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Ezekiel 24:1--32:32

Context
The Boiling Pot

24:1 The word of the Lord came to me in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month 1 : 24:2 “Son of man, write down the name of this day, this very day. The king of Babylon has laid siege 2  to Jerusalem 3  this very day. 24:3 Recite a proverb to this rebellious house 4  and say to them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Set on the pot, 5  set it on,

pour water in it too;

24:4 add the pieces of meat to it,

every good piece,

the thigh and the shoulder;

fill it with choice bones.

24:5 Take the choice bone of the flock,

heap up bones under it;

boil rapidly,

and boil its bones in it.

24:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Woe to the city of bloodshed,

the pot whose rot 6  is in it,

whose rot has not been removed 7  from it!

Empty it piece by piece.

No lot has fallen on it. 8 

24:7 For her blood was in it;

she poured it on an exposed rock;

she did not pour it on the ground to cover it up with dust.

24:8 To arouse anger, to take vengeance,

I have placed her blood on an exposed rock so that it cannot be covered up.

24:9 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Woe to the city of bloodshed!

I will also make the pile high.

24:10 Pile up the bones, kindle the fire;

cook the meat well, mix in the spices,

let the bones be charred.

24:11 Set the empty pot on the coals, 9 

until it becomes hot and its copper glows,

until its uncleanness melts within it and its rot 10  is consumed.

24:12 It has tried my patience; 11 

yet its thick rot is not removed 12  from it.

Subject its rot to the fire! 13 

24:13 You mix uncleanness with obscene conduct. 14 

I tried to cleanse you, 15  but you are not clean.

You will not be cleansed from your uncleanness 16 

until I have exhausted my anger on you.

24:14 “‘I the Lord have spoken; judgment 17  is coming and I will act! I will not relent, or show pity, or be sorry! 18  I will judge you 19  according to your conduct 20  and your deeds, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

Ezekiel’s Wife Dies

24:15 The word of Lord came to me: 24:16 “Son of man, realize that I am about to take the delight of your eyes away from you with a jolt, 21  but you must not mourn or weep or shed tears. 24:17 Groan in silence for the dead, 22  but do not perform mourning rites. 23  Bind on your turban 24  and put your sandals on your feet. Do not cover your lip 25  and do not eat food brought by others.” 26 

24:18 So I spoke to the people in the morning, and my wife died in the evening. In the morning 27  I acted just as I was commanded. 24:19 Then the people said to me, “Will you not tell us what these things you are doing mean for us?”

24:20 So I said to them: “The word of the Lord came to me: 24:21 Say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Realize I am about to desecrate my sanctuary – the source of your confident pride, 28  the object in which your eyes delight, 29  and your life’s passion. 30  Your very own sons and daughters whom you have left behind will die 31  by the sword. 24:22 Then you will do as I have done: You will not cover your lip or eat food brought by others. 32  24:23 Your turbans will be on your heads and your sandals on your feet; you will not mourn or weep, but you will rot 33  for your iniquities 34  and groan among yourselves. 24:24 Ezekiel will be an object lesson for you; you will do all that he has done. When it happens, then you will know that I am the sovereign Lord.’

24:25 “And you, son of man, this is what will happen on the day I take 35  from them their stronghold – their beautiful source of joy, the object in which their eyes delight, and the main concern of their lives, 36  as well as their sons and daughters: 37  24:26 On that day a fugitive will come to you to report the news. 38  24:27 On that day you will be able to speak again; 39  you will talk with the fugitive and be silent no longer. You will be an object lesson for them, and they will know that I am the Lord.”

A Prophecy Against Ammon

25:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 25:2 “Son of man, turn toward 40  the Ammonites 41  and prophesy against them. 25:3 Say to the Ammonites, ‘Hear the word of the sovereign Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says: You said “Aha!” about my sanctuary when it was desecrated, about the land of Israel when it was made desolate, and about the house of Judah when they went into exile. 25:4 So take note, 42  I am about to make you slaves of 43  the tribes 44  of the east. They will make camps among you and pitch their tents among you. They will eat your fruit and drink your milk. 25:5 I will make Rabbah a pasture for camels and Ammon 45  a resting place for sheep. Then you will know that I am the Lord. 25:6 For this is what the sovereign Lord says: Because you clapped your hands, stamped your feet, and rejoiced with intense scorn 46  over the land of Israel, 25:7 take note, I have stretched out my hand against you, and I will hand you over as plunder 47  to the nations. I will cut you off from the peoples and make you perish from the lands. I will destroy you; then you will know that I am the Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Moab

25:8 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Moab 48  and Seir say, “Look, the house of Judah is like all the other nations.” 25:9 So look, I am about to open up Moab’s flank, 49  eliminating the cities, 50  including its frontier cities, 51  the beauty of the land – Beth Jeshimoth, Baal Meon, and Kiriathaim. 25:10 I will hand it over, 52  along with the Ammonites, 53  to the tribes 54  of the east, so that the Ammonites will no longer be remembered among the nations. 25:11 I will execute judgments against Moab. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Edom

25:12 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Edom 55  has taken vengeance against the house of Judah; they have made themselves fully culpable 56  by taking vengeance 57  on them. 58  25:13 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: I will stretch out my hand against Edom, and I will kill the people and animals within her, 59  and I will make her desolate; from Teman to Dedan they will die 60  by the sword. 25:14 I will exact my vengeance upon Edom by the hand of my people Israel. They will carry out in Edom my anger and rage; they will experience 61  my vengeance, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

A Prophecy Against Philistia

25:15 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘The Philistines 62  have exacted merciless revenge, 63  showing intense scorn 64  in their effort to destroy Judah 65  with unrelenting hostility. 66  25:16 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: Take note, I am about to stretch out my hand against the Philistines. I will kill 67  the Cherethites 68  and destroy those who remain on the seacoast. 25:17 I will exact great vengeance upon them with angry rebukes. 69  Then they will know that I am the Lord, when I exact my vengeance upon them.’”

A Prophecy Against Tyre

26:1 In the eleventh year, on the first day of the month, 70  the word of the Lord came to me: 26:2 “Son of man, because Tyre 71  has said about Jerusalem, 72  ‘Aha, the gateway of the peoples is broken; it has swung open to me. I will become rich, 73  now that she 74  has been destroyed,’ 26:3 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 75  I am against you, 76  O Tyre! I will bring up many nations against you, as the sea brings up its waves. 26:4 They will destroy the walls of Tyre and break down her towers. I will scrape her soil 77  from her and make her a bare rock. 26:5 She will be a place where fishing nets are spread, surrounded by the sea. For I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. She will become plunder for the nations, 26:6 and her daughters 78  who are in the field will be slaughtered by the sword. Then they will know that I am the Lord.

26:7 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says: Take note that 79  I am about to bring King Nebuchadrezzar 80  of Babylon, king of kings, against Tyre from the north, with horses, chariots, and horsemen, an army and hordes of people. 26:8 He will kill your daughters in the field with the sword. He will build a siege wall against you, erect a siege ramp against you, and raise a great shield against you. 26:9 He will direct the blows of his battering rams against your walls and tear down your towers with his weapons. 81  26:10 He will cover you with the dust kicked up by his many horses. 82  Your walls will shake from the noise of the horsemen, wheels, and chariots when he enters your gates like those who invade through a city’s broken walls. 83  26:11 With his horses’ hoofs he will trample all your streets. He will kill your people with the sword, and your strong pillars will tumble down to the ground. 26:12 They will steal your wealth and loot your merchandise. They will tear down your walls and destroy your luxurious 84  homes. Your stones, your trees, and your soil he will throw 85  into the water. 86  26:13 I will silence 87  the noise of your songs; the sound of your harps will be heard no more. 26:14 I will make you a bare rock; you will be a place where fishing nets are spread. You will never be built again, 88  for I, the Lord, have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.

