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Ezekiel 43:1--48:35

Context
The Glory Returns to the Temple

43:1 Then he brought me to the gate that faced toward the east. 43:2 I saw 1  the glory of the God of Israel 2  coming from the east; 3  the sound was like that of rushing water; 4  and the earth radiated 5  his glory. 43:3 It was like the vision I saw when he 6  came to destroy the city, and the vision I saw by the Kebar River. I threw myself face down. 43:4 The glory of the Lord came into the temple by way of the gate that faces east. 43:5 Then a wind 7  lifted me up and brought me to the inner court; I watched 8  the glory of the Lord filling the temple. 9 

43:6 I heard someone speaking to me from the temple, while the man was standing beside me. 43:7 He said to me: “Son of man, this is the place of my throne 10  and the place for the soles of my feet, 11  where I will live among the people of Israel forever. The house of Israel will no longer profane my holy name, neither they nor their kings, by their spiritual prostitution or by the pillars of their kings set up when they die. 12  43:8 When they placed their threshold by my threshold and their doorpost by my doorpost, with only the wall between me and them, they profaned my holy name by the abominable deeds they committed. So I consumed them in my anger. 43:9 Now they must put away their spiritual prostitution and the pillars of their kings far from me, and then I will live among them forever.

43:10 “As for you, son of man, describe the temple to the house of Israel, so that they will be ashamed of their sins and measure the pattern. 43:11 When they are ashamed of all that they have done, make known to them the design of the temple, its pattern, its exits and entrances, and its whole design – all its statutes, its entire design, and all its laws; write it all down in their sight, so that they may observe its entire design and all its statutes and do them.

43:12 “This is the law of the temple: The entire area on top of the mountain all around will be most holy. Indeed, this is the law of the temple.

The Altar

43:13 “And these are the measurements of the altar: 13  Its base 14  is 1¾ feet 15  high, 16  and 1¾ feet 17  wide, and its border nine inches 18  on its edge. This is to be the height 19  of the altar. 43:14 From the base of the ground to the lower edge is 3½ feet, 20  and the width 1¾ feet; 21  and from the smaller ledge to the larger edge, 7 feet, 22  and the width 1¾ feet; 43:15 and the altar hearth, 7 feet, and from the altar hearth four horns projecting upward. 43:16 Now the altar hearth 23  is a perfect square, 21 feet 24  long and 21 feet wide. 43:17 The ledge is 24½ feet 25  long and 24½ feet wide on four sides; the border around it is 10½ inches, 26  and its surrounding base 1¾ feet. 27  Its steps face east.”

43:18 Then he said to me: “Son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says: These are the statutes of the altar: On the day it is built to offer up burnt offerings on it and to sprinkle blood on it, 28  43:19 you will give a young bull for a sin offering to the Levitical priests who are descended from Zadok, who approach me to minister to me, declares the sovereign Lord. 43:20 You will take some of its blood, and place it on the four horns of the altar, on the four corners of the ledge, and on the border all around; you will cleanse it and make atonement for it. 29  43:21 You will also take the bull for the sin offering, and it will be burned in the appointed place in the temple, outside the sanctuary.

43:22 “On the second day, you will offer a male goat without blemish for a sin offering. They will purify the altar just as they purified it with the bull. 43:23 When you have finished purifying it, you will offer an unblemished young bull and an unblemished ram from the flock. 43:24 You will present them before the Lord, and the priests will scatter salt on them 30  and offer them up as a burnt offering to the Lord.

43:25 “For seven days you will provide every day a goat for a sin offering; a young bull and a ram from the flock, both without blemish, will be provided. 43:26 For seven days they will make atonement for the altar and cleanse it, so they will consecrate it. 31  43:27 When the prescribed period is over, 32  on the eighth day and thereafter the priests will offer up on the altar your burnt offerings and your peace offerings; 33  I will accept you, declares the sovereign Lord.”

The Closed Gate

44:1 Then he brought me back by way of the outer gate of the sanctuary which faces east, but it was shut. 44:2 The Lord said to me: “This gate will be shut; it will not be opened, and no one will enter by it. For the Lord, the God of Israel, has entered by it; therefore it will remain shut. 44:3 Only the prince may sit in it to eat a sacrificial meal 34  before the Lord; he will enter by way of the porch of the gate and will go out by the same way.”

