NETBible KJV GRK-HEB XRef Arts Hymns
  Discovery Box

Revelation 4:1--5:14

Context
The Amazing Scene in Heaven

4:1 After these things I looked, and there was 1  a door standing open in heaven! 2  And the first voice I had heard speaking to me 3  like a trumpet 4  said: “Come up here so that 5  I can show you what must happen after these things.” 4:2 Immediately I was in the Spirit, 6  and 7  a throne was standing 8  in heaven with someone seated on it! 4:3 And the one seated on it was like jasper 9  and carnelian 10  in appearance, and a rainbow looking like it was made of emerald 11  encircled the throne. 4:4 In 12  a circle around the throne were twenty-four other thrones, and seated on those thrones were twenty-four elders. They were 13  dressed in white clothing and had golden crowns 14  on their heads. 4:5 From 15  the throne came out flashes of lightning and roaring 16  and crashes of thunder. Seven flaming torches, which are the seven spirits of God, 17  were burning in front of the throne 4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 18 

In 19  the middle of the throne 20  and around the throne were four living creatures 21  full of eyes in front and in back. 4:7 The 22  first living creature was like a lion, the 23  second creature like an ox, the third creature had a face like a man’s, and the fourth creature looked like an eagle flying. 4:8 Each one of the four living creatures had six wings 24  and was full of eyes all around and inside. 25  They never rest day or night, saying: 26 

Holy Holy Holy is the Lord God, the All-Powerful, 27 

Who was and who is, and who is still to come!”

4:9 And whenever the living creatures give glory, honor, 28  and thanks to the one who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, 4:10 the twenty-four elders throw themselves to the ground 29  before the one who sits on the throne and worship the one who lives forever and ever, and they offer their crowns 30  before his 31  throne, saying:

4:11 “You are worthy, our Lord and God,

to receive glory and honor and power,

since you created all things,

and because of your will they existed and were created!” 32 

The Opening of the Scroll

5:1 Then 33  I saw in the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne a scroll written on the front and back 34  and sealed with seven seals. 35  5:2 And I saw a powerful angel proclaiming in a loud voice: “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to break its seals?” 5:3 But 36  no one in heaven or on earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll or look into it. 5:4 So 37  I began weeping bitterly 38  because no one was found who was worthy to open the scroll or to look into it. 5:5 Then 39  one of the elders said 40  to me, “Stop weeping! 41  Look, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, has conquered; 42  thus he can open 43  the scroll and its seven seals.”

5:6 Then 44  I saw standing in the middle of the throne 45  and of the four living creatures, and in the middle of the elders, a Lamb that appeared to have been killed. 46  He had 47  seven horns and seven eyes, which 48  are the seven 49  spirits of God 50  sent out into all the earth. 5:7 Then 51  he came and took the scroll 52  from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne, 5:8 and when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders threw themselves to the ground 53  before the Lamb. Each 54  of them had a harp and golden bowls full of incense (which are the prayers of the saints). 55  5:9 They were singing a new song: 56 

“You are worthy to take the scroll

and to open its seals

because you were killed, 57 

and at the cost of your own blood 58  you have purchased 59  for God

persons 60  from every tribe, language, 61  people, and nation.

5:10 You have appointed 62  them 63  as a kingdom and priests 64  to serve 65  our God, and they will reign 66  on the earth.”

5:11 Then 67  I looked and heard the voice of many angels in a circle around the throne, as well as the living creatures and the elders. Their 68  number was ten thousand times ten thousand 69  – thousands times thousands – 5:12 all of whom 70  were singing 71  in a loud voice:

“Worthy is the lamb who was killed 72 

to receive power and wealth

and wisdom and might

and honor and glory and praise!”

5:13 Then 73  I heard every creature – in heaven, on earth, under the earth, in the sea, and all that is in them – singing: 74 

“To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb

be praise, honor, glory, and ruling power 75  forever and ever!”

5:14 And the four living creatures were saying “Amen,” and the elders threw themselves to the ground 76  and worshiped.

Revelation 7:9-17

Context

7:9 After these things I looked, and here was 77  an enormous crowd that no one could count, made up of persons from every nation, tribe, 78  people, and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb dressed in long white robes, and with palm branches in their hands. 7:10 They were shouting out in a loud voice,

“Salvation belongs to our God, 79 

to the one seated on the throne, and to the Lamb!”