26:15 “This is what the sovereign Lord says to Tyre: Oh, how the coastlands will shake at the sound of your fall, when the wounded groan, at the massive slaughter in your midst! 26:16 All the princes of the sea will vacate 89  their thrones. They will remove their robes and strip off their embroidered clothes; they will clothe themselves with trembling. They will sit on the ground; they will tremble continually and be shocked at what has happened to you. 90  26:17 They will sing this lament over you: 91 

“‘How you have perished – you have vanished 92  from the seas,

O renowned city, once mighty in the sea,

she and her inhabitants, who spread their terror! 93 

26:18 Now the coastlands will tremble on the day of your fall;

the coastlands by the sea will be terrified by your passing.’ 94 

26:19 “For this is what the sovereign Lord says: When I make you desolate like the uninhabited cities, when I bring up the deep over you and the surging 95  waters overwhelm you, 26:20 then I will bring you down to bygone people, 96  to be with those who descend to the pit. I will make you live in the lower parts of the earth, among 97  the primeval ruins, with those who descend to the pit, so that you will not be inhabited or stand 98  in the land of the living. 26:21 I will bring terrors on you, and you will be no more! Though you are sought after, you will never be found again, declares the sovereign Lord.”

A Lament for Tyre

27:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 27:2 “You, son of man, sing a lament for Tyre. 99  27:3 Say to Tyre, who sits at the entrance 100  of the sea, 101  merchant to the peoples on many coasts, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘O Tyre, you have said, “I am perfectly beautiful.”

27:4 102 Your borders are in the heart of the seas;

your builders have perfected your beauty.

27:5 They crafted 103  all your planks out of fir trees from Senir; 104 

they took a cedar from Lebanon to make your mast.

27:6 They made your oars from oaks of Bashan;

they made your deck 105  with cypresses 106  from the Kittean isles. 107 

27:7 Fine linen from Egypt, woven with patterns, was used for your sail

to serve as your banner;

blue and purple from the coastlands of Elishah 108  was used for your deck’s awning.

27:8 The leaders 109  of Sidon 110  and Arvad 111  were your rowers;

your skilled 112  men, O Tyre, were your captains.

27:9 The elders of Gebal 113  and her skilled men were within you, mending cracks; 114 

all the ships of the sea and their mariners were within you to trade for your merchandise. 115 

27:10 Men of Persia, Lud, 116  and Put were in your army, men of war.

They hung shield and helmet on you; they gave you your splendor.

27:11 The Arvadites 117  joined your army on your walls all around,

and the Gammadites 118  were in your towers.

They hung their quivers 119  on your walls all around;

they perfected your beauty.

27:12 “‘Tarshish 120  was your trade partner because of your abundant wealth; they exchanged silver, iron, tin, and lead for your products. 27:13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech were your clients; they exchanged slaves and bronze items for your merchandise. 27:14 Beth Togarmah exchanged horses, chargers, 121  and mules for your products. 27:15 The Dedanites 122  were your clients. Many coastlands were your customers; they paid 123  you with ivory tusks and ebony. 27:16 Edom 124  was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods; they exchanged turquoise, purple, embroidered work, fine linen, coral, and rubies for your products. 27:17 Judah and the land of Israel were your clients; they traded wheat from Minnith, 125  millet, honey, olive oil, and balm for your merchandise. 27:18 Damascus was your trade partner because of the abundance of your goods and of all your wealth: wine from Helbon, white wool from Zahar, 27:19 and casks of wine 126  from Izal 127  they exchanged for your products. Wrought iron, cassia, and sweet cane were among your merchandise. 27:20 Dedan was your client in saddlecloths for riding. 27:21 Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were your trade partners; for lambs, rams, and goats they traded with you. 27:22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah engaged in trade with you; they traded the best kinds of spices along with precious stones and gold for your products. 27:23 Haran, Kanneh, Eden, merchants from Sheba, Asshur, and Kilmad were your clients. 27:24 They traded with you choice garments, purple clothes and embroidered work, and multicolored carpets, bound and reinforced with cords; these were among your merchandise. 27:25 The ships of Tarshish 128  were the transports for your merchandise.

“‘So you were filled and weighed down in the heart of the seas.

27:26 Your rowers have brought you into surging waters.

The east wind has wrecked you in the heart of the seas.

27:27 Your wealth, products, and merchandise, your sailors and captains,

your ship’s carpenters, 129  your merchants,

and all your fighting men within you,

along with all your crew who are in you,

will fall into the heart of the seas on the day of your downfall.

27:28 At the sound of your captains’ cry the waves will surge; 130 

27:29 They will descend from their ships – all who handle the oar,

the sailors and all the sea captains – they will stand on the land.

27:30 They will lament loudly 131  over you and cry bitterly.

They will throw dust on their heads and roll in the ashes; 132 

27:31 they will tear out their hair because of you and put on sackcloth,

and they will weep bitterly over you with intense mourning. 133 

27:32 As they wail they will lament over you, chanting:

“Who was like Tyre, like a tower 134  in the midst of the sea?”

27:33 When your products went out from the seas,

you satisfied many peoples;

with the abundance of your wealth and merchandise

you enriched the kings of the earth.

27:34 Now you are wrecked by the seas, in the depths of the waters;

your merchandise and all your company have sunk 135  along with you. 136 

27:35 All the inhabitants of the coastlands are shocked at you,

and their kings are horribly afraid – their faces are troubled.

27:36 The traders among the peoples hiss at you;

you have become a horror, and will be no more.’”

A Prophecy Against the King of Tyre

28:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:2 “Son of man, say to the prince 137  of Tyre, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Your heart is proud 138  and you said, “I am a god; 139 

I sit in the seat of gods, in the heart of the seas” –

yet you are a man and not a god,

though you think you are godlike. 140 

28:3 Look, you are wiser than Daniel; 141 

no secret is hidden from you. 142 

28:4 By your wisdom and understanding you have gained wealth for yourself;

you have amassed gold and silver in your treasuries.

28:5 By your great skill 143  in trade you have increased your wealth,

and your heart is proud because of your wealth.

28:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:

Because you think you are godlike, 144 

28:7 I am about to bring foreigners 145  against you, the most terrifying of nations.

They will draw their swords against the grandeur made by your wisdom, 146 

and they will defile your splendor.

28:8 They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die violently 147  in the heart of the seas.

28:9 Will you still say, “I am a god,” before the one who kills you –

though you are a man and not a god –

when you are in the power of those who wound you?

28:10 You will die the death of the uncircumcised 148  by the hand of foreigners;

for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

28:11 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:12 “Son of man, sing 149  a lament for the king of Tyre, and say to him, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘You were the sealer 150  of perfection,

full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

28:13 You were in Eden, the garden of God. 151 

Every precious stone was your covering,

the ruby, topaz, and emerald,

the chrysolite, onyx, and jasper,

the sapphire, turquoise, and beryl; 152 

your settings and mounts were made of gold.

On the day you were created they were prepared.

