Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Exodus 10:3


So Moses and Aaron came to Pharaoh and told him, “Thus says the Lord, the God of the Hebrews: ‘How long do you refuse 1  to humble yourself before me? 2  Release my people so that they may serve me!


Ex 9:17; Ex 16:28; Nu 14:27; 1Ki 18:21; 1Ki 21:29; 2Ch 7:14; 2Ch 33:12,19; 2Ch 34:27; Job 42:6; Pr 1:22,24; Pr 18:12; Isa 1:5; Isa 2:11; Jer 13:10; Jer 13:18; Eze 5:6; Ro 2:4; Heb 12:25; Jas 4:10; 1Pe 5:6

NET © Notes

tn The verb is מֵאַנְתָּ (meanta), a Piel perfect. After “how long,” the form may be classified as present perfect (“how long have you refused), for it describes actions begun previously but with the effects continuing. (See GKC 311 §106.g-h). The use of a verb describing a state or condition may also call for a present translation (“how long do you refuse”) that includes past, present, and potentially future, in keeping with the question “how long.”

tn The clause is built on the use of the infinitive construct to express the direct object of the verb – it answers the question of what Pharaoh was refusing to do. The Niphal infinitive construct (note the elision of the ה [hey] prefix after the preposition [see GKC 139 §51.l]) is from the verb עָנָה (’anah). The verb in this stem would mean “humble oneself.” The question is somewhat rhetorical, since God was not yet through humbling Pharaoh, who would not humble himself. The issue between Yahweh and Pharaoh is deeper than simply whether or not Pharaoh will let the Israelites leave Egypt.

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