7:11 And all the angels stood 80  there in a circle around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they threw themselves down with their faces to the ground 81  before the throne and worshiped God, 7:12 saying,

“Amen! Praise and glory,

and wisdom and thanksgiving,

and honor and power and strength

be to our God for ever and ever. Amen!”

7:13 Then 82  one of the elders asked 83  me, “These dressed in long white robes – who are they and where have they come from?” 7:14 So 84  I said to him, “My lord, you know the answer.” 85  Then 86  he said to me, “These are the ones who have come out of the great tribulation. They 87  have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb! 7:15 For this reason they are before the throne of God, and they serve 88  him day and night in his temple, and the one seated on the throne will shelter them. 89  7:16 They will never go hungry or be thirsty again, and the sun will not beat down on them, nor any burning heat, 90  7:17 because the Lamb in the middle of the throne will shepherd them and lead them to springs of living water, and God will wipe away every tear from their eyes.” 91 

Revelation 11:15-19

Context
The Seventh Trumpet

11:15 Then 92  the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven saying:

“The kingdom of the world

has become the kingdom of our Lord

and of his Christ, 93 

and he will reign for ever and ever.”

11:16 Then 94  the twenty-four elders who are seated on their thrones before God threw themselves down with their faces to the ground 95  and worshiped God 11:17 with these words: 96 

“We give you thanks, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 97 

the one who is and who was,

because you have taken your great power

and begun to reign. 98 

11:18 The 99  nations 100  were enraged,

but 101  your wrath has come,

and the time has come for the dead to be judged,

and the time has come to give to your servants, 102 

the prophets, their reward,

as well as to the saints

and to those who revere 103  your name, both small and great,

and the time has come 104  to destroy those who destroy 105  the earth.”

11:19 Then 106  the temple of God in heaven was opened and the ark of his covenant was visible within his temple. And there were flashes of lightning, roaring, 107  crashes of thunder, an earthquake, and a great hailstorm. 108 

Revelation 14:1-5

Context
An Interlude: The Song of the 144,000

14:1 Then 109  I looked, and here was 110  the Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with him were one hundred and forty-four thousand, who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads. 14:2 I also heard a sound 111  coming out of heaven like the sound of many waters and like the sound of loud thunder. Now 112  the sound I heard was like that made by harpists playing their harps, 14:3 and they were singing a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders. No 113  one was able to learn the song except the one hundred and forty-four thousand who had been redeemed from the earth.

14:4 These are the ones who have not defiled themselves 114  with women, for they are virgins. These are the ones who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed from humanity as firstfruits to God and to the Lamb, 14:5 and no lie was found on their lips; 115  they 116  are blameless.

Revelation 15:1-8

Context
The Final Plagues

15:1 Then 117  I saw another great and astounding sign in heaven: seven angels who have seven final plagues 118  (they are final because in them God’s anger is completed).

15:2 Then 119  I saw something like a sea of glass 120  mixed with fire, and those who had conquered 121  the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing 122  by 123  the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God. 124  15:3 They 125  sang the song of Moses the servant 126  of God and the song of the Lamb: 127 

“Great and astounding are your deeds,

Lord God, the All-Powerful! 128 

Just 129  and true are your ways,

King over the nations! 130 

15:4 Who will not fear you, O Lord,

and glorify 131  your name, because you alone are holy? 132 

All nations 133  will come and worship before you

for your righteous acts 134  have been revealed.”

15:5 After 135  these things I looked, and the temple (the tent 136  of the testimony) 137  was opened in heaven, 15:6 and the seven angels who had the seven plagues came out of the temple, dressed in clean bright linen, wearing wide golden belts 138  around their chests. 15:7 Then 139  one of the four living creatures gave the seven angels seven golden bowls filled with the wrath 140  of God who lives forever and ever, 15:8 and the temple was filled with smoke from God’s glory and from his power. Thus 141  no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues from the seven angels were completed.

Revelation 19:1-10

Context

19:1 After these things I heard what sounded like the loud voice of a vast throng in heaven, saying,

“Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power belong to our God,

19:2 because his judgments are true and just. 142 

For he has judged 143  the great prostitute

who corrupted the earth with her sexual immorality,

and has avenged the blood of his servants 144  poured out by her own hands!” 145 

19:3 Then 146  a second time the crowd shouted, “Hallelujah!” The smoke rises from her forever and ever. 147  19:4 The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures threw themselves to the ground 148  and worshiped God, who was seated on the throne, saying: “Amen! Hallelujah!”

