2:1 Now 1 when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2:2 Suddenly 2 a sound 3 like a violent wind blowing 4 came from heaven 5 and filled the entire house where they were sitting. 2:3 And tongues spreading out like a fire 6 appeared to them and came to rest on each one of them. 2:4 All 7 of them were filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in other languages 8 as the Spirit enabled them. 9
2:5 Now there were devout Jews 10 from every nation under heaven residing in Jerusalem. 11 2:6 When this sound 12 occurred, a crowd gathered and was in confusion, 13 because each one heard them speaking in his own language. 2:7 Completely baffled, they said, 14 “Aren’t 15 all these who are speaking Galileans? 2:8 And how is it that each one of us hears them 16 in our own native language? 17 2:9 Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and the province of Asia, 18 2:10 Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene, 19 and visitors from Rome, 20 2:11 both Jews and proselytes, 21 Cretans and Arabs – we hear them speaking in our own languages about the great deeds God has done!” 22 2:12 All were astounded and greatly confused, saying to one another, “What does this mean?” 2:13 But others jeered at the speakers, 23 saying, “They are drunk on new wine!” 24
2:14 But Peter stood up 25 with the eleven, raised his voice, and addressed them: “You men of Judea 26 and all you who live in Jerusalem, 27 know this 28 and listen carefully to what I say. 2:15 In spite of what you think, these men are not drunk, 29 for it is only nine o’clock in the morning. 30 2:16 But this is what was spoken about through the prophet Joel: 31
‘that I will pour out my Spirit on all people, 33
and your sons and your daughters will prophesy,
and your young men will see visions,
and your old men will dream dreams.
I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. 35
and miraculous signs 37 on the earth below,
blood and fire and clouds of smoke.
2:20 The sun will be changed to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the great and glorious 38 day of the Lord comes.
2:22 “Men of Israel, 41 listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man clearly attested to you by God with powerful deeds, 42 wonders, and miraculous signs 43 that God performed among you through him, just as you yourselves know – 2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 44 by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 45 2:24 But God raised him up, 46 having released 47 him from the pains 48 of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 49 2:25 For David says about him,
‘I saw the Lord always in front of me, 50
for he is at my right hand so that I will not be shaken.
2:26 Therefore my heart was glad and my tongue rejoiced;
my body 51 also will live in hope,
nor permit your Holy One to experience 53 decay.
2:28 You have made known to me the paths of life;
you will make me full of joy with your presence.’ 54
2:29 “Brothers, 55 I can speak confidently 56 to you about our forefather 57 David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. 2:30 So then, because 58 he was a prophet and knew that God had sworn to him with an oath to seat one of his descendants 59 on his throne, 60 2:31 David by foreseeing this 61 spoke about the resurrection of the Christ, 62 that he was neither abandoned to Hades, 63 nor did his body 64 experience 65 decay. 66 2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 67 2:33 So then, exalted 68 to the right hand 69 of God, and having received 70 the promise of the Holy Spirit 71 from the Father, he has poured out 72 what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,
‘The Lord said to my lord,
“Sit 73 at my right hand
2:37 Now when they heard this, 80 they were acutely distressed 81 and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, “What should we do, brothers?” 2:38 Peter said to them, “Repent, and each one of you be baptized 82 in the name of Jesus Christ 83 for 84 the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 85 2:39 For the promise 86 is for you and your children, and for all who are far away, as many as the Lord our God will call to himself.” 2:40 With many other words he testified 87 and exhorted them saying, “Save yourselves from this perverse 88 generation!” 2:41 So those who accepted 89 his message 90 were baptized, and that day about three thousand people 91 were added. 92
2:42 They were devoting themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to fellowship, 93 to the breaking of bread and to prayer. 94 2:43 Reverential awe 95 came over everyone, 96 and many wonders and miraculous signs 97 came about by the apostles. 2:44 All who believed were together and held 98 everything in common, 2:45 and they began selling 99 their property 100 and possessions and distributing the proceeds 101 to everyone, as anyone had need. 2:46 Every day 102 they continued to gather together by common consent in the temple courts, 103 breaking bread from 104 house to house, sharing their food with glad 105 and humble hearts, 106 2:47 praising God and having the good will 107 of all the people. And the Lord was adding to their number every day 108 those who were being saved.