28:14 I placed you there with an anointed 153  guardian 154  cherub; 155 

you were on the holy mountain of God;

you walked about amidst fiery stones.

28:15 You were blameless in your behavior 156  from the day you were created,

until sin was discovered in you.

28:16 In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, 157  and you sinned;

so I defiled you and banished you 158  from the mountain of God –

the guardian cherub expelled you 159  from the midst of the stones of fire.

28:17 Your heart was proud because of your beauty;

you corrupted your wisdom on account of your splendor.

I threw you down to the ground;

I placed you before kings, that they might see you.

28:18 By the multitude of your iniquities, through the sinfulness of your trade,

you desecrated your sanctuaries.

So I drew fire out from within you;

it consumed you,

and I turned you to ashes on the earth

before the eyes of all who saw you.

28:19 All who know you among the peoples are shocked at you;

you have become terrified and will be no more.’”

A Prophecy Against Sidon

28:20 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:21 “Son of man, turn toward 160  Sidon 161  and prophesy against it. 28:22 Say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against you, 162  Sidon,

and I will magnify myself in your midst.

Then they will know that I am the Lord

when I execute judgments on her

and reveal my sovereign power 163  in her.

28:23 I will send a plague into the city 164  and bloodshed into its streets;

the slain will fall within it, by the sword that attacks it 165  from every side.

Then they will know that I am the Lord.

28:24 “‘No longer will Israel suffer from the sharp briers 166  or painful thorns of all who surround and scorn them. 167  Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.

28:25 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: When I regather the house of Israel from the peoples where they are dispersed, I will reveal my sovereign power 168  over them in the sight of the nations, and they will live in their land that I gave to my servant Jacob. 28:26 They will live securely in it; they will build houses and plant vineyards. They will live securely 169  when I execute my judgments on all those who scorn them and surround them. Then they will know that I am the Lord their God.’”

A Prophecy Against Egypt

29:1 In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth day of the month, 170  the word of the Lord came to me: 29:2 “Son of man, turn toward 171  Pharaoh king of Egypt, and prophesy against him and against all Egypt. 29:3 Tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against 172  you, Pharaoh king of Egypt,

the great monster 173  lying in the midst of its waterways,

who has said, “My Nile is my own, I made it for myself.” 174 

29:4 I will put hooks in your jaws

and stick the fish of your waterways to your scales.

I will haul you up from the midst of your waterways,

and all the fish of your waterways will stick to your scales.

29:5 I will leave you in the wilderness,

you and all the fish of your waterways;

you will fall in the open field and will not be gathered up or collected. 175 

I have given you as food to the beasts of the earth and the birds of the skies.

29:6 Then all those living in Egypt will know that I am the Lord

because they were a reed staff 176  for the house of Israel;

29:7 when they grasped you with their hand, 177  you broke and tore 178  their shoulders,

and when they leaned on you, you splintered and caused their legs to be unsteady. 179 

29:8 “‘Therefore, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to bring a sword against you, and I will kill 180  every person and every animal. 29:9 The land of Egypt will become a desolate ruin. Then they will know that I am the Lord.

Because he said, “The Nile is mine and I made it,” 29:10 I am against 181  you and your waterways. I will turn the land of Egypt into an utter desolate ruin from Migdol 182  to Syene, 183  as far as the border with Ethiopia. 29:11 No human foot will pass through it, and no animal’s foot will pass through it; it will be uninhabited for forty years. 29:12 I will turn the land of Egypt into a desolation in the midst of desolate lands; for forty years her cities will lie desolate in the midst of ruined cities. I will scatter Egypt among the nations and disperse them among foreign countries.

29:13 “‘For this is what the sovereign Lord says: At the end of forty years 184  I will gather Egypt from the peoples where they were scattered. 29:14 I will restore the fortunes of Egypt, and will bring them back 185  to the land of Pathros, to the land of their origin; there they will be an insignificant kingdom. 29:15 It will be the most insignificant of the kingdoms; it will never again exalt itself over the nations. I will make them so small that they will not rule over the nations. 29:16 It will never again be Israel’s source of confidence, but a reminder of how they sinned by turning to Egypt for help. 186  Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.’”

29:17 In the twenty-seventh year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, 187  the word of the Lord came to me: 29:18 “Son of man, King Nebuchadrezzar 188  of Babylon made his army labor hard against Tyre. 189  Every head was rubbed bald and every shoulder rubbed bare; yet he and his army received no wages from Tyre for the work he carried out against it. 29:19 Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to give the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. He will carry off her wealth, capture her loot, and seize her plunder; it will be his army’s wages. 29:20 I have given him the land of Egypt as his compensation for attacking Tyre 190 , because they did it for me, declares the sovereign Lord. 29:21 On that day I will make Israel powerful, 191  and I will give you the right to be heard 192  among them. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

A Lament Over Egypt

30:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 30:2 “Son of man, prophesy and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Wail, “Alas, the day is here!” 193 

30:3 For the day is near,

the day of the Lord is near;

it will be a day of storm clouds, 194 

it will be a time of judgment 195  for the nations.

30:4 A sword will come against Egypt

and panic will overtake Ethiopia

when the slain fall in Egypt

and they carry away her wealth

and dismantle her foundations.

30:5 Ethiopia, Put, Lud, all the foreigners, 196  Libya, and the people 197  of the covenant land 198  will die by the sword along with them.

30:6 “‘This is what the Lord says:

Egypt’s supporters will fall;

her confident pride will crumble. 199 

From Migdol to Syene 200  they will die by the sword within her,

declares the sovereign Lord.

30:7 They will be desolate among desolate lands,

and their cities will be among ruined cities.

30:8 They will know that I am the Lord

when I ignite a fire in Egypt

and all her allies are defeated. 201 

30:9 On that day messengers will go out from me in ships to frighten overly confident Ethiopia; panic will overtake them on the day of Egypt’s doom; 202  for beware – it is coming!

30:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

I will put an end to the hordes of Egypt,

by the hand of King Nebuchadrezzar 203  of Babylon.

30:11 He and his people with him,

the most terrifying of the nations, 204 

will be brought there to destroy the land.

They will draw their swords against Egypt,

and fill the land with corpses.

30:12 I will dry up the waterways

and hand the land over to 205  evil men.

I will make the land and everything in it desolate by the hand of foreigners.

I, the Lord, have spoken!

30:13 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

I will destroy the idols,

and put an end to the gods of Memphis.

There will no longer be a prince from the land of Egypt;

so I will make the land of Egypt fearful. 206 

30:14 I will desolate Pathros,

I will ignite a fire in Zoan,

and I will execute judgments on Thebes.

30:15 I will pour out my anger upon Pelusium, 207 

the stronghold of Egypt;

I will cut off 208  the hordes of Thebes.

30:16 I will ignite a fire in Egypt;

Syene 209  will writhe in agony,

Thebes will be broken down,

and Memphis will face enemies every day.

30:17 The young men of On and of Pi-beseth 210  will die by the sword;

and the cities will go 211  into captivity.

30:18 In Tahpanhes the day will be dark 212 

when I break the yoke of Egypt there.

Her confident pride will cease within her;

a cloud will cover her, and her daughters will go into captivity.

30:19 I will execute judgments on Egypt.

Then they will know that I am the Lord.’”

