Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Genesis 17:1

Context
NET ©

When Abram was 99 years old, 1  the Lord appeared to him and said, 2  “I am the sovereign God. 3  Walk 4  before me 5  and be blameless. 6 

NIV ©

When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to him and said, "I am God Almighty; walk before me and be blameless.

NASB ©

Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am God Almighty; Walk before Me, and be blameless.

NLT ©

When Abram was ninety–nine years old, the LORD appeared to him and said, "I am God Almighty; serve me faithfully and live a blameless life.

MSG ©

When Abram was ninety-nine years old, GOD showed up and said to him, "I am The Strong God, live entirely before me, live to the hilt!

BBE ©

When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the Lord came to him, and said, I am God, Ruler of all; go in my ways and be upright in all things,

NRSV ©

When Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said to him, "I am God Almighty; walk before me, and be blameless.

NKJV ©

When Abram was ninety–nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, "I am Almighty God; walk before Me and be blameless.


KJV
And when Abram
<087>
was ninety
<08673> <08141>
years
<08141>
old
<01121>
and nine
<08672>_,
the LORD
<03068>
appeared
<07200> (8735)
to Abram
<087>_,
and said
<0559> (8799)
unto him, I [am] the Almighty
<07706>
God
<0410>_;
walk
<01980> (8690)
before me
<06440>_,
and be thou perfect
<08549>_.
{perfect: or, upright, or, sincere}
NASB ©
Now when Abram
<087>
was ninety-nine
<08673>
<8672> years
<08141>
old
<01121>
, the LORD
<03068>
appeared
<07200>
to Abram
<087>
and said
<0559>
to him, "I am God
<0410>
Almighty
<07706>
; Walk
<01980>
before
<06440>
Me, and be blameless
<08549>
.
HEBREW
Mymt
<08549>
hyhw
<01961>
ynpl
<06440>
Klhth
<01980>
yds
<07706>
la
<0410>
yna
<0589>
wyla
<0413>
rmayw
<0559>
Mrba
<087>
la
<0413>
hwhy
<03068>
aryw
<07200>
Myns
<08141>
estw
<08672>
hns
<08141>
Myest
<08673>
Nb
<01121>
Mrba
<087>
yhyw (17:1)
<01961>
LXXM
egeneto
<1096
V-AMI-3S
de
<1161
PRT
abram {N-PRI} etwn
<2094
N-GPN
enenhkonta {N-NUI} ennea
<1767
N-NUI
kai
<2532
CONJ
wfyh
<3708
V-API-3S
kuriov
<2962
N-NSM
tw
<3588
T-DSM
abram {N-PRI} kai
<2532
CONJ
eipen {V-AAI-3S} autw
<846
D-DSM
egw
<1473
P-NS
eimi
<1510
V-PAI-1S
o
<3588
T-NSM
yeov
<2316
N-NSM
sou
<4771
P-GS
euarestei
<2100
V-PAD-2S
enantion
<1726
PREP
emou
<1473
P-GS
kai
<2532
CONJ
ginou
<1096
V-PMD-2S
amemptov
<273
A-NSM
NET © [draft] ITL
When
<01961>
Abram
<087>
was 99
<08672>
years
<08141>
old
<01121>
, the Lord
<03068>
appeared
<07200>
to
<0413>
him
<087>
and said
<0559>
, “I
<0589>
am the sovereign
<07706>
God
<0410>
. Walk
<01980>
before
<06440>
me and be
<01961>
blameless
<08549>
.
NET ©

When Abram was 99 years old, 1  the Lord appeared to him and said, 2  “I am the sovereign God. 3  Walk 4  before me 5  and be blameless. 6 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “the son of ninety-nine years.”

tn Heb “appeared to Abram and said to him.” The proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“him”) and the final phrase “to him” has been left untranslated for stylistic reasons.

