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Psalms 22:12-13


22:12 Many bulls 1  surround me;

powerful bulls of Bashan 2  hem me in.

22:13 They 3  open their mouths to devour me 4 

like a roaring lion that rips its prey. 5 

Psalms 22:17


22:17 I can count 6  all my bones;

my enemies 7  are gloating over me in triumph. 8 

1 sn The psalmist figuratively compares his enemies to dangerous bulls.

2 sn Bashan, located east of the Jordan River, was well-known for its cattle. See Ezek 39:18; Amos 4:1.

3 tn “They” refers to the psalmist’s enemies, who in the previous verse are described as “powerful bulls.”

4 tn Heb “they open against me their mouth[s].” To “open the mouth against” is a Hebrew idiom associated with eating and swallowing (see Ezek 2:8; Lam 2:16).

5 tn Heb “a lion ripping and roaring.”

6 tn The imperfect verbal forms in vv. 17-18 draw attention to the progressive nature of the action.

7 tn Heb “they.” The masculine form indicates the enemies are in view. The referent (the psalmist’s enemies) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn Heb “they gaze, they look upon me.”

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