sewing needle. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages and was not in existence in Jesus’ day.) Jesus was saying rhetorically that it is impossible for a rich person to enter God’s kingdom, unless God (v. 26) intervenes.

174 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

175 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?

176 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

177 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men, but for God all things are possible”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” in v. 28.

178 tn Grk “Then answering, Peter said.” This construction is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified in the translation.

179 sn Peter wants reassurance that the disciples’ response and sacrifice have been noticed.

180 tn Grk “We have left everything and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.

181 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.

182 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”

183 sn The Greek term translated the age when all things are renewed (παλιγγενεσία, palingenesia) is understood as a reference to the Messianic age, the time when all things are renewed and restored (cf. Rev 21:5).

184 sn The statement you…will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel looks at the future authority the Twelve will have when Jesus returns. They will share in Israel’s judgment.

185 sn Jesus reassures his disciples with a promise that (1) much benefit in this life (a hundred times as much) and (2) eternal life will be given.



TIP #07: Use the Discovery Box to further explore word(s) and verse(s). [ALL]
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