44:4 Then he brought me by way of the north gate to the front of the temple. As I watched, I noticed 35  the glory of the Lord filling the Lord’s temple, and I threw myself face down. 44:5 The Lord said to me: “Son of man, pay attention, 36  watch closely and listen carefully to 37  everything I tell you concerning all the statutes of the Lord’s house and all its laws. Pay attention to the entrances 38  to the temple with all the exits of the sanctuary. 44:6 Say to the rebellious, 39  to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Enough of all your abominable practices, O house of Israel! 44:7 When you bring foreigners, those uncircumcised in heart and in flesh, into my sanctuary, you desecrate 40  it – even my house – when you offer my food, the fat and the blood. You 41  have broken my covenant by all your abominable practices. 44:8 You have not kept charge of my holy things, but you have assigned foreigners 42  to keep charge of my sanctuary for you. 44:9 This is what the sovereign Lord says: No foreigner, who is uncircumcised in heart and flesh among all the foreigners who are among the people of Israel, will enter into my sanctuary. 43 

44:10 “‘But the Levites who went far from me, straying off from me after their idols when Israel went astray, will be responsible for 44  their sin. 44:11 Yet they will be ministers in my sanctuary, having oversight at the gates of the temple, and serving the temple. They will slaughter the burnt offerings and the sacrifices for the people, and they will stand before them to minister to them. 44:12 Because they used to minister to them before their idols, and became a sinful obstacle 45  to the house of Israel, consequently I have made a vow 46  concerning them, declares the sovereign Lord, that they will be responsible 47  for their sin. 44:13 They will not come near me to serve me as priest, nor will they come near any of my holy things, the things which are most sacred. They will bear the shame of the abominable deeds they have committed. 44:14 Yet I will appoint them to keep charge of the temple, all of its service and all that will be done in it.

The Levitical Priests

44:15 “‘But the Levitical priests, the descendants of Zadok 48  who kept the charge of my sanctuary when the people of Israel went astray from me, will approach me to minister to me; they will stand before me to offer me the fat and the blood, declares the sovereign Lord. 44:16 They will enter my sanctuary, and approach my table to minister to me; they will keep my charge.

44:17 “‘When they enter the gates of the inner court, they must wear linen garments; they must not have any wool on them when they minister in the inner gates of the court and in the temple. 44:18 Linen turbans will be on their heads and linen undergarments will be around their waists; they must not bind themselves with anything that causes sweat. 44:19 When they go out to the outer court to the people, they must remove the garments they were ministering in, and place them in the holy chambers; they must put on other garments so that they will not transmit holiness to the people with their garments. 49 

44:20 “‘They must not shave their heads 50  nor let their hair grow long; 51  they must only trim their heads. 44:21 No priest may drink wine when he enters the inner court. 44:22 They must not marry a widow or a divorcee, but they may marry a virgin from the house of Israel 52  or a widow who is a priest’s widow. 44:23 Moreover, they will teach my people the difference between the holy and the common, and show them how to distinguish between the ceremonially unclean and the clean. 53 

44:24 “‘In a controversy they will act as judges; 54  they will judge according to my ordinances. They will keep my laws and my statutes regarding all my appointed festivals and will observe 55  my Sabbaths.

44:25 “‘They must not come near a dead person or they will be defiled; 56  however, for father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister, they may defile themselves. 44:26 After a priest 57  has become ceremonially clean, they 58  must count off a period of seven days for him. 44:27 On the day he enters the sanctuary, into the inner court to serve in the sanctuary, he must offer his sin offering, declares the sovereign Lord.

44:28 “‘This will be their inheritance: I am their inheritance, and you must give them no property in Israel; I am their property. 59  44:29 They may eat the grain offering, the sin offering, and the guilt offering, and every devoted thing in Israel will be theirs. 44:30 The first of all the first fruits and all contributions of any kind 60  will be for the priests; you will also give to the priest the first portion of your dough, so that a blessing may rest on your house. 44:31 The priests will not eat any bird or animal that has died a natural death or was torn to pieces by a wild animal. 61 

The Lord’s Portion of the Land

45:1 “‘When you allot the land as an inheritance, you will offer an allotment 62  to the Lord, a holy portion from the land; the length will be eight and a quarter miles 63  and the width three and one-third miles. 64  This entire area will be holy. 65  45:2 Of this area a square 875 feet 66  by 875 feet will be designated for the sanctuary, with 87½ feet 67  set aside for its open space round about. 45:3 From this measured area you will measure a length of eight and a quarter miles 68  and a width of three and one-third miles; 69  in it will be the sanctuary, the most holy place. 45:4 It will be a holy portion of the land; it will be for the priests, the ministers of the sanctuary who approach the Lord to minister to him. It will be a place for their houses and a holy place for the sanctuary. 70  45:5 An area eight and a quarter miles 71  in length and three and one-third miles 72  in width will be for the Levites, who minister at the temple, as the place for the cities 73  in which they will live.