30:20 In the eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh day of the month, 213  the word of the Lord came to me: 30:21 “Son of man, I have broken the arm 214  of Pharaoh king of Egypt. 215  Look, it has not been bandaged for healing or set with a dressing so that it might become strong enough to grasp a sword. 30:22 Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 216  I am against 217  Pharaoh king of Egypt, and I will break his arms, the strong arm and the broken one, and I will make the sword drop from his hand. 30:23 I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and disperse them among foreign countries. 30:24 I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and I will place my sword in his hand, but I will break the arms of Pharaoh, and he will groan like the fatally wounded before the king of Babylon. 218  30:25 I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, but the arms of Pharaoh will fall limp. Then they will know that I am the Lord when I place my sword in the hand of the king of Babylon and he extends it against the land of Egypt. 30:26 I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among foreign countries. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

A Cedar in Lebanon

31:1 In the eleventh year, in the third month, on the first day of the month, 219  the word of the Lord came to me: 31:2 “Son of man, say to Pharaoh king of Egypt and his hordes:

“‘Who are you like in your greatness?

31:3 Consider Assyria, 220  a cedar in Lebanon, 221 

with beautiful branches, like a forest giving shade,

and extremely tall;

its top reached into the clouds.

31:4 The water made it grow;

underground springs made it grow tall.

Rivers flowed all around the place it was planted,

while smaller channels watered all the trees of the field. 222 

31:5 Therefore it grew taller than all the trees of the field;

its boughs grew large and its branches grew long,

because of the plentiful water in its shoots. 223 

31:6 All the birds of the sky nested in its boughs;

under its branches all the beasts of the field gave birth,

in its shade all the great 224  nations lived.

31:7 It was beautiful in its loftiness, in the length of its branches;

for its roots went down deep to plentiful waters.

31:8 The cedars in the garden of God could not eclipse it,

nor could the fir trees 225  match its boughs;

the plane trees were as nothing compared to its branches;

no tree in the garden of God could rival its beauty.

31:9 I made it beautiful with its many branches;

all the trees of Eden, in the garden of God, envied it.

31:10 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Because it was tall in stature, and its top reached into the clouds, and it was proud of its height, 31:11 I gave it over to the leader of the nations. He has judged it thoroughly, 226  as its sinfulness deserves. I have thrown it out. 31:12 Foreigners from the most terrifying nations have cut it down and left it to lie there on the mountains. In all the valleys its branches have fallen, and its boughs lie broken in the ravines of the land. All the peoples of the land 227  have departed 228  from its shade and left it. 31:13 On its ruins all the birds of the sky will live, and all the wild animals 229  will walk 230  on its branches. 31:14 For this reason no watered trees will grow so tall; their tops will not reach into the clouds, nor will the well-watered ones grow that high. 231  For all of them have been appointed to die in the lower parts of the earth; 232  they will be among mere mortals, 233  with those who descend to the pit.

31:15 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On the day it 234  went down to Sheol I caused observers to lament. 235  I covered it with the deep and held back its rivers; its plentiful water was restrained. I clothed Lebanon in black for it, and all the trees of the field wilted because of it. 31:16 I made the nations shake at the sound of its fall, when I threw it down to Sheol, along with those who descend to the pit. 236  Then all the trees of Eden, the choicest and the best of Lebanon, all that were well-watered, were comforted in the earth below. 31:17 Those who lived in its shade, its allies 237  among the nations, also went down with it to Sheol, to those killed by the sword. 31:18 Which of the trees of Eden was like you in majesty and loftiness? You will be brought down with the trees of Eden to the lower parts of the earth; you will lie among the uncircumcised, with those killed by the sword! This is what will happen to Pharaoh and all his hordes, declares the sovereign Lord.’”

Lamentation over Pharaoh and Egypt

32:1 In the twelfth year, in the twelfth month, on the first of the month, 238  the word of the Lord came to me: 32:2 “Son of man, sing a lament for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him:

“‘You were like a lion 239  among the nations,

but you are a monster in the seas;

you thrash about in your streams,

stir up the water with your feet,

and muddy your 240  streams.

32:3 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘I will throw my net over you 241  in the assembly of many peoples;

and they will haul you up in my dragnet.

32:4 I will leave you on the ground,

I will fling you on the open field,

I will allow 242  all the birds of the sky to settle 243  on you,

and I will permit 244  all the wild animals 245  to gorge themselves on you.

32:5 I will put your flesh on the mountains,

and fill the valleys with your maggot-infested carcass. 246 

32:6 I will drench the land with the flow

of your blood up to the mountains,

and the ravines will be full of your blood. 247 

32:7 When I extinguish you, I will cover the sky;

I will darken its stars.

I will cover the sun with a cloud,

and the moon will not shine. 248 

32:8 I will darken all the lights in the sky over you,

and I will darken your land,

declares the sovereign Lord.

32:9 I will disturb 249  many peoples,

when I bring about your destruction among the nations,

among countries you do not know.

32:10 I will shock many peoples with you,

and their kings will shiver with horror because of you.

When I brandish my sword before them,

every moment each one will tremble for his life, on the day of your fall.

32:11 “‘For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘The sword of the king of Babylon 250  will attack 251  you.

32:12 By the swords of the mighty warriors I will cause your hordes to fall –

all of them are the most terrifying among the nations.

They will devastate the pride of Egypt,

and all its hordes will be destroyed.

32:13 I will destroy all its cattle beside the plentiful waters;

and no human foot will disturb 252  the waters 253  again,

nor will the hooves of cattle disturb them.

32:14 Then I will make their waters calm, 254 

and will make their streams flow like olive oil, declares the sovereign Lord.

32:15 When I turn the land of Egypt into desolation

and the land is destitute of everything that fills it,

when I strike all those who live in it,

then they will know that I am the Lord.’

32:16 This is a lament; they will chant it.

The daughters of the nations will chant it.

They will chant it over Egypt and over all her hordes,

declares the sovereign Lord.”

32:17 In the twelfth year, on the fifteenth day of the month, 255  the word of the Lord came to me: 32:18 “Son of man, wail 256  over the horde of Egypt. Bring it down; 257  bring 258  her 259  and the daughters of powerful nations down to the lower parts of the earth, along with those who descend to the pit. 32:19 Say to them, 260  ‘Whom do you surpass in beauty? 261  Go down and be laid to rest with the uncircumcised!’ 32:20 They will fall among those killed by the sword. The sword is drawn; they carry her and all her hordes away. 32:21 The bravest of the warriors will speak to him from the midst of Sheol along with his allies, saying: ‘The uncircumcised have come down; they lie still, killed by the sword.’

32:22 “Assyria is there with all her assembly around her grave, 262  all of them struck down by the sword. 263  32:23 Their 264  graves are located in the remote slopes of the pit. 265  Her assembly is around her grave, all of them struck down by the sword, those who spread terror in the land of the living.

32:24 “Elam is there with all her hordes around her grave; all of them struck down by the sword. They went down uncircumcised to the lower parts of the earth, those who spread terror in the land of the living. Now they will bear their shame with those who descend to the pit. 32:25 Among the dead they have made a bed for her, along with all her hordes around her grave. 266  All of them are uncircumcised, killed by the sword, for their terror had spread in the land of the living. They bear their shame along with those who descend to the pit; they are placed among the dead.

32:26 “Meshech-Tubal is there, along with all her hordes around her grave. 267  All of them are uncircumcised, killed by the sword, for they spread their terror in the land of the living. 32:27 They do not lie with the fallen warriors of ancient times, 268  who went down to Sheol with their weapons of war, having their swords placed under their heads and their shields on their bones, 269  when the terror of these warriors was in the land of the living.

