23:27 A great number of the people followed him, among them women 1 who were mourning 2 and wailing for him. 23:28 But Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, 3 do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves 4 and for your children. 23:29 For this is certain: 5 The days are coming when they will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore children, and the breasts that never nursed!’ 6 23:30 Then they will begin to say to the mountains, 7 ‘Fall on us!’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’ 8 23:31 For if such things are done 9 when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” 10
23:32 Two other criminals 11 were also led away to be executed with him. 23:33 So 12 when they came to the place that is called “The Skull,” 13 they crucified 14 him there, along with the criminals, one on his right and one on his left.
1 sn The background of these women is disputed. Are they “official” mourners of Jesus’ death, appointed by custom to mourn death? If so, the mourning here would be more pro forma. However, the text seems to treat the mourning as sincere, so their tears and lamenting would have been genuine.
2 tn Or “who were beating their breasts,” implying a ritualized form of mourning employed in Jewish funerals. See the note on the term “women” earlier in this verse.
3 sn The title Daughters of Jerusalem portrays these women mourning as representatives of the nation.
4 sn Do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves. Judgment now comes on the nation (see Luke 19:41-44) for this judgment of Jesus. Ironically, they mourn the wrong person – they should be mourning for themselves.
5 tn Grk “For behold.”
6 tn Grk “Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that have not borne, and the breasts that have not nursed!”
sn Normally barrenness is a sign of judgment, because birth would be seen as a sign of blessing. The reversal of imagery indicates that something was badly wrong.
7 sn The figure of crying out to the mountains ‘Fall on us!’ (appealing to creation itself to hide them from God’s wrath), means that a time will come when people will feel they are better off dead (Hos 10:8).
9 tn Grk “if they do such things.” The plural subject here is indefinite, so the active voice has been translated as a passive (see ExSyn 402).
10 sn The figure of the green wood and the dry has been variously understood. Most likely the picture compares the judgment on Jesus as the green (living) wood to the worse judgment that will surely come for the dry (dead) wood of the nation.
11 tc The text reads either “two other criminals” or “others, two criminals.” The first reading (found in Ì75 א B) could be read as describing Jesus as a criminal, while the second (found in A C D L W Θ Ψ 070 0250 Ë1,13 33 Ï) looks like an attempt to prevent this identification. The first reading, more difficult to explain from the other, is likely original.
12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion of the preceding material.
13 sn The place that is called ‘The Skull’ (known as Golgotha in Aramaic, cf. John 19:17) is north and just outside of Jerusalem. The hill on which it is located protruded much like a skull, giving the place its name. The Latin word for Greek κρανίον (kranion) is calvaria, from which the English word “Calvary” derives (cf. Luke 23:33 in the KJV).