45:6 “‘Alongside the portion set apart as the holy allotment, you will allot for the city an area one and two-thirds miles 74  wide and eight and a quarter miles 75  long; it will be for the whole house of Israel.

45:7 “‘For the prince there will be land on both sides of the holy allotment and the allotted city, alongside the holy allotment and the allotted city, on the west side and on the east side; it will be comparable in length to one of the portions, from the west border to the east border 45:8 of the land. This will be his property in Israel. My princes will no longer oppress my people, but the land will be allotted to the house of Israel according to their tribes.

45:9 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Enough, you princes of Israel! Put away violence and destruction, and do what is just and right. Put an end to your evictions of my people, 76  declares the sovereign Lord. 45:10 You must use just balances, 77  a just dry measure (an ephah), 78  and a just liquid measure (a bath). 79  45:11 The dry and liquid measures will be the same, the bath will contain a tenth of a homer, 80  and the ephah a tenth of a homer; the homer will be the standard measure. 45:12 The shekel will be twenty gerahs. Sixty shekels 81  will be a mina for you.

45:13 “‘This is the offering you must offer: a sixth of an ephah from a homer of wheat; a sixth of an ephah from a homer of barley, 45:14 and as the prescribed portion of olive oil, one tenth of a bath from each kor (which is ten baths or a homer, for ten baths make a homer); 45:15 and one sheep from each flock of two hundred, from the watered places of Israel, for a grain offering, burnt offering, and peace offering, to make atonement for them, declares the sovereign Lord. 45:16 All the people of the land will contribute 82  to this offering for the prince of Israel. 45:17 It will be the duty of the prince to provide the burnt offerings, the grain offering, and the drink offering at festivals, on the new moons and Sabbaths, at all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel; he will provide the sin offering, the grain offering, the burnt offering, and the peace offerings to make atonement for the house of Israel.

45:18 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In the first month, on the first day of the month, you must take an unblemished young bull and purify the sanctuary. 45:19 The priest will take some of the blood of the sin offering and place it on the doorpost of the temple, on the four corners of the ledge of the altar, and on the doorpost of the gate of the inner court. 45:20 This is what you must do on the seventh day of the month for anyone who sins inadvertently or through ignorance; so you will make atonement for the temple.

45:21 “‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you will celebrate the Passover, and for seven days bread made without yeast will be eaten. 45:22 On that day the prince will provide for himself and for all the people of the land a bull for a sin offering. 45:23 And during the seven days of the feast he will provide as a burnt offering to the Lord seven bulls and seven rams, all without blemish, on each of the seven days, and a male goat daily for a sin offering. 45:24 He will provide as a grain offering an ephah for each bull, an ephah for each ram, and a gallon 83  of olive oil for each ephah of grain. 84  45:25 In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month, at the feast, 85  he will make the same provisions for the sin offering, burnt offering, and grain offering, and for the olive oil, for the seven days.

The Prince’s Offerings

46:1 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: The gate of the inner court that faces east 86  will be closed six working days, but on the Sabbath day it will be opened and on the day of the new moon it will be opened. 46:2 The prince will enter by way of the porch of the gate from the outside, and will stand by the doorpost of the gate. The priests will provide his burnt offering and his peace offerings, and he will bow down at the threshold of the gate and then go out. But the gate will not be closed until evening. 46:3 The people of the land will bow down at the entrance of that gate before the Lord on the Sabbaths and on the new moons. 46:4 The burnt offering which the prince will offer to the Lord on the Sabbath day will be six unblemished lambs and one unblemished ram. 46:5 The grain offering will be an ephah with the ram, and the grain offering with the lambs will be as much as he is able to give, 87  and a gallon 88  of olive oil with an ephah. 46:6 On the day of the new moon he will offer 89  an unblemished young bull, and six lambs and a ram, all without blemish. 46:7 He will provide a grain offering: an ephah with the bull and an ephah with the ram, and with the lambs as much as he wishes, 90  and a gallon 91  of olive oil with each ephah of grain. 92  46:8 When the prince enters, he will come by way of the porch of the gate and will go out the same way.