32:28 “But as for you, in the midst of the uncircumcised you will be broken, and you will lie with those killed by the sword.

32:29 “Edom is there with her kings and all her princes. Despite their might they are laid with those killed by the sword; they lie with the uncircumcised and those who descend to the pit.

32:30 “All the leaders of the north are there, along with all the Sidonians; despite their might they have gone down in shameful terror with the dead. They lie uncircumcised with those killed by the sword, and bear their shame with those who descend to the pit.

32:31 “Pharaoh will see them and be consoled over all his hordes who were killed by the sword, Pharaoh and all his army, declares the sovereign Lord. 32:32 Indeed, I terrified him in the land of the living, yet he will lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with those killed by the sword, Pharaoh and all his hordes, declares the sovereign Lord.”

1 tn The date of this oracle was January 15, 588 b.c.

2 tn Heb “lean on, put pressure on.”

3 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

4 sn The book of Ezekiel frequently refers to the Israelites as a rebellious house (Ezek 2:5, 6, 8; 3:9, 26-27; 12:2-3, 9, 25; 17:12; 24:3).

5 sn See Ezek 11:3-12.

6 tn Or “rust.”

7 tn Heb “has not gone out.”

8 tn Here “lot” may refer to the decision made by casting lots; it is not chosen at all.

9 tn Heb “set it upon its coals, empty.”

10 tn Or “rust” (so also in v. 12).

11 tn Heb “(with) toil she has wearied.” The meaning of the statement is unclear in the Hebrew text; some follow the LXX and delete it. The first word in the statement (rendered “toil” in the literal translation above) occurs only here in the OT, and the verb “she has wearied” lacks a stated object. Elsewhere the Hiphil of the verb refers to wearying someone or trying someone’s patience. The feminine subject is apparently the symbolic pot.

12 tn Heb “does not go out.”

13 tn Heb “in fire its rust.” The meaning of the expression is unclear. The translation understands the statement as a command to burn the rust away. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:768.

14 tn Heb “in your uncleanness (is) obscene conduct.”

15 tn Heb “because I cleansed you.” In this context (see especially the very next statement), the statement must refer to divine intention and purpose. Despite God’s efforts to cleanse his people, they resisted him and remained morally impure.

16 tn The Hebrew text adds the word “again.”

17 tn Heb “it”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 tn Or perhaps, “change my mind.”

19 tc Some medieval Hebrew mss and the major ancient versions read a first person verb here. Most Hebrew mss read have an indefinite subject, “they will judge you,” which could be translated, “you will be judged.”

20 tn Heb “ways.”

21 tn Heb “a strike.”

22 tn Or “Groan silently. As to the dead….” Cf. M. Greenberg’s suggestion that דֹּם מֵתִים (dom metim) be taken together and דֹּם be derived from ָדּמַם (damam, “to moan, murmur”). See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:508.

23 tn Heb “(For) the dead mourning you shall not conduct.” In the Hebrew text the word translated “dead” is plural, indicating that mourning rites are in view. Such rites would involve outward demonstrations of one’s sorrow, including wailing and weeping.

24 sn The turban would normally be removed for mourning (Josh 7:6; 1 Sam 4:12).

25 sn Mourning rites included covering the lower part of the face. See Lev 13:45.

26 tn Heb “the bread of men.” The translation follows the suggestion accepted by M. Greenberg (Ezekiel [AB], 2:509) that this refers to a meal brought by comforters to the one mourning. Some repoint the consonantal text to read “the bread of despair” (see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 2:56), while others, with support from the Targum and Vulgate, emend the consonantal text to read “the bread of mourners” (see D. I. Block, Ezekiel [NICOT], 1:784).

27 tn This may refer to the following morning. For a discussion of various interpretive options in understanding the chronology reflected in verse 18, see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:790.

28 tn Heb “the pride of your strength” means “your strong pride.”

29 sn Heb “the delight of your eyes.” Just as Ezekiel was deprived of his beloved wife (v. 16, the “desire” of his “eyes”) so the Lord would be forced to remove the object of his devotion, the temple, which symbolized his close relationship to his covenant people.

30 tn Heb “the object of compassion of your soul.” The accentuation in the traditional Hebrew text indicates that the descriptive phrases (“the source of your confident pride, the object in which your eyes delight, and your life’s passion”) modify the preceding “my sanctuary.”

31 tn Heb “fall.”

32 tn See v. 17.

33 tn The same verb appears in 4:17 and 33:10.

34 tn Or “in your punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity/punishment” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 7:13, 16; 18:17, 18, 19, 20; 33:6, 8, 9; 39:23. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment” for iniquity or “guilt” of iniquity.

35 tn Heb “(Will) it not (be) in the day I take?”

36 tn Heb “the uplifting of their soul.” According to BDB 672 s.v. מַשָּׂא 2, the term “uplifting” refers to “that to which they lift up their soul, their heart’s desire.” However, this text is the only one listed for this use. It seems more likely that the term has its well-attested nuance of “burden, load,” here and refers to that which weighs them down emotionally and is a constant source of concern or worry.

37 tn In the Hebrew text there is no conjunction before “their sons and daughters.” For this reason one might assume that the preceding descriptive phrases refer to the sons and daughters, but verse 21 suggests otherwise. The descriptive phrases appear to refer to the “stronghold,” which parallels “my sanctuary” in verse 21. The children constitute a separate category.

38 tn Heb “to make the ears hear.”

39 tn Heb “your mouth will open.”

40 tn Heb “set your face toward.”

41 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon.” Ammon was located to the east of Israel.

42 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates being aware of or taking notice of something and has been translated here with a verb (so also throughout the chapter).

43 tn Heb “Look I am about to give you for a possession to.”

44 tn Heb “sons.”

45 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon.”

46 tn Heb “with all your scorn in (the) soul.”

47 tc The translation here follows the marginal reading (Qere) of the Hebrew text. The consonantal text (Kethib) is meaningless.

48 sn Moab was located immediately south of Ammon.

49 tn Heb “shoulder.”

50 tn Heb “from the cities.” The verb “eliminating” has been added in the translation to reflect the privative use of the preposition (see BDB 583 s.v. מִן 7.b).

51 tn Heb “from its cities, from its end.”

52 tn Heb “I will give it for a possession.”

53 tn Heb “the sons of Ammon” (twice in this verse).

54 tn Heb “the sons.”

55 sn Edom was located south of Moab.

56 tn Heb “and they have become guilty, becoming guilty.” The infinitive absolute following the finite verb makes the statement emphatic and draws attention to the degree of guilt incurred by Edom due to its actions.

57 tn Heb “and they have taken vengeance.”

58 sn Edom apparently in some way assisted in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587/6 b.c. (Ps 137:7; Lam 5:21, 23; Joel 3:19; Obadiah).

59 tn Heb “and I will cut off from her man and beast.”

60 tn Heb “fall.”

61 tn Heb “know.”

62 sn The Philistines inhabited the coastal plain by the Mediterranean Sea, west of Judah.

63 tn Heb “have acted with vengeance and taken vengeance with vengeance.” The repetition emphasizes the degree of vengeance which they exhibited, presumably toward Judah.

64 tn Heb “with scorn in (the) soul.”

65 tn The object is not specified in the Hebrew text, but has been clarified as “Judah” in the translation.