19:5 Then 149  a voice came from the throne, saying:

“Praise our God

all you his servants,

and all you who fear Him,

both the small and the great!”

The Wedding Celebration of the Lamb

19:6 Then 150  I heard what sounded like the voice of a vast throng, like the roar of many waters and like loud crashes of thunder. They were shouting: 151 

“Hallelujah!

For the Lord our God, 152  the All-Powerful, 153  reigns!

19:7 Let us rejoice 154  and exult

and give him glory,

because the wedding celebration of the Lamb has come,

and his bride has made herself ready.

19:8 She was permitted to be dressed in bright, clean, fine linen” 155  (for the fine linen is the righteous deeds of the saints). 156 

19:9 Then 157  the angel 158  said to me, “Write the following: Blessed are those who are invited to the banquet at the wedding celebration of the Lamb!” He also said to me, “These are the true words of God.” 19:10 So 159  I threw myself down 160  at his feet to worship him, but 161  he said, “Do not do this! 162  I am only 163  a fellow servant 164  with you and your brothers 165  who hold to the testimony about 166  Jesus. Worship God, for the testimony about Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.”

1 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

2 tn Or “in the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

3 tn Grk “with me.” The translation “with me” implies that John was engaged in a dialogue with the one speaking to him (e.g., Jesus or an angel) when in reality it was a one-sided conversation, with John doing all the listening. For this reason, μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ (met emou, “with me”) was translated as “to me.”

4 sn The phrase speaking to me like a trumpet refers back to Rev 1:10.

5 tn The conjunction καί (kai), much like the vav-consecutive in Hebrew, appears to be introducing a final/purpose clause here rather than a coordinate clause.

6 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).

7 tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).

8 tn BDAG 537 s.v. κεῖμαι 2 gives the translation “stand” for the term in this verse.

9 tn Grk “jasper stone.”

sn Jasper was a semiprecious gemstone, probably green in color (L&N 2.30).

10 sn Carnelian was a semiprecious gemstone, usually red in color (L&N 2.36).

11 tn Or “a rainbow emerald-like in appearance.”

12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

13 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were” to indicate the connection to the preceding material.

14 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

15 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

16 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

17 sn Some interpret the seven spirits of God as angelic beings, while others see them as a reference to the sevenfold ministry of the Holy Spirit.

18 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.

19 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

20 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

21 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”

22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

23 tn Both here and before the phrase “the third,” καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

24 tn Grk “six wings apiece,” but this is redundant with “each one” in English.

25 tn Some translations render ἔσωθεν (eswqen) as “under [its] wings,” but the description could also mean “filled all around on the outside and on the inside with eyes.” Since the referent is not available to the interpreter, the exact force is difficult to determine.

26 tn Or “They never stop saying day and night.”

27 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

sn A quotation from (or an allusion to) Isa 6:3.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

29 tn Grk “the twenty-four elders fall down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

30 sn See the note on the word crown in Rev 3:11.

31 tn The pronoun “his” is understood from the demonstrative force of the article τοῦ (tou) before θρόνου (qronou).

32 tc The past tense of “they existed” (ἦσαν, hsan) and the order of the expression “they existed and were created” seems backwards both logically and chronologically. The text as it stands is the more difficult reading and seems to have given rise to codex A omitting the final “they were created,” 2329 replacing “they existed” (ἦσαν) with “have come into being” (ἐγένοντο, egeneto), and 046 adding οὐκ (ouk, “not”) before ἦσαν (“they did not exist, [but were created]”). Several mss (1854 2050 ÏA sa) also attempt to alleviate the problem by replacing ἦσαν with “they are” (εἰσιν, eisin).

33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

34 tn Grk “written on the inside and the outside” (an idiom for having writing on both sides).

35 tn L&N 6.55 states, “From the immediate context of Re 5:1 it is not possible to determine whether the scroll in question had seven seals on the outside or whether the scroll was sealed at seven different points. However, since according to chapter six of Revelation the seals were broken one after another, it would appear as though the scroll had been sealed at seven different places as it had been rolled up.”

36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

37 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of no one being found worthy to open the scroll.

38 tn Grk “much.”

39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

40 tn Grk “says” (a historical present).