46:9 “‘When the people of the land come before the Lord at the appointed feasts, whoever enters by way of the north gate to worship will go out by way of the south gate; whoever enters by way of the south gate will go out by way of the north gate. No one will return by way of the gate they entered but will go out straight ahead. 46:10 When they come in, the prince will come in with them, and when they go out, he will go out.

46:11 “‘At the festivals and at the appointed feasts the grain offering will be an ephah with the bull and an ephah with the ram, and with the lambs as much as one is able, 93  and a gallon 94  of olive oil with each ephah of grain. 95  46:12 When the prince provides a freewill offering, a burnt offering, or peace offerings as a voluntary offering to the Lord, the gate facing east will be opened for him, and he will provide his burnt offering and his peace offerings just as he did on the Sabbath. Then he will go out, and the gate will be closed after he goes out. 96 

46:13 “‘You 97  will provide a lamb a year old without blemish for a burnt offering daily to the Lord; morning by morning he will provide it. 46:14 And you 98  will provide a grain offering with it morning by morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third of a gallon 99  of olive oil to moisten the choice flour, as a grain offering to the Lord; this is a perpetual statute. 46:15 Thus they will provide the lamb, the grain offering, and the olive oil morning by morning, as a perpetual burnt offering.

46:16 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: If the prince should give a gift to one of his sons as 100  his inheritance, it will belong to his sons, it is their property by inheritance. 46:17 But if he gives a gift from his inheritance to one of his servants, it will be his until the year of liberty; 101  then it will revert to the prince. His inheritance will only remain with his sons. 46:18 The prince will not take away any of the people’s inheritance by oppressively removing them from their property. He will give his sons an inheritance from his own possessions so that my people will not be scattered, each from his own property.’”

46:19 Then he brought me through the entrance, which was at the side of the gate, into the holy chambers for the priests which faced north. There I saw 102  a place at the extreme western end. 46:20 He said to me, “This is the place where the priests will boil the guilt offering and the sin offering, and where they will bake the grain offering, so that they do not bring them out to the outer court to transmit holiness to the people.”

46:21 Then he brought me out to the outer court and led me past the four corners of the court, and I noticed 103  that in every corner of the court there was a court. 46:22 In the four corners of the court were small 104  courts, 70 feet 105  in length and 52½ feet 106  in width; the four were all the same size. 46:23 There was a row of masonry around each of the four courts, and places for boiling offerings were made under the rows all around. 46:24 Then he said to me, “These are the houses for boiling, where the ministers of the temple boil the sacrifices of the people.”

Water from the Temple

47:1 Then he brought me back to the entrance of the temple. I noticed 107  that water was flowing from under the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east). The water was flowing down from under the right side of the temple, from south of the altar. 47:2 He led me out by way of the north gate and brought me around the outside of the outer gate that faces toward the east; I noticed 108  that the water was trickling out from the south side.

47:3 When the man went out toward the east with a measuring line in his hand, he measured 1,750 feet, 109  and then he led me through water, which was ankle deep. 47:4 Again he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was now knee deep. Once more he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was waist deep. 47:5 Again he measured 1,750 feet and it was a river I could not cross, for the water had risen; it was deep enough to swim in, a river that could not be crossed. 47:6 He said to me, “Son of man, have you seen this?”

Then he led me back to the bank of the river. 47:7 When I had returned, I noticed 110  a vast number of trees on the banks of the river, on both sides. 47:8 He said to me, “These waters go out toward the eastern region and flow down into the Arabah; when they enter the Dead Sea, 111  where the sea is stagnant, 112  the waters become fresh. 113  47:9 Every living creature which swarms where the river 114  flows will live; there will be many fish, for these waters flow there. It will become fresh 115  and everything will live where the river flows. 47:10 Fishermen will stand beside it; from Engedi to En-eglaim they will spread nets. They will catch many kinds of fish, like the fish of the Great Sea. 116  47:11 But its swamps and its marshes will not become fresh; they will remain salty. 47:12 On both sides of the river’s banks, every kind of tree will grow for food. Their leaves will not wither nor will their fruit fail, but they will bear fruit every month, because their water source flows from the sanctuary. Their fruit will be for food and their leaves for healing.” 117 