1 tn Grk “And” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. Greek style often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” but English style does not.
2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated for stylistic reasons. It occurs as part of the formula καὶ ἐγένετο (kai egeneto) which is often left untranslated in Luke-Acts because it is redundant in contemporary English. Here it is possible (and indeed necessary) to translate ἐγένετο as “came” so that the initial clause of the English translation contains a verb; nevertheless the translation of the conjunction καί is not necessary.
3 tn Or “a noise.”
4 tn While φέρω (ferw) generally refers to movement from one place to another with the possible implication of causing the movement of other objects, in Acts 2:2 φέρομαι (feromai) should probably be understood in a more idiomatic sense of “blowing” since it is combined with the noun for wind (πνοή, pnoh).
5 tn Or “from the sky.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context.
6 tn Or “And divided tongues as of fire.” The precise meaning of διαμερίζομαι (diamerizomai) in Acts 2:3 is difficult to determine. The meaning could be “tongues as of fire dividing up one to each person,” but it is also possible that the individual tongues of fire were divided (“And divided tongues as of fire appeared”). The translation adopted in the text (“tongues spreading out like a fire”) attempts to be somewhat ambiguous.
7 tn Grk “And all.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
8 tn The Greek term is γλώσσαις (glwssai"), the same word used for the tongues of fire.
sn Other languages. Acts 2:6-7 indicates that these were languages understandable to the hearers, a diverse group from “every nation under heaven.”
9 tn Grk “just as the spirit gave them to utter.” The verb ἀποφθέγγομαι (apofqengomai) was used of special utterances in Classical Greek (BDAG 125 s.v.).
10 tn Grk “Jews, devout men.” It is possible that only men are in view here in light of OT commands for Jewish men to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem at various times during the year (cf. Exod 23:17, 34:23; Deut 16:16). However, other evidence seems to indicate that both men and women might be in view. Luke 2:41-52 shows that whole families would make the temporary trip to Jerusalem. In addition, it is probable that the audience consisted of families who had taken up permanent residence in Jerusalem. The verb κατοικέω (katoikew) normally means “reside” or “dwell,” and archaeological evidence from tombs in Jerusalem does indicate that many families immigrated to Jerusalem permanently (see B. Witherington, Acts, 135); this would naturally include women. Also, the word ἀνήρ (ajnhr), which usually does mean “male” or “man” (as opposed to woman), sometimes is used generically to mean “a person” (BDAG 79 s.v. 2; cf. Matt 12:41). Given this evidence, then, it is conceivable that the audience in view here is not individual male pilgrims but a mixed group of men and women.
11 tn Grk “Now there were residing in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation under heaven.”
12 tn Or “this noise.”
13 tn Or “was bewildered.”
14 tn Grk “They were astounded and amazed, saying.” The two imperfect verbs, ἐξίσταντο (existanto) and ἐθαύμαζον (eqaumazon), show both the surprise and the confusion on the part of the hearers. The verb ἐξίσταντο (from ἐξίστημι, existhmi) often implies an illogical perception or response (BDAG 350 s.v. ἐξίστημι): “to be so astonished as to almost fail to comprehend what one has experienced” (L&N 25.218).
15 tn Grk “Behold, aren’t all these.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this statement has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
16 tn Grk “we hear them, each one of us.”
17 tn Grk “in our own language in which we were born.”
18 tn Grk “Asia”; in the NT this always refers to the Roman province of Asia, made up of about one-third of the west and southwest end of modern Asia Minor. Asia lay to the west of the region of Phrygia and Galatia. The words “the province of” are supplied to indicate to the modern reader that this does not refer to the continent of Asia.
19 tn According to BDAG 595 s.v. Λιβύη, the western part of Libya, Libya Cyrenaica, is referred to here (see also Josephus, Ant. 16.6.1 [16.160] for a similar phrase).
21 sn Proselytes refers to Gentile (i.e., non-Jewish) converts to Judaism.
22 tn Or “God’s mighty works.” Here the genitive τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a subjective genitive.
23 tn The words “the speakers” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
24 tn Grk “They are full of new wine!”
sn New wine refers to a new, sweet wine in the process of fermentation.
