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Shechemites, The | Shechinah | Shed, Shedding | Shedeur | Sheep | Sheep Gate | Sheep Market | Sheep Tending | Sheep-fold | Sheep-gate | Sheep-market

Sheep Gate

In Bible versions:

Jeshanah Gate: NET
Corner: NIV
Dung: NIV
Horse: NIV
sheep gate: NASB
Refuse Gate: NASB
Old 3465 Gate: NASB
Sheep 6629 Gate: NASB
a named gate of Jerusalem
a named town gate
a town gate
a gate into Jerusalem
the gate in the wall of Jerusalem on northeastern corner
a specific gate in the wall of Jerusalem
Google Maps: Corner Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´); Dung Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´); Horse Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´); Sheep Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´); Valley Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´); Water Gate (31° 46´, 35° 14´)


Strongs #08179: rev sha`ar

1) gate
1a) gate (of entrance)
1b) gate (of space inside gate, i.e. marketplace, public meeting place)
1b1) city, town
1c) gate (of palace, royal castle, temple, court of tabernacle)
1d) heaven

8179 sha`ar shah'-ar

from 8176 in its original sense; an opening, i.e. door or
gate:-city, door, gate, port (X -er).
see HEBREW for 08176

Strongs #06438: hnp pinnah

1) corner
1a) corner (of square objects)
1b) corner (of ruler or chief - fig.)

6438 pinnah pin-naw'

feminine of 6434; an angle; by implication, a pinnacle;
figuratively, a chieftain:-bulwark, chief, corner, stay,
see HEBREW for 06434

Strongs #0830: tpva 'ashpoth or twpva 'ashpowth or (contraction) tpv sh@photh

1) ash heap, refuse heap, dung-hill

830 'ashpoth ash-pohth'

or uashpowth {ash-pohth'}; or (contraction) shphoth
{shef-ohth'}; plural of a noun of the same form as 827, from
8192 (in the sense of scraping); a heap of rubbish or
filth:-dung (hill).
see HEBREW for 0827
see HEBREW for 08192

Strongs #05483: owo cuwc or oo cuc

1) swallow, swift
2) horse
2a) chariot horses

5483 cuwc soos

or cuc {soos}; from an unused root meaning to skip (properly,
for joy); a horse (as leaping); also a swallow (from its rapid
flight):-crane, horse((-back, -hoof)). Compare 6571.
see HEBREW for 06571

Strongs #03465: Nvy yashan

1) old, store, storage

3465 yashan yaw-shawn'

from 3462; old:-old.
see HEBREW for 03462

Strongs #06629: Nau tso'n or Nwau ts@'own (\\#Ps 144:13\\)

1) small cattle, sheep, sheep and goats, flock, flocks
1a) small cattle (usually of sheep and goats)
1b) of multitude (simile)
1c) of multitude (metaphor)

6629 tso'n tsone

or tsaown (Psalm 144:13) {tseh-one'}; from an unused root
meaning to migrate; a collective name for a flock (of sheep or
goats); also figuratively (of men):-(small) cattle, flock
(+-s), lamb (+-s), sheep((-cote, -fold, -shearer, -herds)).

Strongs #01516: ayg gay' or (shortened) yg gay

1) valley, a steep valley, narrow gorge

1516 gay' gah'-ee

or (shortened) gay {gah'-ee}; probably (by transmutation)
from the same root as 1466 (abbreviated); a gorge (from its
lofty sides; hence, narrow, but not a gully or
see HEBREW for 01466

Strongs #04325: Mym mayim

1) water, waters
1a) water
1b) water of the feet, urine
1c) of danger, violence, transitory things, refreshment (fig.)

4325 mayim mah'-yim

dual of a primitive noun (but used in a singular sense);
water; figuratively, juice; by euphemism, urine, semen:-+
piss, wasting, water(-ing, (-course, -flood, -spring)).

Corner [EBD]

The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Prov. 7:8). "Corners" in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, the "corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" (Lev. 19:9; 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers running round the ears (Lev. 19:27; 21:5). The "four corners of the earth" in Isa. 11:12 and Ezek. 7:2 denotes the whole land. The "corners of the streets" mentioned in Matt. 6:5 means the angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public resort.

The corner gate of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 26:9) was on the north-west side of the city.

Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa. 28:16), a block of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The "head of the corner" (Ps. 118:22, 23) denotes the coping, the "coign of vantage", i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word "corner stone" is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and importance (Isa. 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who was set in highest honour (Matt. 21:42). He is also styled "the chief corner stone" (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-8). When Zechariah (10:4), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner stone." (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON'S »3612.)

Dung [EBD]

(1.) Used as manure (Luke 13:8); collected outside the city walls (Neh. 2:13). Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp (Ex. 29:14; Lev. 4:11; 8:17; Num. 19:5). To be "cast out as dung," a figurative expression (1 Kings 14:10; 2 Kings 9:37; Jer. 8:2; Ps. 18:42), meaning to be rejected as unprofitable.