Boundaries for the Land

47:13 This is what the sovereign Lord says: “Here 118  are the borders 119  you will observe as you allot the land to the twelve tribes of Israel. (Joseph will have two portions.) 120  47:14 You must divide it equally just as I vowed to give it to your forefathers; 121  this land will be assigned as your inheritance. 122 

47:15 “This will be the border of the land: 123  On the north side, from the Great Sea by way of Hethlon to the entrance of Zedad; 47:16 Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath, as far as Hazer-hattikon, which is on the border of Hauran. 47:17 The border will run from the sea to Hazar-enan, at the border of Damascus, and on the north is the border of Hamath. This is the north side. 47:18 On the east side, between Hauran and Damascus, and between Gilead and the land of Israel, will be the Jordan. You will measure from the border to the eastern sea. This is the east side. 47:19 On the south side it will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribath Kadesh, the river, 124  to the Great Sea. This is the south side. 47:20 On the west side the Great Sea will be the boundary to a point opposite Lebo-hamath. This is the west side.

47:21 “This is how you will divide this land for yourselves among the tribes of Israel. 47:22 You must allot it as an inheritance among yourselves and for the foreigners who reside among you, who have fathered sons among you. You must treat them as native-born among the people of Israel; they will be allotted an inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. 125  47:23 In whatever tribe the foreigner resides, there you will give him his inheritance,” declares the sovereign Lord.

The Tribal Portions

48:1 “These are the names of the tribes: From the northern end beside the road of Hethlon to Lebo-hamath, as far as Hazar-enan (which is on the border of Damascus, toward the north beside Hamath), extending from the east side to the west, Dan will have one portion. 48:2 Next to the border of Dan, from the east side to the west, Asher 126  will have one portion. 48:3 Next to the border of Asher from the east side to the west, Naphtali will have one portion. 48:4 Next to the border of Naphtali from the east side to the west, Manasseh will have one portion. 48:5 Next to the border of Manasseh from the east side to the west, Ephraim will have one portion. 48:6 Next to the border of Ephraim from the east side to the west, Reuben will have one portion. 48:7 Next to the border of Reuben from the east side to the west, Judah 127  will have one portion.

48:8 “Next to the border of Judah from the east side to the west will be the allotment you must set apart. It is to be eight and a quarter miles 128  wide, and the same length as one of the tribal portions, from the east side to the west; the sanctuary will be in the middle of it. 48:9 The allotment you set apart to the Lord will be eight and a quarter miles 129  in length and three and one-third miles 130  in width. 48:10 These will be the allotments for the holy portion: for the priests, toward the north eight and a quarter miles 131  in length, toward the west three and one-third miles 132  in width, toward the east three and one-third miles 133  in width, and toward the south eight and a quarter miles 134  in length; the sanctuary of the Lord will be in the middle. 48:11 This will be for the priests who are set apart from the descendants of Zadok who kept my charge and did not go astray when the people of Israel strayed off, like the Levites did. 135  48:12 It will be their portion from the allotment of the land, a most holy place, next to the border of the Levites.

48:13 “Alongside the border of the priests, the Levites will have an allotment eight and a quarter miles 136  in length and three and one-third miles 137  in width. The whole length will be eight and a quarter miles 138  and the width three and one-third miles. 139  48:14 They must not sell or exchange any of it; they must not transfer this choice portion of land, for it is set apart 140  to the Lord.

48:15 “The remainder, one and two-thirds miles 141  in width and eight and a quarter miles 142  in length, will be for common use by the city, for houses and for open space. The city will be in the middle of it; 48:16 these will be its measurements: The north side will be one and one-half miles, 143  the south side one and one-half miles, the east side one and one-half miles, and the west side one and one-half miles. 48:17 The city will have open spaces: On the north there will be 437½ feet, 144  on the south 437½ feet, on the east 437½ feet, and on the west 437½ feet. 48:18 The remainder of the length alongside the holy allotment will be three and one-third miles 145  to the east and three and one-third miles toward the west, and it will be beside the holy allotment. Its produce will be for food for the workers of the city. 48:19 The workers of the city from all the tribes of Israel will cultivate it. 48:20 The whole allotment will be eight and a quarter miles 146  square, you must set apart the holy allotment with the possession of the city.