25 tn Grk “standing up.” The participle σταθείς (staqei") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
26 tn Or “You Jewish men.” “Judea” is preferred here because it is paired with “Jerusalem,” a location. This suggests locality rather than ethnic background is the primary emphasis in the context. As for “men,” the Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, where “all” who live in Jerusalem are addressed, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
28 tn Grk “let this be known to you.” The passive construction has been translated as an active for stylistic reasons.
29 tn Grk “These men are not drunk, as you suppose.”
30 tn Grk “only the third hour.”
32 sn The phrase in the last days is not quoted from Joel, but represents Peter’s interpretive explanation of the current events as falling “in the last days.”
33 tn Grk “on all flesh.”
34 tn Grk “slaves.” Although this translation frequently renders δοῦλος (doulos) as “slave,” the connotation is often of one who has sold himself into slavery; in a spiritual sense, the idea is that of becoming a slave of God or of Jesus Christ voluntarily. The voluntary notion is not conspicuous here; hence, the translation “servants.” In any case, the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
35 sn The words and they will prophesy in Acts 2:18 are not quoted from Joel 2:29 at this point but are repeated from earlier in the quotation (Acts 2:17) for emphasis. Tongues speaking is described as prophecy, just like intelligible tongues are described in 1 Cor 14:26-33.
36 tn Or “in the heaven.” The Greek word οὐρανός (ouranos) may be translated “sky” or “heaven” depending on the context. Here, in contrast to “the earth below,” a reference to the sky is more likely.
37 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned; this is made explicit in the translation.
38 tn Or “and wonderful.”
39 tn Grk “And it will be that.”
41 tn Or “Israelite men,” although this is less natural English. The Greek term here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which only exceptionally is used in a generic sense of both males and females. In this context, it is conceivable that this is a generic usage, although it can also be argued that Peter’s remarks were addressed primarily to the men present, even if women were there.
42 tn Or “miraculous deeds.”
43 tn Again, the context indicates the miraculous nature of these signs, and this is specified in the translation.
44 tn Or “you killed.”
45 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.
46 tn Grk “Whom God raised up.”
47 tn Or “having freed.”
49 tn Or “for him to be held by it” (in either case, “it” refers to death’s power).
50 tn Or “always before me.”
51 tn Grk “my flesh.”
52 tn Or “will not abandon my soul to Hades.” Often “Hades” is the equivalent of the Hebrew term Sheol, the place of the dead.
53 tn Grk “to see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “to see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “to look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
56 sn Peter’s certainty is based on well-known facts.
57 tn Or “about our noted ancestor,” “about the patriarch.”
58 tn The participles ὑπάρχων (Juparcwn) and εἰδώς (eidw") are translated as causal adverbial participles.
59 tn Grk “one from the fruit of his loins.” “Loins” is the traditional translation of ὀσφῦς (osfu"), referring to the male genital organs. A literal rendering like “one who came from his genital organs” would be regarded as too specific and perhaps even vulgar by many contemporary readers. Most modern translations thus render the phrase “one of his descendants.”
61 tn Grk “David foreseeing spoke.” The participle προϊδών (proidwn) is taken as indicating means. It could also be translated as a participle of attendant circumstance: “David foresaw [this] and spoke.” The word “this” is supplied in either case as an understood direct object (direct objects in Greek were often omitted, but must be supplied for the modern English reader).
62 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul’s letters to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
64 tn Grk “flesh.” See vv. 26b-27. The reference to “body” in this verse picks up the reference to “body” in v. 26. The Greek term σάρξ (sarx) in both verses literally means “flesh”; however, the translation “body” stresses the lack of decay of his physical body. The point of the verse is not merely the lack of decay of his flesh alone, but the resurrection of his entire person, as indicated by the previous parallel line “he was not abandoned to Hades.”
65 tn Grk “see,” but the literal translation of the phrase “see decay” could be misunderstood to mean simply “look at decay,” while here “see decay” is really figurative for “experience decay.”
68 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
70 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.
71 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.
74 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.
76 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.
77 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.
78 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.
79 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.
80 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
81 tn Grk “they were pierced to the heart” (an idiom for acute emotional distress).
82 tn The verb is a third person imperative, but the common translation “let each of you be baptized” obscures the imperative force in English, since it sounds more like a permissive (“each of you may be baptized”) to the average English reader.