66 tn Heb “to destroy (with) perpetual hostility.” Joel 3:4-8 also speaks of the Philistines taking advantage of the fall of Judah.

67 tn In Hebrew the verb “and I will cut off” sounds like its object, “the Cherethites,” and draws attention to the statement.

68 sn This is a name for the Philistines, many of whom migrated to Palestine from Crete.

69 tn Heb “with acts of punishment of anger.”

70 tc Date formulae typically include the month. According to D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 2:34, n. 27) some emend to “in the twelfth year in the eleventh month” based partially on the copy of the LXX from Alexandrinus, where Albright suggested that “eleventh month” may have dropped out due to haplography.

sn April 23, 587 b.c.

71 sn Tyre was located on the Mediterranean coast north of Israel.

72 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

73 tn Heb “I will be filled.”

74 sn That is, Jerusalem.

75 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) draws attention to something and has been translated here as a verb.

76 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8. The Hebrew text switches to a second feminine singular form here, indicating that personified Jerusalem is addressed (see vv. 5-6a). The address to Jerusalem continues through v. 15. In vv. 16-17 the second masculine plural is used, as the people are addressed.

77 tn Or “debris.”

78 sn That is, the towns located inland that were under Tyre’s rule.

79 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) draws attention to something.

80 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an an “r” rather than an “n.”

81 tn Heb “swords.”

82 tn Heb “From the abundance of his horses he will cover you (with) their dust.”

83 tn Heb “like those who enter a breached city.”

84 tn Heb “desirable.”

85 tn Heb “set.”

86 tn Heb “into the midst of the water.”

87 tn Heb “cause to end.”

88 sn This prophecy was fulfilled by Alexander the Great in 332 b.c.

89 tn Heb “descend from.”

90 tn Heb “and they will be astonished over you.”

91 tn Heb “and they will lift up over you a lament and they will say to you.”

92 tn Heb “O inhabitant.” The translation follows the LXX and understands a different Hebrew verb, meaning “cease,” behind the consonantal text. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel [WBC], 2:72, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:43.

93 tn Heb “she and her inhabitants who placed their terror to all her inhabitants.” The relationship of the final prepositional phrase to what precedes is unclear. The preposition probably has a specifying function here, drawing attention to Tyre’s inhabitants as the source of the terror mentioned prior to this. In this case, one might paraphrase verse 17b: “she and her inhabitants, who spread their terror; yes, her inhabitants (were the source of this terror).”

94 tn Heb “from your going out.”

95 tn Heb “many.”

96 tn Heb “to the people of antiquity.”

97 tn Heb “like.” The translation assumes an emendation of the preposition כְּ (kÿ, “like”), to בְּ (bÿ, “in, among”).

98 tn Heb “and I will place beauty.” This reading makes little sense; many, following the lead of the LXX, emend the text to read “nor will you stand” with the negative particle before the preceding verb understood by ellipsis; see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:73. D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 2:47) offers another alternative, taking the apparent first person verb form as an archaic second feminine form and translating “nor radiate splendor.”

99 tn Heb “lift up over Tyre a lament.”

100 tn Heb “entrances.” The plural noun may reflect the fact that Tyre had two main harbors.

101 sn Rome, another economic power, is described in a similar way in Rev 17:1.

102 tn The city of Tyre is described in the following account as a merchant ship.

103 tn Heb “built.”

104 tn Perhaps the hull or deck. The term is dual, so perhaps it refers to a double-decked ship.

105 tn Or “hull.”

106 tc The Hebrew reads “Your deck they made ivory, daughter of Assyria.” The syntactically difficult “ivory” is understood here as dittography and omitted, though some construe this to refer to ivory inlays. “Daughter of Assyria” is understood here as improper word division and the vowels repointed as “cypresses.”

107 tn Heb “from the coastlands (or islands) of Kittim,” generally understood to be a reference to the island of Cyprus, where the Phoenicians had a trading colony on the southeast coast. Many modern English versions have “Cyprus” (CEV, TEV), “the coastlands of Cyprus” (NASB), “the coasts of Cyprus” (NIV, NRSV), or “the southern coasts of Cyprus” (NLT).

sn The Kittean isles is probably a reference to southeast Cyprus where the Phoenicians had a colony.

108 sn This is probably a reference to Cyprus.

109 tc The MT reads “the residents of”; the LXX reads “your rulers who dwell in.” With no apparent reason for the LXX to add “the rulers” many suppose something has dropped out of the Hebrew text. While more than one may be possible, Allen’s proposal, positing a word meaning “elders,” is the most likely to explain the omission in the MT from a graphic standpoint and also provides a parallel to the beginning of v. 9. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:81.a parallel to v. 9.

110 map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

111 sn Sidon and Arvad, like Tyre, were Phoenician coastal cities.

112 tn Or “wise.”

113 sn Another Phoenician coastal city located between Sidon and Arvad.

114 tn Heb “strengthening damages.” Here “to strengthen” means to repair. The word for “damages” occurs several times in 1 Kgs 12 about some type of damage to the temple, which may have referred to or included cracks. Since the context describes Tyre in its glory, we do not expect this reference to damages to be of significant scale, even if there are repairmen. This may refer to using pitch to seal the seams of the ship, which had to be done periodically and could be considered routine maintenance rather than repair of damage.

115 sn The reference to “all the ships of the sea…within you” suggests that the metaphor is changing; previously Tyre had been described as a magnificent ship, but now the description shifts back to an actual city. The “ships of the sea” were within Tyre’s harbor. Verse 11 refers to “walls” and “towers” of the city.

116 sn See Gen 10:22.

117 tn Heb “sons of Arvad.”

118 sn The identity of the Gammadites is uncertain.

119 tn See note on “quivers” in Jer 51:11 on the meaning of Hebrew שֶׁלֶט (shelet) and also M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:553.

120 sn Tarshish refers to a distant seaport sometimes believed to be located in southern Spain (others identified it as Carthage in North Africa). In any event it represents here a distant, rich, and exotic port which was a trading partner of Tyre.

121 tn The way in which these horses may have been distinguished from other horses is unknown. Cf. ASV “war-horses” (NASB, NIV, NRSV, CEV all similar); NLT “chariot horses.”

122 tn Heb “sons of Dedan.”

123 tn Heb “they returned as your gift.”

124 tc Many Hebrew mss, Aquila’s Greek translation, and the Syriac version read “Edom.” The LXX reads “man,” a translation which assumes the same consonants as Edom. This reading is supported from the context as the text deals with Damascus, the capital of Syria (Aram), later (in v. 18).

125 sn The location is mentioned in Judg 11:33.

126 tc The MT leaves v. 18 as an incomplete sentence and begins v. 19 with “and Dan and Javan (Ionia) from Uzal.” The LXX mentions “wine.” The translation follows an emendation assuming some confusions of vav and yod. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:82.

127 sn According to L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 2:82), Izal was located between Haran and the Tigris and was famous for its wine.

128 tn Or perhaps “Large merchant ships.” The expression “ships of Tarshish” may describe a class of vessel, that is, large oceangoing merchant ships.

129 tn Heb “your repairers of damage.” See v. 9.

130 tn Compare this phrase to Isa 57:20 and Amos 8:8. See M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:561.

131 tn Heb “make heard over you with their voice.”

132 tn Note a similar expression to “roll in the ashes” in Mic 1:10.

133 tn Heb “and they will weep concerning you with bitterness of soul, (with) bitter mourning.”