48:21 “The rest, on both sides of the holy allotment and the property of the city, will belong to the prince. Extending from the eight and a quarter miles 147  of the holy allotment to the east border, and westward from the eight and a quarter miles 148  to the west border, alongside the portions, it will belong to the prince. The holy allotment and the sanctuary of the temple will be in the middle of it. 48:22 The property of the Levites and of the city will be in the middle of that which belongs to the prince. The portion between the border of Judah and the border of Benjamin will be for the prince.

48:23 “As for the rest of the tribes: From the east side to the west side, Benjamin will have one portion. 48:24 Next to the border of Benjamin, from the east side to the west side, Simeon will have one portion. 48:25 Next to the border of Simeon, from the east side to the west side, Issachar will have one portion. 48:26 Next to the border of Issachar, from the east side to the west side, Zebulun will have one portion. 48:27 Next to the border of Zebulun, from the east side to the west side, Gad will have one portion. 48:28 Next to the border of Gad, at the south side, the border will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribath Kadesh, to the Stream of Egypt 149  and on to the Great Sea. 48:29 This is the land which you will allot to the tribes of Israel, and these are their portions, declares the sovereign Lord.

48:30 “These are the exits of the city: On the north side, one and one-half miles 150  by measure, 48:31 the gates of the city 151  will be named for the tribes of Israel; there will be three gates to the north: one gate for Reuben, one gate for Judah, and one gate for Levi. 48:32 On the east side, one and one-half miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Joseph, one gate for Benjamin, and one gate for Dan. 48:33 On the south side, one and one-half miles by measure, there will be three gates: one gate for Simeon, one gate for Issachar, and one gate for Zebulun. 48:34 On the west side, one and one-half miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Gad, one gate for Asher, and one gate for Naphtali. 48:35 The circumference of the city will be six miles. 152  The name of the city from that day forward will be: ‘The Lord Is There.’” 153 

1 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

2 sn This same title appears in 8:4; 9:3; 10:19; and 11:22.

3 sn Earlier Ezekiel had observed God leaving the temple to the east (11:23).

4 sn See Ezek 1:24; Rev 1:15; 14:2; 19:6.

5 tn Heb “shone from.”

6 tc Heb “I.” The reading is due to the confusion of yod (י, indicating a first person pronoun) and vav (ו, indicating a third person pronoun). A few medieval Hebrew mss, Theodotion’s Greek version, and the Latin Vulgate support a third person pronoun here.

7 tn See note on “wind” in 2:2.

8 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

9 sn In 1 Kgs 8:10-11 we find a similar event with regard to Solomon’s temple. See also Exod 40:34-35. and Isa 6:4.

10 sn God’s throne is mentioned in Isa 6:1; Jer 3:17.

11 sn See 1 Chr 28:2; Ps 99:5; 132:7; Isa 60:13; Lam 2:1.

12 tn Heb “by their corpses in their death.” But the term normally translated “corpses” is better understood here as a reference to funeral pillars or funerary offerings. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:583-85, and L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:257.

13 tn Heb “the measurements of the altar by cubits, the cubit being a cubit and a handbreadth.” The measuring units here and in the remainder of this section are the Hebrew “long” cubit, consisting of a cubit (about 18 inches or 45 cm) and a handbreadth (about 3 inches or 7.5 cm), for a total of 21 inches (52.5 cm). Because modern readers are not familiar with the cubit as a unit of measurement, and due to the additional complication of the “long” cubit as opposed to the regular cubit, all measurements have been converted to American standard feet and inches, with the Hebrew measurements and the metric equivalents given in the notes. On the altar see Ezek 40:47.

14 tn The Hebrew term normally means “bosom.” Here it refers to a hollow in the ground.

15 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

16 tn The word “high” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied in the translation for clarity.

17 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

18 tn Heb “one span.” A span was three handbreadths, or about nine inches (i.e., 22.5 cm).

19 tc Heb “bulge, protuberance, mound.” The translation follows the LXX.

20 tn Heb “two cubits” (i.e., 1.05 meters).

21 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm; the phrase occurs again later in this verse).

22 tn Heb “four cubits” (i.e., 2.1 meters; the phrase also occurs in the next verse).

23 tn The precise Hebrew word used here to refer to an “altar hearth” occurs only here in the OT.