83 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn In the name of Jesus Christ. Baptism in Messiah Jesus’ name shows how much authority he possesses.
84 tn There is debate over the meaning of εἰς in the prepositional phrase εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν (eis afesin twn Jamartiwn Jumwn, “for/because of/with reference to the forgiveness of your sins”). Although a causal sense has been argued, it is difficult to maintain here. ExSyn 369-71 discusses at least four other ways of dealing with the passage: (1) The baptism referred to here is physical only, and εἰς has the meaning of “for” or “unto.” Such a view suggests that salvation is based on works – an idea that runs counter to the theology of Acts, namely: (a) repentance often precedes baptism (cf. Acts 3:19; 26:20), and (b) salvation is entirely a gift of God, not procured via water baptism (Acts 10:43 [cf. v. 47]; 13:38-39, 48; 15:11; 16:30-31; 20:21; 26:18); (2) The baptism referred to here is spiritual only. Although such a view fits well with the theology of Acts, it does not fit well with the obvious meaning of “baptism” in Acts – especially in this text (cf. 2:41); (3) The text should be repunctuated in light of the shift from second person plural to third person singular back to second person plural again. The idea then would be, “Repent for/with reference to your sins, and let each one of you be baptized…” Such a view is an acceptable way of handling εἰς, but its subtlety and awkwardness count against it; (4) Finally, it is possible that to a first-century Jewish audience (as well as to Peter), the idea of baptism might incorporate both the spiritual reality and the physical symbol. That Peter connects both closely in his thinking is clear from other passages such as Acts 10:47 and 11:15-16. If this interpretation is correct, then Acts 2:38 is saying very little about the specific theological relationship between the symbol and the reality, only that historically they were viewed together. One must look in other places for a theological analysis. For further discussion see R. N. Longenecker, “Acts,” EBC 9:283-85; B. Witherington, Acts, 154-55; F. F. Bruce, The Acts of the Apostles: The Greek Text with Introduction and Commentary, 129-30; BDAG 290 s.v. εἰς 4.f.
85 tn Here the genitive τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος (tou Jagiou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the gift consists of the Holy Spirit.
86 sn The promise refers to the promise of the Holy Spirit that Jesus received from the Father in 2:33 and which he now pours out on others. The promise consists of the Holy Spirit (see note in 2:33). Jesus is the active mediator of God’s blessing.
87 tn Or “warned.”
89 tn Or “who acknowledged the truth of.”
90 tn Grk “word.”
91 tn Grk “souls” (here an idiom for the whole person).
92 tn Or “were won over.”
93 sn Fellowship refers here to close association involving mutual involvement and relationships.
94 tn Grk “prayers.” This word was translated as a collective singular in keeping with English style.
95 tn Or “Fear.”
96 tn Grk “on every soul” (here “soul” is an idiom for the whole person).
97 tn In this context the miraculous nature of these signs is implied. Cf. BDAG 920 s.v. σημεῖον 2.a.
98 tn Grk “had.”
99 tn The imperfect verb has been translated as an ingressive (“began…”). Since in context this is a description of the beginning of the community of believers, it is more likely that these statements refer to the start of various activities and practices that the early church continued for some time.
100 tn It is possible that the first term for property (κτήματα, kthmata) refers to real estate (as later usage seems to indicate) while the second term (ὑπάρξεις, Juparxeis) refers to possessions in general, but it may also be that the two terms are used together for emphasis, simply indicating that all kinds of possessions were being sold. However, if the first term is more specifically a reference to real estate, it foreshadows the incident with Ananias and Sapphira in Acts 5:1-11.
101 tn Grk “distributing them” (αὐτά, auta). The referent (the proceeds of the sales) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
102 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.
103 tn Grk “in the temple.” This is actually a reference to the courts surrounding the temple proper, and has been translated accordingly.
104 tn Here κατά (kata) is used as a distributive (BDAG 512 s.v. B.1.d).
106 tn Grk “with gladness and humbleness of hearts.” It is best to understand καρδίας (kardias) as an attributed genitive, with the two nouns it modifies actually listing attributes of the genitive noun which is related to them.
107 tn Or “the favor.”
108 tn BDAG 437 s.v. ἡμέρα 2.c has “every day” for this phrase.