41 tn The present imperative with μή (mh) is used here to command cessation of an action in progress (ExSyn 724 lists this verse as an example).

42 tn Or “has been victorious”; traditionally, “has overcome.”

43 tn The infinitive has been translated as an infinitive of result here.

44 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

45 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

46 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.” The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. This phrase does not imply that the Lamb “appeared to have been killed” but in reality was not, because the wider context of the NT shows that in fact the Lamb, i.e., Jesus, was killed. See 13:3 for the only other occurrence of this phrase in the NT.

47 tn Grk “killed, having.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”

48 sn The relative pronoun which is masculine, referring back to the eyes rather than to the horns.

49 tc There is good ms evidence for the inclusion of “seven” (ἑπτά, Jepta; Ì24 א 2053 2351 ÏK). There is equally good ms support for the omission of the term (A 1006 1611 ÏA pc). It may have been accidentally added due to its repeated presence in the immediately preceding phrases, or it may have been intentionally added to maintain the symmetry of the phrases or more likely to harmonize the phrase with 1:4; 3:1; 4:5. Or it may have been accidentally deleted by way of homoioteleuton (τὰ ἑπτά, ta Jepta). A decision is difficult in this instance. NA27 also does not find the problem easy to solve, placing the word in brackets to indicate doubts as to its authenticity.

50 sn See the note on the phrase the seven spirits of God in Rev 4:5.

51 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

52 tn The words “the scroll” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

53 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

54 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

55 sn This interpretive comment by the author forms a parenthesis in the narrative.

56 tn The redundant participle λέγοντες (legontes) has not been translated here.

57 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

58 tn The preposition ἐν (en) is taken to indicate price here, like the Hebrew preposition ב (bet) does at times. BDAG 329 s.v. ἐν 5.b states, “The ἐν which takes the place of the gen. of price is also instrumental ἠγόρασας ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου Rv 5:9 (cp. 1 Ch 21:24 ἀγοράζω ἐν ἀργυρίῳ).”

59 tc The Greek text as it stands above (i.e., the reading τῷ θεῷ [tw qew] alone) is found in codex A. א 2050 2344 Ï sy add the term “us” (ἡμᾶς, Jhmas), either before or after τῷ θεῷ, as an attempt to clarify the object of “purchased” (ἠγόρασας, hgorasa"). A few mss (1 vgms) delete the reference to God altogether and simply replace it with “us” (ἡμᾶς). This too is an attempt to remove ambiguity in the phrase and provide an object for “purchased.” The shorter reading, supported by the best witness for Revelation, best accounts for the other readings.

60 tn The word “persons” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.

61 tn Grk “and language,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

62 tn The verb ἐποίησας (epoihsas) is understood to mean “appointed” here. For an example of this use, see Mark 3:14.

63 tc The vast majority of witnesses have αὐτούς (autous, “them”) here, while the Textus Receptus reads ἡμᾶς (Jhmas, “us”) with insignificant support (pc gig vgcl sa Prim Bea). There is no question that the original text read αὐτούς here.

64 tn The reference to “kingdom and priests” may be a hendiadys: “priestly kingdom.”

65 tn The words “to serve” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by the word “priests.”

66 tc The textual problem here between the present tense βασιλεύουσιν (basileuousin, “they are reigning”; so A 1006 1611 ÏK pc) and the future βασιλεύσουσιν (basileusousin, “they will reign”; so א 1854 2053 ÏA pc lat co) is a difficult one. Both readings have excellent support. On the one hand, the present tense seems to be the harder reading in this context. On the other hand, codex A elsewhere mistakes the future for the present (20:6). Further, the lunar sigma in uncial script could have been overlooked by some scribes, resulting in the present tense. All things considered, there is a slight preference for the future.

67 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

68 tn Grk “elders, and the number of them was.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

69 tn Or “myriads of myriads.” Although μυριάς (murias) literally means “10,000,” the point of the combination here may simply be to indicate an incalculably huge number. See L&N 60.9.

70 tn The words “all of whom” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied to indicate the resumption of the phrase “the voice of many angels” at the beginning of the verse.

71 tn Grk “saying.”

72 tn Or “slaughtered”; traditionally, “slain.”

73 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

74 tn Grk “saying.”

75 tn Or “dominion.”

76 tn Grk “fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

77 tn The phrase “and here was” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

78 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated before each of the following categories, since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

79 tn The dative here has been translated as a dative of possession.

