Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Romans 3:25

Context
NET ©

God publicly displayed 1  him 2  at his death 3  as the mercy seat 4  accessible through faith. 5  This was to demonstrate 6  his righteousness, because God in his forbearance had passed over the sins previously committed. 7 

NIV ©

God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood. He did this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished—

NASB ©

whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed;

NLT ©

For God sent Jesus to take the punishment for our sins and to satisfy God’s anger against us. We are made right with God when we believe that Jesus shed his blood, sacrificing his life for us. God was being entirely fair and just when he did not punish those who sinned in former times.

MSG ©

God sacrificed Jesus on the altar of the world to clear that world of sin. Having faith in him sets us in the clear. God decided on this course of action in full view of the public--to set the world in the clear with himself through the sacrifice of Jesus, finally taking care of the sins he had so patiently endured.

BBE ©

Whom God has put forward as the sign of his mercy, through faith, by his blood, to make clear his righteousness when, in his pity, God let the sins of earlier times go without punishment;

NRSV ©

whom God put forward as a sacrifice of atonement by his blood, effective through faith. He did this to show his righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over the sins previously committed;

NKJV ©

whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed,


KJV
Whom
<3739>
God
<2316>
hath set forth
<4388> (5639)
[to be] a propitiation
<2435>
through
<1223>
faith
<4102>
in
<1722>
his
<846>
blood
<129>_,
to
<1519>
declare
<1732>
his
<846>
righteousness
<1343>
for
<1223>
the remission
<3929>
of sins
<265>
that are past
<4266> (5761)_,
through
<1722>
the forbearance
<463>
of God
<2316>_;
{set forth: or, foreordained} {remission: or, passing over}
NASB ©
whom
<3739>
God
<2316>
displayed
<4388>
publicly
<4388>
as a propitiation
<2435>
in His blood
<129>
through
<1223>
faith
<4102>
. This was to demonstrate
<1731>
His righteousness
<1343>
, because
<1223>
in the forbearance
<463>
of God
<2316>
He passed
<3929>
over
<3929>
the sins
<265>
previously
<4266>
committed
<4266>
;
GREEK
on
<3739>
R-ASM
proeyeto
<4388> (5639)
V-2AMI-3S
o
<3588>
T-NSM
yeov
<2316>
N-NSM
ilasthrion
<2435>
N-ASN
dia
<1223>
PREP
pistewv
<4102>
N-GSF
en
<1722>
PREP
tw
<3588>
T-DSN
autou
<846>
P-GSM
aimati
<129>
N-DSN
eiv
<1519>
PREP
endeixin
<1732>
N-ASF
thv
<3588>
T-GSF
dikaiosunhv
<1343>
N-GSF
autou
<846>
P-GSM
dia
<1223>
PREP
thn
<3588>
T-ASF
paresin
<3929>
N-ASF
twn
<3588>
T-GPN
progegonotwn
<4266> (5761)
V-RAP-GPN
amarthmatwn
<265>
N-GPN
NET © [draft] ITL
God
<2316>
publicly displayed
<4388>
him at
<1722>
his
<846>
death
<129>
as the mercy seat
<2435>
accessible through
<1223>
faith
<4102>
. This was to
<1519>
demonstrate
<1732>
his
<846>
righteousness
<1343>
, because
<1223>
God in his forbearance had passed over
<3929>
the sins
<265>
previously committed
<4266>
.
NET ©

God publicly displayed 1  him 2  at his death 3  as the mercy seat 4  accessible through faith. 5  This was to demonstrate 6  his righteousness, because God in his forbearance had passed over the sins previously committed. 7 

NET © Notes

tn Or “purposed, intended.”

tn Grk “whom God publicly displayed.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

tn Grk “in his blood.” The prepositional phrase ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι (ejn tw aujtou {aimati) is difficult to interpret. It is traditionally understood to refer to the atoning sacrifice Jesus made when he shed his blood on the cross, and as a modifier of ἱλαστήριον (Jilasthrion). This interpretation fits if ἱλαστήριον is taken to refer to a sacrifice. But if ἱλαστήριον is taken to refer to the place where atonement is made as this translation has done (see note on the phrase “mercy seat”), this interpretation of ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι creates a violent mixed metaphor. Within a few words Paul would switch from referring to Jesus as the place where atonement was made to referring to Jesus as the atoning sacrifice itself. A viable option which resolves this problem is to see ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι as modifying the verb προέθετο (proeqeto). If it modifies the verb, it would explain the time or place in which God publicly displayed Jesus as the mercy seat; the reference to blood would be a metaphorical way of speaking of Jesus’ death. This is supported by the placement of ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι in the Greek text (it follows the noun, separated from it by another prepositional phrase) and by stylistic parallels with Rom 1:4. This is the interpretation the translation has followed, although it is recognized that many interpreters favor different options and translations. The prepositional phrase has been moved forward in the sentence to emphasize its connection with the verb, and the referent of the metaphorical language has been specified in the translation. For a detailed discussion of this interpretation, see D. P. Bailey, “Jesus As the Mercy Seat: The Semantics and Theology of Paul’s Use of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25” (Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge, 1999).

tn The word ἱλαστήριον (Jilasthrion) may carry the general sense “place of satisfaction,” referring to the place where God’s wrath toward sin is satisfied. More likely, though, it refers specifically to the “mercy seat,” i.e., the covering of the ark where the blood was sprinkled in the OT ritual on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur). This term is used only one other time in the NT: Heb 9:5, where it is rendered “mercy seat.” There it describes the altar in the most holy place (holy of holies). Thus Paul is saying that God displayed Jesus as the “mercy seat,” the place where propitiation was accomplished. See N. S. L. Fryer, “The Meaning and Translation of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25,” EvQ 59 (1987): 99-116, who concludes the term is a neuter accusative substantive best translated “mercy seat” or “propitiatory covering,” and D. P. Bailey, “Jesus As the Mercy Seat: The Semantics and Theology of Paul’s Use of Hilasterion in Romans 3:25” (Ph.D. diss., University of Cambridge, 1999), who argues that this is a direct reference to the mercy seat which covered the ark of the covenant.

tn The prepositional phrase διὰ πίστεως (dia pistew") here modifies the noun ἱλαστήριον (Jilasthrion). As such it forms a complete noun phrase and could be written as “mercy-seat-accessible-through-faith” to emphasize the singular idea. See Rom 1:4 for a similar construction. The word “accessible” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied to clarify the idea expressed by the prepositional phrase (cf. NRSV: “effective through faith”).

tn Grk “for a demonstration,” giving the purpose of God’s action in v. 25a. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

tn Grk “because of the passing over of sins previously committed in the forbearance of God.”



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