24 tn Heb “twelve cubits” (i.e., 6.3 meters; the phrase occurs twice in this verse).

25 tn Heb “fourteen”; the word “cubits” is not in the Hebrew text but is understood from the context; the phrase occurs again later in this verse. Fourteen cubits is about 7.35 meters.

26 tn Heb “half a cubit” (i.e., 26.25 cm).

27 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

28 sn For the “sprinkling of blood,” see Lev 1:5, 11; 8:19; 9:12.

29 sn Note the similar language in Lev 16:18.

30 sn It is likely that salt was used with sacrificial meals (Num 18:19; 2 Chr 13:5).

31 tn Heb “fill its hands.”

32 tn Heb “and they will complete the days.”

33 sn The people also could partake of the food of the peace offering (Lev 3).

34 tn Heb “to eat bread.”

35 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

36 tn Heb “set your heart” (so also in the latter part of the verse).

37 tn Heb “Set your mind, look with your eyes, and with your ears hear.”

38 tc The Syriac, Vulgate, and Targum read the plural. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:618.

39 tc The LXX reads “house of rebellion.”

40 tn Heb “to desecrate.”

41 tc The Greek, Syriac, and Latin versions read “you.” The Masoretic text reads “they.”

42 tc Instead of an energic nun (ן), the text may have read a third masculine plural suffix ם (mem), “them,” which was confused with ן (nun) in the old script. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:621.

tn This word is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied from the context.

43 sn Tobiah, an Ammonite (Neh 13:8), was dismissed from the temple.

44 tn Heb “will bear.”

45 tn Heb “a stumbling block of iniquity.” This is a unique phrase of the prophet Ezekiel (cf. also Ezek 7:19; 14:3, 4, 7; 18:30).

46 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

47 tn Heb “will bear.”

48 sn Zadok was a descendant of Aaron through Eleazar (1 Chr 6:50-53), who served as a priest during David’s reign (2 Sam 8:17).

49 sn For a similar concept of the transmitting of holiness, see Exod 19:12-14; Lev 10:1-2; 2 Sam 6:7. Similar laws concerning the priest are found in Lev 10 and 21.

50 sn The shaving of the head was associated with mourning (Ezek 7:18).

51 sn Letting the hair grow was associated with the taking of a vow (Num 6:5; Acts 21:23-26).

52 tn Heb “from the offspring of the house of Israel.”

53 sn This task was a fundamental role of the priest (Lev 10:10).

54 sn For a historical illustration of the priest carrying out this function, see 2 Chr 19:9-11.

55 tn Heb “sanctify, set apart.”

56 sn This law was part of the legal code for priests (Lev 21:1-3).

57 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

58 tc One medieval Hebrew ms, the LXX, and the Syriac along with Lev 15:13, 28 read the verb as singular.

59 sn See Num 18:20; Deut 10:9; 18:2; Josh 13:33; 18:7.

60 tn Heb has in addition “from your contributions,” a repetition unnecessary in English.

61 tn The words “by a wild animal” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation as a clarification of the circumstances.

sn For this law, see Lev 7:24; 17:15.

62 tn Heb “a contribution.”

63 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers). The measuring units here are the Hebrew “long” cubit, consisting of a cubit (about 18 inches or 45 cm) and a handbreadth (about 3 inches or 7.5 cm), for a total of 21 inches (52.5 cm). Because modern readers are not familiar with the cubit as a unit of measurement, and due to the additional complication of the “long” cubit as opposed to the regular cubit, all measurements have been converted to American standard miles (one mile = 5,280 feet), with the Hebrew measurements and the metric equivalents given in the notes.

64 tc The LXX reads “twenty thousand cubits.”

tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

65 tn Heb “holy it is in all its territory round about.”

66 tn Heb “five hundred cubits” (i.e., 262.5 meters); the phrase occurs twice in this verse.

67 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

68 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

69 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

70 tc The LXX apparently understood “open land” instead of “sanctuary.”

71 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

72 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

73 tc The translation follows the LXX here. The MT reads “twenty.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:246.

74 tn Heb “five thousand cubits” (i.e., 2.625 kilometers).

75 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

76 sn Evictions of the less fortunate by the powerful are described in 1 Kgs 21:1-16; Jer 22:1-5, 13-17; Ezek 22:25.

77 sn Previous legislation regarding this practice may be found in Lev 19:35-36; Deut 25:13-16; Mic 6:10-12.