80 tn The verb is pluperfect, but the force is simple past. See ExSyn 586.

81 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

82 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

83 tn Grk “spoke” or “declared to,” but in the context “asked” reads more naturally in English.

84 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the previous question.

85 tn Though the expression “the answer” is not in the Greek text, it is clearly implied. Direct objects in Greek were frequently omitted when clear from the context.

86 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

87 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

88 tn Or “worship.” The word here is λατρεύω (latreuw).

89 tn Grk “will spread his tent over them,” normally an idiom for taking up residence with someone, but when combined with the preposition ἐπί (epi, “over”) the idea is one of extending protection or shelter (BDAG 929 s.v. σκηνόω).

90 tn An allusion to Isa 49:10. The phrase “burning heat” is one word in Greek (καῦμα, kauma) that refers to a burning, intensely-felt heat. See BDAG 536 s.v.

91 sn An allusion to Isa 25:8.

92 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

93 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

94 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

95 tn Grk “they fell down on their faces.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

96 tn Grk “saying.”

97 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

98 tn The aorist verb ἐβασίλευσας (ebasileusa") has been translated ingressively.

99 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

100 tn Or “The Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

101 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

102 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

103 tn Grk “who fear.”

104 tn The words “the time has come” do not occur except at the beginning of the verse; the phrase has been repeated for emphasis and contrast. The Greek has one finite verb (“has come”) with a compound subject (“your wrath,” “the time”), followed by three infinitive clauses (“to be judged,” “to give,” “to destroy”). The rhetorical power of the repetition of the finite verb in English thus emulates the rhetorical power of its lone instance in Greek.

105 tn Or “who deprave.” There is a possible wordplay here on two meanings for διαφθείρω (diafqeirw), with the first meaning “destroy” and the second meaning either “to ruin” or “to make morally corrupt.” See L&N 20.40.

106 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence on events within the vision.

107 tn Or “sounds,” “voices.” It is not entirely clear what this refers to. BDAG 1071 s.v. φωνή 1 states, “In Rv we have ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶ καὶ βρονταί (cp. Ex 19:16) 4:5; 8:5; 11:19; 16:18 (are certain other sounds in nature thought of here in addition to thunder, as e.g. the roar of the storm?…).”

108 tn Although BDAG 1075 s.v. χάλαζα gives the meaning “hail” here, it is not clear whether the adjective μεγάλη (megalh) refers to the intensity of the storm or the size of the individual hailstones, or both.

109 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

110 tn The phrase “and here was” expresses the sense of καὶ ἰδού (kai idou).

111 tn Or “a voice” (cf. Rev 1:15), but since in this context nothing is mentioned as the content of the voice, it is preferable to translate φωνή (fwnh) as “sound” here.

112 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the introduction of a new topic.

113 tn Grk “elders, and no one.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but because of the length and complexity of the sentence a new sentence was started here in the translation.

114 tn The aorist passive verb is rendered as a reflexive (“defiled themselves”) by BDAG 657 s.v. μολύνω 2.

115 tn Grk “in their mouth was not found a lie.”

116 tc Several mss (Ì47 א 1 1006 1611 2351 ÏK pc) have the conjunction “for” (γάρ, gar) here so that the phrase reads: “for they are blameless.” Other important mss (A C P 1854 2053 al lat) lack the word. The shorter reading is to be preferred since the scribes were more likely to make the connection explicit through the addition of “for” than they would have been to omit the conjunction. As it is, the passage without the conjunction makes good sense and evokes a very somber tone.

117 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

118 tn Grk “seven plagues – the last ones.”

119 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

120 sn See Rev 4:6 where the sea of glass was mentioned previously.

121 tn Or “had been victorious over”; traditionally, “had overcome.”

122 tn Grk “of his name, standing.” A new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

123 tn Or “on.” The preposition ἐπί (epi) with the accusative case could mean “on, at, by, near”; given the nature of this scene appearing in a vision, it is difficult to know precisely which the author of Revelation intended. See BDAG 363 s.v. ἐπί 1.c.γ, “At, by, near someone or someth.

124 tn Grk “harps of God.” The phrase τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a genitive of agency.