134 tn As it stands, the meaning of the Hebrew text is unclear. The translation follows the suggestion of M. Dahood, “Accadian-Ugaritic dmt in Ezekiel 27:32,” Bib 45 (1964): 83-84. Several other explanations and emendations have been offered. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:83, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:85-86, for a list of options.

135 tn Heb “fallen.”

136 tn Heb “in the midst of you.”

137 tn Or “ruler” (NIV, NCV).

138 tn Heb “lifted up.”

sn See Prov 16:5.

139 tn Or “I am divine.”

140 tn Heb “and you made your heart (mind) like the heart (mind) of gods.”

141 sn Or perhaps “Danel” (so TEV), referring to a ruler known from Canaanite legend. See the note on “Daniel” in 14:14. A reference to Danel (preserved in legend at Ugarit, near the northern end of the Phoenician coast) makes more sense here when addressing Tyre than in 14:14.

142 sn The tone here is sarcastic, reflecting the ruler’s view of himself.

143 tn Or “wisdom.”

144 tn Heb “because of your making your heart like the heart of gods.”

145 sn This is probably a reference to the Babylonians.

146 tn Heb “they will draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom.”

147 tn Heb “you will die the death of the slain.”

148 sn The Phoenicians practiced circumcision, so the language here must be figurative, indicating that they would be treated in a disgraceful manner. Uncircumcised peoples were viewed as inferior, unclean, and perhaps even sub-human. See 31:18 and 32:17-32, as well as the discussion in D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:99.

149 tn Heb “lift up.”

150 tn For a discussion of possible nuances of this phrase, see M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:580-81.

151 sn The imagery of the lament appears to draw upon an extrabiblical Eden tradition about the expulsion of the first man (see v. 14 and the note there) from the garden due to his pride. The biblical Eden tradition speaks of cherubs placed as guardians at the garden entrance following the sin of Adam and Eve (Gen 3:24), but no guardian cherub like the one described in verse 14 is depicted or mentioned in the biblical account. Ezekiel’s imagery also appears to reflect Mesopotamian and Canaanite mythology at certain points. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:119-20.

152 tn The exact identification of each gemstone is uncertain. The list should be compared to that of the priest in Exod 28:17-20, which lists twelve stones in rows of three. The LXX apparently imports the Exod 28 list. See reference to the types of stones in L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

153 tn Or “winged”; see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

154 tn The meaning of this phrase in Hebrew is uncertain. The word translated here “guards” occurs in Exod 25:20 in reference to the cherubim “covering” the ark.

155 tn Heb “you (were) an anointed cherub that covers and I placed you.” In the Hebrew text the ruler of Tyre is equated with a cherub, and the verb “I placed you” is taken with what follows (“on the holy mountain of God”). However, this reading is problematic. The pronoun “you” at the beginning of verse 14 is feminine singular in the Hebrew text; elsewhere in this passage the ruler of Tyre is addressed with masculine singular forms. It is possible that the pronoun is a rare (see Deut 5:24; Num 11:15) or defectively written (see 1 Sam 24:19; Neh 9:6; Job 1:10; Ps 6:3; Eccl 7:22) masculine form, but it is more likely that the form should be repointed as the preposition “with” (see the LXX). In this case the ruler of Tyre is compared to the first man, not to a cherub. If this emendation is accepted, then the verb “I placed you” belongs with what precedes and concludes the first sentence in the verse. It is noteworthy that the verbs in the second and third lines of the verse also appear at the end of the sentence in the Hebrew text. The presence of a conjunction at the beginning of “I placed you” is problematic for the proposal, but it may reflect a later misunderstanding of the syntax of the verse. For a defense of the proposed emendation, see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

156 tn Heb “ways.”

157 tn Heb “they filled your midst with violence.”

158 tn Heb “I defiled you.” The presence of the preposition “from” following the verb indicates that a verb of motion is implied as well. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

159 tn Heb “and I expelled you, O guardian cherub.” The Hebrew text takes the verb as first person and understands “guardian cherub” as a vocative, in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the verb. However, if the emendation in verse 14a is accepted (see the note above), then one may follow the LXX here as well and emend the verb to a third person perfect. In this case the subject of the verb is the guardian cherub. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.

160 tn Heb “set your face against.”

161 sn Sidon was located 25 miles north of Tyre.

map For location see Map1 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

162 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

163 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” God’s “holiness” is fundamentally his transcendence as sovereign ruler of the world. The revelation of his authority and power through judgment is in view in this context.

164 tn Heb “into it”; the referent of the feminine pronoun has been specified in the translation for clarity.

165 tn Heb “by a sword against it.”

166 sn Similar language is used in reference to Israel’s adversaries in Num 33:55; Josh 23:13.

167 tn Heb “and there will not be for the house of Israel a brier that pricks and a thorn that inflicts pain from all the ones who surround them, the ones who scorn them.”

168 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” See verse 22.

169 sn This promise was given in Lev 25:18-19.

170 tn January 7, 587 b.c.

171 tn Heb “set your face against.”

172 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

173 tn Heb “jackals,” but many medieval Hebrew mss read correctly “the serpent.” The Hebrew term appears to refer to a serpent in Exod 7:9-10, 12; Deut 32:33; and Ps 91:13. It also refers to large creatures that inhabit the sea (Gen 1:21; Ps 148:7). In several passages it is associated with the sea or with the multiheaded sea monster Leviathan (Job 7:12; Ps 74:13; Isa 27:1; 51:9). Because of the Egyptian setting of this prophecy and the reference to the creature’s scales (v. 4), many understand a crocodile to be the referent here (e.g., NCV “a great crocodile”; TEV “you monster crocodile”; CEV “a giant crocodile”).

174 sn In Egyptian theology Pharaoh owned and controlled the Nile. See J. D. Currid, Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, 240-44.

175 tc Some Hebrew mss, the Targum, and the LXX read “buried.”

176 sn Compare Isa 36:6.

177 tn The Hebrew consonantal text (Kethib) has “by your hand,” but the marginal reading (Qere) has simply “by the hand.” The LXX reads “with their hand.”

178 tn Or perhaps “dislocated.”

179 tn Heb “you caused to stand for them all their hips.” An emendation which switches two letters but is supported by the LXX yields the reading “you caused all their hips to shake.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:103. In 2 Kgs 18:21 and Isa 36:6 trusting in the Pharaoh is compared to leaning on a staff. The oracle may reflect Hophra’s attempt to aid Jerusalem (Jer 37:5-8).

180 tn Heb “I will cut off from you.”

181 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

182 sn This may refer to a site in the Egyptian Delta which served as a refuge for Jews (Jer 44:1; 46:14).

183 sn Syene is known today as Aswan.

184 sn In Ezek 4:4-8 it was said that the house of Judah would suffer forty years.

185 tc Thus the Masoretic Text. The LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate translate as though the Hebrew read “cause to inhabit.”

186 tn Heb “reminding of iniquity when they turned after them.”

187 sn April 26, 571 b.c.

188 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an “r” rather than an “n” (so also in v. 19).

189 sn Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre from 585 to 571 b.c.

map For location see Map1 A2; Map2 G2; Map4 A1; JP3 F3; JP4 F3.

190 tn Heb “for which he worked,” referring to the assault on Tyre (v. 18).

191 tn Heb “I will cause a horn to sprout for the house of Israel.” The horn is used as a figure for military power in the OT (Ps 92:10). A similar expression is made about the Davidic dynasty in Ps 132:17.