78 tn Heb “ephah,” which was 1/2 bushel.

79 tn Heb “bath,” a liquid measure, was 5 1/2 gallons.

80 sn The homer was about 5 bushels as a dry measure and 55 gallons as a liquid measure.

81 tn Heb “twenty shekels, twenty-five shekels, fifteen shekels.”

82 tn Heb “will be.”

83 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

84 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

85 sn That is, the Feast of Temporary Shelters, traditionally known as the Feast of Tabernacles (Exod 23:16; 34:22; Deut 16:16).

86 sn The east gate of the outer court was permanently closed (Ezek 44:2).

87 tn Or “as much as he wishes.” Heb “a gift of his hand.”

88 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

89 tn The phrase “he will offer” is not in the Hebrew text but is warranted from the context.

90 tn Heb “with the lambs as his hand can reach.”

91 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

92 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

93 tn Or “as much as he wishes.” Heb “a gift of his hand.”

94 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

95 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

96 tn Heb “he shall shut the gate after he goes out.”

97 tc A few Hebrew mss, the LXX, and the Vulgate read the verb as third person singular (referring to the prince), both here and later in the verse.

98 tc Two medieval Hebrew mss, the LXX, the Syriac, and the Vulgate read the verb as third person singular.

99 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

100 tn The Hebrew text has no preposition; the LXX reads “from” (see v. 17).

101 sn That is, the year of Jubilee (Lev 25:8-15).

102 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

103 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

104 tc The meaning of the Hebrew term is unclear. The LXX and Syriac render “small.”

105 tn Heb “forty cubits” (i.e., 21 meters).

106 tn Heb “thirty cubits” (i.e., 15.75 meters).

107 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

108 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

109 tn Heb “one thousand cubits” (i.e., 525 meters); this phrase occurs three times in the next two verses.

110 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

111 tn Heb “the sea,” referring to the Dead Sea. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.

112 tn Heb “to the sea, those which are brought out.” The reading makes no sense. The text is best emended to read “filthy” (i.e., stagnant). See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:273.

113 tn Heb “the waters become healed.”

114 tn Heb “two rivers,” perhaps under the influence of Zech 14:8. The translation follows the LXX and other ancient versions in reading the singular, which is demanded by the context (see vv. 5-7, 9b, 12).

115 tn Heb “will be healed.”

116 sn The Great Sea refers to the Mediterranean Sea (also in vv. 15, 19, 20).

117 sn See Rev 22:1-2.

118 tc This translation follows the reading זֶה (zeh) instead of גֵּה (geh), a nonexistent word, as supported by the LXX.

119 tn Or “territory”; see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:715.

120 tc The grammar is awkward, though the presence of these words is supported by the versions. L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 2:274) suggests that it is an explanatory gloss.

sn One portion for Ephraim, the other for Manasseh (Gen 48:17-20).

121 sn Gen 15:9-21.

122 tn Heb “will fall to you as an inheritance.”

123 sn The measurements resemble those in Num 34:1-2.

124 tn Or “valley.” The syntax is difficult. Some translate “to the river,” others “from the river”; in either case the preposition is supplied for the sake of English.

125 sn A similar attitude toward non-Israelites is found in Isa 56:3-8.

126 sn The tribes descended from Jacob’s maidservants are placed farthest from the sanctuary. See Gen 30.

127 sn The tribe from which the Davidic prince would come is given the most prestigious allotment (see Gen 49:8-12).

128 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

129 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

130 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

131 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

132 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

133 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

134 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

135 tn Heb “strayed off.”

136 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

137 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

138 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

139 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

140 tn Or “holy.”

141 tn Heb “five thousand cubits” (i.e., 2.625 kilometers).

142 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

143 tn Heb “four thousand five hundred cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.

144 tn Heb “two hundred fifty cubits” (i.e., 131.25 meters); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.

145 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers); the phrase occurs again later in this verse.

146 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

147 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

148 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

149 tn Traditionally “the Brook of Egypt,” although a number of recent translations have “the Wadi of Egypt” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). The word “Egypt” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

150 tn Heb “four thousand five hundred cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs again in vv. 32-34.

151 sn See Rev 21:12-14.

152 tn Heb “eighteen thousand cubits” (i.e., 9.45 kilometers).

153 sn See Rev 21:12-21.



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