125 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

126 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

127 tn Grk “saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

128 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

129 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

130 tc Certain mss (Ì47 א*,2 C 1006 1611 1841 pc) read “ages” (αἰώνων, aiwnwn) instead of “nations” (ἐθνῶν, eqnwn), which itself is supported by several mss (א1 A 051 Ï). The ms evidence seems to be fairly balanced, though αἰώνων has somewhat better support. The replacement of “ages” with “nations” is possibly a scribal attempt to harmonize this verse with the use of “nations” in the following verse. On the other hand, the idea of “nations” fits well with v. 4 and it may be that “ages” is a scribal attempt to assimilate this text to 1 Tim 1:17: “the king of the ages” (βασιλεὺς τῶν αἰώνων, basileu" twn aiwnwn). The decision is a difficult one since both scenarios deal well with the evidence, though the verbal parallel with 1 Tim 1:17 is exact while the parallel with v. 4 is not. The term “king” occurs 17 other times (most occurrences refer to earthly kings) in Revelation and it is not used with either “ages” or “nations” apart from this verse. Probably the reading “nations” should be considered original due to the influence of 1 Tim 1:17.

131 tn Or “and praise.”

sn Jeremiah 10:7 probably stands behind the idea of fearing God, and Psalm 86:9-10 stands behind the ideas of glorifying God, his uniqueness, and the nations coming to worship him. Many other OT passages also speak about the nations “coming to his temple” to worship (Isa 2:2-3, 49:22-23, 66:23-24; Micah 4:2; Zech 8:20-22). See G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97.

132 sn Because you alone are holy. In the Greek text the sentence literally reads “because alone holy.” Three points can be made in connection with John’s language here: (1) Omitting the second person, singular verb “you are” lays stress on the attribute of God’s holiness. (2) The juxtaposition of alone with holy stresses the unique nature of God’s holiness and complete “otherness” in relationship to his creation. It is not just moral purity which is involved in the use of the term holy, though it certainly includes that. It is also the pervasive OT idea that although God is deeply involved in the governing of his creation, he is to be regarded as separate and distinct from it. (3) John’s use of the term holy is also intriguing since it is the term ὅσιος (Josios) and not the more common NT term ἅγιος (Jagios). The former term evokes images of Christ’s messianic status in early Christian preaching. Both Peter in Acts 2:27 and Paul in Acts 13:35 apply Psalm 16:10 (LXX) to Jesus, referring to him as the “holy one” (ὅσιος). It is also the key term in Acts 13:34 (Isa 55:3 [LXX]) where it refers to the “holy blessings” (i.e., forgiveness and justification) brought about through Jesus in fulfillment of Davidic promise. Thus, in Rev 15:3-4, when John refers to God as “holy,” using the term ὅσιος in a context where the emphasis is on both God and Christ, there might be an implicit connection between divinity and the Messiah. This is bolstered by the fact that the Lamb is referred to in other contexts as the King of Kings and Lord of Lords (cf. 1:5; 17:14; 19:16 and perhaps 11:15; G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 796-97).

133 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (the same Greek word may be translated “Gentiles” or “nations”).

134 tn Or perhaps, “your sentences of condemnation.” On δικαίωμα (dikaiwma) in this context BDAG 249 s.v. 2. states, “righteous deedδι᾿ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος (opp. παράπτωμα) Ro 5:18. – B 1:2 (cp. Wengst, Barnabas-brief 196, n.4); Rv 15:4 (here perh.= ‘sentence of condemnation’ [cp. Pla., Leg. 9, 864e; ins fr. Asia Minor: LBW 41, 2 [κατὰ] τὸ δι[καί]ωμα τὸ κυρω[θέν]= ‘acc. to the sentence which has become valid’]; difft. Wengst, s. above); 19:8.”

135 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

136 tn On this term BDAG 928 s.v. σκηνή 1.b.α states, “ἡ σκηνὴ τοῦ μαρτυρίου the Tabernacle or Tent of Testimony (Ex 27:21; 29:4; Lev 1:1; Num 1:1 and oft.…) Ac 7:44; 1 Cl 43:2, 5,” and then continues in section 2 to state, “Rv 15:5 speaks of a ναὸς τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ. God’s σκ.= dwelling is in heaven 13:6, and will some time be among humans 21:3.”

