In Bible versions:
son of Reuel son of Esau
son of Jesse, older brother of King David
son of Agee the Hararite; one of David's military elite
a man from Harod who was one of David's military elite
a Hararite man; one of David's military elite
loss; desolation; astonishment
Shammah = "astonishment"
1) son of Reuel, grandson of Esau, and a chief of Edom
2) the 3rd son of Jesse and a brother of David
3) son of Agee the Hararite and one of the 30 of David's mighty warriors
4) the Harodite, one of the 30 of David's mighty warriors
5) another Hararite, one of the 30 of David's mighty warriors
8048 Shammah sham-maw'
the same as 8047; Shammah, the name of an Edomite and four
see HEBREW for 08047
1. Son of Reuel, Gen. 36:13
; 1 Chr. 1:37
2. David's brother, 1 Sam. 16:9
Called Shimeah, 2 Sam. 13:3
; Shimma, 1 Chr. 2:13
; Shimea, 1 Chr. 20:7
3. One of David's mighty men, son of Agee, 2 Sam. 23:11
4. One of David's mighty men, 2 Sam. 23:25
Called Shammoth, 1 Chr. 11:27
5. A Hararite, one of David's mighty men, 2 Sam. 23:33
- sham'-a (shammah):
(1) The son of Reuel, the son of Esau, a tribal chief of Edom (Gen 36:13,17; 1 Ch 1:37, Some).
(2) The third son of Jesse and brother of David. Together with his two other brothers he fought under Saul in the campaign against the Philistines and was with the army in the valley of Elah when David slew Goliath (1 Sam 17:13 ff). One redactor states that he was a witness of the anointing of David by Samuel (1 Sam 16:1-13). He was the father of Jonadab, the friend of Amnon (2 Sam 13:3 ff), and that Jonathan whose victory over a Philistine giant is narrated in 2 Sam 21:20 ff was also his son. His name is rendered as "Shammah" (1 Sam 16:9; 17:13), "Shimeah" (2 Sam 13:3,12), "Shimei" (2 Sam 21:21), and "Shimea" (1 Ch 2:13; 20:7).
(3) The son of Agee, a Hararite, one of the "three mighty men" of David (2 Sam 23:11, Septuagint Samaia), who held the field against the Philistines. The parallel passage (1 Ch 11:10 ff) ascribes this deed to Eleazar, the son of Dodo. The succeeding incident (2 Sam 23:13 ff), namely, the famous act of three of David's heroes who risked their lives to bring their leader water from the well of Bethlehem, has frequently been credited to Shammah and two other members of "the three"; but the three warriors are plainly said (2 Sam 23:13) to belong to "the thirty"; 2 Sam 23:33 should read "Jonathan, son of Shammah, the Hararite." Jonathan, one of David's "thirty," was a son of Shammah; the word "son" has been accidentally omitted (Driver, Budde, Kittel, etc.). The parallel passage (1 Ch 11:34) has "son of Shagee," which is probably, a misreading for "son of Agee." Lucian's version, "son of Shammah," is most plausible. "Shimei the son of Ela" (1 Ki 4:18) should also appear in this passage if Lucian's reading of "Ela" for "Agee" (2 Sam 23:11) be correct.
(4) A Harodite (2 Sam 23:25,33), i.e. probably a native of `Ain-charod (`Ain Jalud, Jdg 7:1; see HAROD). One of "the thirty" and captain of Solomon's 5th monthly course. In the parallel lists (1 Ch 11:27) he is called "the Harorite" (this last being a scribal error for Harodite) and "Shamhuth the Izrahate" (1 Ch 27:8).
Horace J. Wolf