tn The name אֵל שַׁדַּי (’el shadday, “El Shaddai”) has often been translated “God Almighty,” primarily because Jerome translated it omnipotens (“all powerful”) in the Latin Vulgate. There has been much debate over the meaning of the name. For discussion see W. F. Albright, “The Names Shaddai and Abram,” JBL 54 (1935): 173-210; R. Gordis, “The Biblical Root sdy-sd,” JTS 41 (1940): 34-43; and especially T. N. D. Mettinger, In Search of God, 69-72. Shaddai/El Shaddai is the sovereign king of the world who grants, blesses, and judges. In the Book of Genesis he blesses the patriarchs with fertility and promises numerous descendants. Outside Genesis he both blesses/protects and takes away life/happiness. The patriarchs knew God primarily as El Shaddai (Exod 6:3). While the origin and meaning of this name are uncertain (see discussion below) its significance is clear. The name is used in contexts where God appears as the source of fertility and life. In Gen 17:1-8 he appeared to Abram, introduced himself as El Shaddai, and announced his intention to make the patriarch fruitful. In the role of El Shaddai God repeated these words (now elevated to the status of a decree) to Jacob (35:11). Earlier Isaac had pronounced a blessing on Jacob in which he asked El Shaddai to make Jacob fruitful (28:3). Jacob later prayed that his sons would be treated with mercy when they returned to Egypt with Benjamin (43:14). The fertility theme is not as apparent here, though one must remember that Jacob viewed Benjamin as the sole remaining son of the favored and once-barren Rachel (see 29:31; 30:22-24; 35:16-18). It is quite natural that he would appeal to El Shaddai to preserve Benjamin’s life, for it was El Shaddai’s miraculous power which made it possible for Rachel to give him sons in the first place. In 48:3 Jacob, prior to blessing Joseph’s sons, told him how El Shaddai appeared to him at Bethel (see Gen 28) and promised to make him fruitful. When blessing Joseph on his deathbed Jacob referred to Shaddai (we should probably read “El Shaddai,” along with a few Hebrew mss, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the LXX, and Syriac) as the one who provides abundant blessings, including “blessings of the breast and womb” (49:25). (The direct association of the name with “breasts” suggests the name might mean “the one of the breast” [i.e., the one who gives fertility], but the juxtaposition is probably better explained as wordplay. Note the wordplay involving the name and the root שָׁדַד, shadad, “destroy”] in Isa 13:6 and in Joel 1:15.) Outside Genesis the name Shaddai (minus the element “El” [“God”]) is normally used when God is viewed as the sovereign king who blesses/protects or curses/brings judgment. The name appears in the introduction to two of Balaam’s oracles (Num 24:4, 16) of blessing upon Israel. Naomi employs the name when accusing the Lord of treating her bitterly by taking the lives of her husband and sons (Ruth 1:20-21). In Ps 68:14; Isa 13:6; and Joel 1:15 Shaddai judges his enemies through warfare, while Ps 91:1 depicts him as the protector of his people. (In Ezek 1:24 and 10:5 the sound of the cherubs’ wings is compared to Shaddai’s powerful voice. The reference may be to the mighty divine warrior’s battle cry which accompanies his angry judgment.) Finally, the name occurs 31 times in the Book of Job. Job and his “friends” assume that Shaddai is the sovereign king of the world (11:7; 37:23a) who is the source of life (33:4b) and is responsible for maintaining justice (8:3; 34:10-12; 37:23b). He provides abundant blessings, including children (22:17-18; 29:4-6), but he can also discipline, punish, and destroy (5:17; 6:4; 21:20; 23:16). It is not surprising to see the name so often in this book, where the theme of God’s justice is primary and even called into question (24:1; 27:2). The most likely proposal is that the name means “God, the one of the mountain” (an Akkadian cognate means “mountain,” to which the Hebrew שַׁד, shad, “breast”] is probably related). For a discussion of proposed derivations see T. N. D. Mettinger, In Search of God, 70-71. The name may originally have depicted God as the sovereign judge who, in Canaanite style, ruled from a sacred mountain. Isa 14:13 and Ezek 28:14, 16 associate such a mountain with God, while Ps 48:2 refers to Zion as “Zaphon,” the Canaanite Olympus from which the high god El ruled. (In Isa 14 the Canaanite god El may be in view. Note that Isaiah pictures pagan kings as taunting the king of Babylon, suggesting that pagan mythology may provide the background for the language and imagery.)

tn Or “Live out your life.” The Hebrew verb translated “walk” is the Hitpael; it means “to walk back and forth; to walk about; to live out one’s life.”

tn Or “in my presence.”

tn There are two imperatives here: “walk…and be blameless [or “perfect”].” The second imperative may be purely sequential (see the translation) or consequential: “walk before me and then you will be blameless.” How one interprets the sequence depends on the meaning of “walk before”: (1) If it simply refers in a neutral way to serving the Lord, then the second imperative is likely sequential. (2) But if it has a positive moral connotation (“serve me faithfully”), then the second imperative probably indicates purpose (or result). For other uses of the idiom see 1 Sam 2:30, 35 and 12:2 (where it occurs twice).



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