192 tn Heb “I will grant you an open mouth.”

193 tn Heb “Alas for the day.”

194 tn Heb “a day of clouds.” The expression occurs also in Joel 2:2 and Zeph 1:15; it recalls the appearance of God at Mount Sinai (Exod 19:9, 16, 18).

195 tn Heb “a time.” The words “of judgment” have been added in the translation for clarification (see the following verses).

196 tn The same expression appears in Exod 12:38; Jer 25:20; 50:37; Neh 13:3. It may refer to foreign mercenaries serving in the armies of the nations listed here.

197 tn Heb “sons.”

198 tn The expression “sons of the covenant land” possibly refers to Jews living in Egypt (Jer 44).

199 tn Heb “come down.”

200 sn Syene is known as Aswan today.

201 tn Heb “all who aid her are broken.”

202 tn Heb “in the day of Egypt.” The word “doom” has been added in the translation to clarify the nature of this day.

203 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an “r” rather than an “n.”

204 tn The Babylonians were known for their cruelty (2 Kgs 25:7).

205 tn Heb “and I will sell the land into the hand of.”

206 tn Heb “I will put fear in the land of Egypt.”

207 tn Heb “Sin” (so KJV, NASB), a city commonly identified with Pelusium, a fortress on Egypt’s northeastern frontier.

208 tn Or “kill.”

209 tc The LXX reads “Syene,” which is Aswan in the south. The MT reads Sin, which has already been mentioned in v. 15.

210 sn On and Pi-beseth are generally identified with the Egyptian cities of Heliopolis and Bubastis.

211 tn Heb “they will go.” The pronoun and verb are feminine plural, indicating that the cities just mentioned are the antecedent of the pronoun and the subject of the verb. The translation makes this clear by stating the subject as “the cities.”

212 sn In Zeph 1:15 darkness is associated with the day of the Lord.

213 tn April 29, 587 b.c.

214 sn The expression “breaking the arm” indicates the removal of power (Ps 10:15; 37:17; Job 38:15; Jer 48:25).

215 sn This may refer to the event recorded in Jer 37:5.

216 tn The word h!nn@h indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

217 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

218 tn Heb “him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

219 sn June 21, 587 b.c.

220 sn Either Egypt, or the Lord compares Egypt to Assyria, which is described in vv. 3-17 through the metaphor of a majestic tree. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:185. Like Egypt, Assyria had been a great world power, but in time God brought the Assyrians down. Egypt should learn from history the lesson that no nation, no matter how powerful, can withstand the judgment of God. Rather than following the text here, some prefer to emend the proper name Assyria to a similar sounding common noun meaning “boxwood” (see Ezek 27:6), which would make a fitting parallel to “cedar of Lebanon” in the following line. In this case vv. 3-18 in their entirety refer to Egypt, not Assyria. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:121-27.

221 sn Lebanon was know for its cedar trees (Judg 9:15; 1 Kgs 4:33; 5:6; 2 Kgs 14:9; Ezra 3:7; Pss 29:5; 92:12; 104:16).

222 tn Heb “Waters made it grow; the deep made it grow tall. It (the deep) was flowing with its rivers around the place it (the tree) was planted, it (the deep) sent out its channels to all the trees of the field.”

223 tn Heb “when it sends forth.” Repointing the consonants of the Masoretic text would render the proposed reading “shoots” (cf. NRSV).

224 tn Or “many.”

225 tn Or “cypress trees” (cf. NASB, NLT); NIV “pine trees.”

226 tn Heb “acting he has acted with regard to it.” The infinitive absolute precedes the main verb to emphasize the certainty and decisiveness of the action depicted.

227 tn Or “earth” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

228 tn Heb “gone down.”

229 tn Heb “the beasts of the field,” referring to wild as opposed to domesticated animals.

230 tn Heb “be.”

231 tn Heb “and they will not stand to them in their height, all the drinkers of water.”

232 tn Heb “for death, to the lower earth.”

233 tn Heb “the sons of men.”

234 tn Or “he.”

235 tn Heb “I caused lamentation.” D. I. Block (Ezekiel [NICOT], 2:194-95) proposes an alternative root which would give the meaning “I gated back the waters,” i.e., shut off the water supply.

236 sn For the expression “going down to the pit,” see Ezek 26:20; 32:18, 24, 29.

237 tn Heb “its arm.”

238 sn This would be March 3, 585 b.c.

239 tn The lion was a figure of royalty (Ezek 19:1-9).

240 tc The Hebrew reads “their streams”; the LXX reads “your streams.”

241 tn The expression “throw my net” is common in Ezekiel (12:13; 17:20; 19:8).

242 tn Or “cause.”

243 tn Heb “live.”

244 tn Or “cause.”

245 tn Heb “the beasts of the field,” referring to wild as opposed to domesticated animals.

246 tc The Hebrew text is difficult here, apparently meaning “your height.” Following Symmachus and the Syriac, it is preferable to emend the text to read “your maggots.” See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:203.

247 tn Heb “from you.”

248 tn Heb “will not shine its light.” For similar features of cosmic eschatology, see Joel 2:10; 4:15; Amos 5:18-20; Zeph 1:5.

249 tn Heb “I will provoke the heart of.”

250 sn The king of Babylon referred to here was Nebuchadnezzar (Ezek 21:19).

251 tn Heb “approach.”

252 tn Heb “muddy.”

253 tn Heb “them,” that is, the waters mentioned in the previous line. The translation clarifies the referent.

254 tn Heb “sink,” that is, to settle and become clear, not muddied.

255 tn March 17, 585 b.c. The LXX adds “first month.”

256 tn The Hebrew verb is used as a response to death (Jer 9:17-19; Amos 5:16).

257 sn Through this prophetic lament given by God himself, the prophet activates the judgment described therein. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:217, and L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:136-37.

258 tn Heb “Bring him down, her and the daughters of the powerful nations, to the earth below.” The verb “bring down” appears in the Hebrew text only once. Because the verb takes several objects here, the repetition of the verb in the translation improves the English style.

259 tn This apparently refers to personified Egypt.

260 tc The LXX places this verse after v. 21.

tn The words “say to them” are added in the translation for clarity to indicate the shift in addressee from the prophet to Egypt.

261 tn Heb “pleasantness.”

262 tn Heb “around him his graves.” The masculine pronominal suffixes are problematic; the expression is best emended to correspond to the phrase “around her grave” in v. 23. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:219.

263 tn Heb “all of them slain, the ones felled by the sword.” See as well vv. 23-24.

264 tn Heb “whose.”

265 tn The only other occurrence of the phrase “remote slopes of the pit” is in Isa 14:15.

266 tn Heb “around him her graves,” but the expression is best emended to read “around her grave” (see vv. 23-24).

267 tn Heb “around him her graves,” but the expression is best emended to read “around her grave” (see vv. 23-24).

268 tc Heb “of the uncircumcised.” The LXX reads, probably correctly, “from of old” rather than “of the uncircumcised.” The phrases are very similar in spelling. The warriors of Meshech-Tubal are described as uncircumcised, so it would be odd for them to not be buried with the uncircumcised. Verse 28 specifically says that they would lie with the uncircumcised.

269 tn Heb “and their iniquities were over their bones.” The meaning of this statement is unclear; in light of the parallelism (see “swords”) it is preferable to emend “their iniquities” to “their swords.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:135.



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