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Revelation 13:3-6

Context
13:3 One of the beast’s 1  heads appeared to have been killed, 2  but the lethal wound had been healed. 3  And the whole world followed 4  the beast in amazement; 13:4 they worshiped the dragon because he had given ruling authority 5  to the beast, and they worshiped the beast too, saying: “Who is like the beast?” and “Who is able to make war against him?” 6  13:5 The beast 7  was given a mouth speaking proud words 8  and blasphemies, and he was permitted 9  to exercise ruling authority 10  for forty-two months. 13:6 So 11  the beast 12  opened his mouth to blaspheme against God – to blaspheme both his name and his dwelling place, 13  that is, those who dwell in heaven.

Revelation 13:11-17

Context

13:11 Then 14  I saw another beast 15  coming up from the earth. He 16  had two horns like a lamb, 17  but 18  was speaking like a dragon. 13:12 He 19  exercised all the ruling authority 20  of the first beast on his behalf, 21  and made the earth and those who inhabit it worship the first beast, the one whose lethal wound had been healed. 13:13 He 22  performed momentous signs, even making fire come down from heaven in front of people 23  13:14 and, by the signs he was permitted to perform on behalf of the beast, he deceived those who live on the earth. He told 24  those who live on the earth to make an image to the beast who had been wounded by the sword, but still lived. 13:15 The second beast 25  was empowered 26  to give life 27  to the image of the first beast 28  so that it could speak, and could cause all those who did not worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13:16 He also caused 29  everyone (small and great, rich and poor, free and slave 30 ) to obtain a mark on their right hand or on their forehead. 13:17 Thus no one was allowed to buy 31  or sell things 32  unless he bore 33  the mark of the beast – that is, his name or his number. 34 

1 tn Grk “one of its heads”; the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

2 tn Grk “killed to death,” an expression emphatic in its redundancy. The phrase behind this translation is ὡς ἐσφαγμένον (Jw" ejsfagmenon). The particle ὡς is used in Greek generally for comparison, and in Revelation it is used often to describe the appearance of what the author saw. In this instance, the appearance of the beast’s head did not match reality, because the next phrase shows that in fact it did not die. This text does not affirm that the beast died and was resurrected, but some draw this conclusion because of the only other use of the phrase, which refers to Jesus in 5:6.

3 tn The phrase τοῦ θανάτου (tou qanatou) can be translated as an attributive genitive (“deathly wound”) or an objective genitive (the wound which caused death) and the final αὐτοῦ (autou) is either possessive or reference/respect.

4 tn On the phrase “the whole world followed the beast in amazement,” BDAG 445 s.v. θαυμάζω 2 states, “wonder, be amazedRv 17:8. In pregnant constr. ἐθαυμάσθη ὅλη ἡ γῆ ὀπίσω τ. θηρίου the whole world followed the beast, full of wonder 13:3 (here wonder becomes worship: cp. Ael. Aristid. 13 p. 290 D.; 39 p. 747 of Dionysus and Heracles, οἳ ὑφ᾿ ἡμῶν ἐθαυμάσθησαν. Sir 7:29; Jos., Ant. 3, 65. – The act. is also found in this sense: Cebes 2, 3 θ. τινά = ‘admire’ or ‘venerate’ someone; Epict. 1, 17, 19 θ. τὸν θεόν).”

5 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

6 tn On the use of the masculine pronoun to refer to the beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

7 tn Grk “and there was given to him.” Here the passive construction has been simplified, the referent (the beast) has been specified for clarity, and καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

8 tn For the translation “proud words” (Grk “great things” or “important things”) see BDAG 624 s.v. μέγας 4.b.

9 tn Grk “to it was granted.”

10 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the permission granted to the beast.

12 tn Grk “he” (or “it”); the referent (the beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

13 tc The reading “and his dwelling place” does not occur in codex C, but its omission is probably due to scribal oversight since the phrase has the same ending as the phrase before it, i.e., they both end in “his” (αὐτοῦ, autou). This is similar to the mistake this scribe made in 12:14 with the omission of the reading “and half a time” (καὶ ἥμισυ καιροῦ, kai {hmisu kairou).

14 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

15 sn This second beast is identified in Rev 16:13 as “the false prophet.”

16 tn Grk “and it had,” a continuation of the preceding sentence. On the use of the pronoun “he” to refer to the second beast, see the note on the word “It” in 13:1.

17 tn Or perhaps, “like a ram.” Here L&N 4.25 states, “In the one context in the NT, namely, Re 13:11, in which ἀρνίον refers literally to a sheep, it is used in a phrase referring to the horns of an ἀρνίον. In such a context the reference is undoubtedly to a ‘ram,’ that is to say, the adult male of sheep.” In spite of this most translations render the word “lamb” here to maintain the connection between this false lamb and the true Lamb of the Book of Revelation, Jesus Christ.

18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

19 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

20 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

21 tn For this meaning see BDAG 342 s.v. ἐνώπιον 4.b, “by the authority of, on behalf of Rv 13:12, 14; 19:20.”

22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

23 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both men and women.

24 tn Grk “earth, telling.” This is a continuation of the previous sentence in Greek.

sn He told followed by an infinitive (“to make an image…”) is sufficiently ambiguous in Greek that it could be taken as “he ordered” (so NIV) or “he persuaded” (so REB).

25 tn Grk “it”; the referent (the second beast) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

26 tn Grk “it was given [permitted] to it [the second beast].”

27 tn Grk “breath,” but in context the point is that the image of the first beast is made to come to life and speak.

28 tn Grk “of the beast”; the word “first” has been supplied to specify the referent.

29 tn Or “forced”; Grk “makes” (ποιεῖ, poiei).

30 tn See the note on the word “servants” in 1:1.

31 tn Grk “and that no one be able to buy or sell.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. Although the ἵνα (Jina) is left untranslated, the English conjunction “thus” is used to indicate that this is a result clause.

32 tn The word “things” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. In the context of buying and selling, food could be primarily in view, but the more general “things” was used in the translation because the context is not specific.

33 tn Grk “except the one who had.”

34 tn Grk “his name or the number of his name.”



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