137 tn Grk “the temple of the tent of the testimony” (ὁ ναός τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου, Jo naos ths skhnhs tou marturiou). The genitive “of the tent” is probably an appositional genitive and should be rendered as “the temple, which is the tent.” The entire expression, then, would be “the temple which is the tent of testimony,” that is, “the heavenly equivalent of the tent or tabernacle that was with Israel in the wilderness” (G. K. Beale, Revelation [NIGTC], 801-2).

sn In the OT the expression “tent of the testimony” occurs frequently (130 times in Exodus through Deuteronomy). The “testimony” refers to the ten commandments, i.e., the revelation of the righteous will of God (Exod 16:34; 25:21; 31:18; 32:15; 40:24). It is little wonder that the wrath of God upon an unrighteous, lawbreaking humanity follows in John’s description.

138 tn Or “wide golden sashes,” but these would not be diagonal, as some modern sashes are, but horizontal. The Greek term can refer to a wide band of cloth or leather worn on the outside of one’s clothing (L&N 6.178).

139 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

140 tn Or “anger.”

141 tn Grk “power, and no one.” A new sentence was started here in the translation. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the temple being filled with smoke.

142 tn Compare the similar phrase in Rev 16:7.

143 tn Or “has punished.” See BDAG 568 s.v. κρίνω 5.b.α, describing the OT background which involves both the vindication of the innocent and the punishment of the guilty.

144 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

145 tn Grk “from her hand” (referring to her responsibility in causing the blood of God’s followers to be shed).

146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

147 tn Or “her smoke ascends forever and ever.”

148 tn Grk “creatures fell down.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

149 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

150 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

151 tn Grk “like the voice of a large crowd…saying.” Because of the complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

152 tc Several mss (א2 P 1611 2053 2344 pc ÏK lat ) read “the Lord our God” (κύριος ὁ θεός ἡμῶν, kurio" Jo qeo" Jhmwn). Other important mss (A 1006 1841 pc), however, omit the “our” (ἡμῶν). Further, certain mss (051 ÏA) omit “Lord” (κύριος), while others (including א*) change the order of the statement to “God our Lord” (ὁ θεός ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν). The expression “the Lord God, the All-Powerful” occurs in 6 other places in Revelation (1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22) and the pronoun “our” is never used. Scribes familiar with the expression in this book, and especially with the frequent κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ (kurio" Jo qeo" Jo pantokratwr; “the Lord God, the All-Powerful”) in the OT Prophets (LXX; cf. Jer 39:19; Hos 12:6; Amos 3:13; 4:13; 5:8, 14, 15, 16, 27; 9:5, 6, 15; Nah 3:5; Zech 10:3), would naturally omit the pronoun. Its presence may have arisen due to liturgical motivations or to conform to the expression “our God” in 19:1, 5, but this seems much less likely than an aversion to using the pronoun here and only here in the Greek Bible in the fuller title κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

153 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν ὁ π. Rv 19:6.”

154 tn This verb and the next two verbs are hortatory subjunctives (giving exhortations).

155 tn On the term translated “fine linen,” BDAG 185 s.v. βύσσινος states, “made of fine linen, subst. τὸ β. fine linen, linen garmentRv 18:12…16; 19:8, 14.”

156 sn This phrase is treated as a parenthetical explanation by the author.

157 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

158 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

159 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s announcement.

160 tn Grk “I fell down at his feet.” BDAG 815 s.v. πίπτω 1.b.α.ב. has “fall down, throw oneself to the ground as a sign of devotion or humility, before high-ranking persons or divine beings.”

161 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

162 tn On the elliptical expression ὅρα μή (Jora mh) BDAG 720 s.v. ὁράω B.2 states: “Elliptically…ὅρα μή (sc. ποιήσῃς) watch out! don’t do that! Rv 19:10; 22:9.”

163 tn The lowliness of a slave is emphasized in the Greek text with the emphatic position of σύνδουλος (sundoulo"). The use of “only” helps to bring this nuance out in English.

164 tn Grk “fellow slave.” See the note on the word “servants” in v. 2.

165 tn The Greek term “brother” literally refers to family relationships, but here it is used in a broader sense to connote familial relationships within the family of God (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.a).

166 tn The genitive ᾿Ιησοῦ (Ihsou) has been translated as an objective genitive here. A subjective genitive, also possible, would produce the meaning “who hold to what Jesus testifies.”



TIP #25: What tip would you like to see included here? Click "To report a problem/suggestion" on the bottom of page and tell us. [ALL]
created in 0.11 seconds
powered by bible.org