(2.) Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt (Ezek. 4:12-15), where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this purpose.

Horse [EBD]

always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2 Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this, horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7; 9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).

Old gate [EBD]

one of the gates in the north wall of Jerusalem, so called because built by the Jebusites (Neh. 3:6; 12:39).

Dung [NAVE]

Deut. 23:13; 1 Sam. 2:8; 1 Kin. 14:10; 2 Kin. 6:25; 18:27; Neh. 2:13; 3:13, 14; 12:31; Job 20:7; Psa. 113:7; Prov. 30:12; Isa. 4:4; 25:10; 28:8; 36:12; Lam. 4:5; Ezek. 4:12, 15; Nah. 3:6; Zeph. 1:17; Luke 13:8; Jas. 1:21; 2:2; Rev. 22:11

Horse [NAVE]

Description of: Great strength, Job 39:19-25; swifter than eagles, Jer. 4:13; snorting and neighing of, Isa. 5:28; Jer. 8:16; a vain thing for safety, Psa. 33:17; Prov. 21:31.
Used by the Egyptians in war, Ex. 14:9; 15:19; the Israelites, 1 Kin. 22:4.
Used for cavalry, 2 Kin. 18:23; Jer. 47:3; 51:21.
Egypt famous for, Isa. 31:1.
Forbidden to kings of Israel, Deut. 17:16.
Hamstrung by Joshua, Josh. 11:6, 9; David, 2 Sam. 8:4.
Israel reproved for keeping, Isa. 2:7; 31:1; Ezek. 17:15; Hos. 14:3.
Exported from Egypt, 1 Kin. 10:28, 29; 2 Chr. 9:25, 28; from Babylon, Ezra 2:66; Neh. 7:68.
Bits for, Jas. 3:3; bells for, Zech. 14:20; harness for, Jer. 46:4.
Color of, Zech. 1:8.
Commerce in, Rev. 18:13; see Exported, above. Dedicated to religious uses, 2 Kin. 23:11.
Symbolical: Zech. 1:8; Rev. 6:2-8; 9:17; 19:11-21.
See: Dromedary.

Sheep gate [NAVE]

SHEEP GATE, an ancient gate of Jerusalem, Neh. 3:1, 32; 12:39; John 5:2.


The "corner" of the field was not allowed, (Leviticus 19:9) to be wholly reaped. It formed a right of the poor to carry off what was so left, and this was a part of the maintenance from the soil to which that class were entitled. Under the scribes, minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the portion of a field which was to be left for the legal "corner." The proportion being thus fixed, all the grain might be reaped, and enough to satisfy the regulation subsequently separated from the whole crop. This "corner" was, like the gleaning, tithe-free.


The uses of dung were two-fold --as manure and as fuel. The manure consisted either of straw steeped in liquid manure, (Isaiah 25:10) or the sweepings, (Isaiah 5:25) of the streets and roads, which were carefully removed from about the houses, and collected in heaps outside the walls of the towns at fixed spots --hence the dung-gate at Jerusalem --and thence removed in due course to the fields. The difficulty of procuring fuel in Syria, Arabia and Egypt has made dung in all ages valuable as a substitute. It was probably used for heating ovens and for baking cakes, (Ezra 4:12,15) the equable heat which it produced adapting it pecularily for the latter operation. Cow?s and camels dung is still used for a similar purpose by the Bedouins.


The most striking feature in the biblical notices of the horse is the exclusive application of it to warlike operations; in no instance is that useful animal employed for the purposes of ordinary locomotion or agriculture, if we except (Isaiah 28:28) The animated description of the horse in (Job 39:19-25) applies solely to the war-horse. The Hebrews in the patriarchal age, as a pastoral race, did not stand in need of the services Of the horse, and for a long period after their settlement in Canaan they dispensed with it, partly in consequence of the hilly nature of the country, which only admitted of the use of chariots in certain localities, (Judges 1:19) and partly in consequence to the prohibition in (17:16) which would be held to apply at all periods. David first established a force of cavalry and chariots, (2 Samuel 8:4) but the great supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt. (1 Kings 4:26) Solomon also established a very active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and resold, at a profit, to the Hittites. With regard to the trappings and management of the horse we have little information. The bridle was placed over the horse?s nose, (Isaiah 30:28) and a bit or curb is also mentioned. (2 Kings 19:28; Psalms 32:9; Proverbs 26:3; Isaiah 37:29) In the Authorized Version it is incorrectly given "bridle," with the exception of (Psalms 32:1) ... Saddles were not used until a late period. The horses were not shod, and therefore hoofs are hard "as flint," (Isaiah 5:28) were regarded as a great merit. The chariot-horses were covered with embroidered trappings (Ezekiel 27:20) Horses and chariots were used also in idolatrous processions, as noticed in regard to the sun. (2 Kings 23:11)


CORNER - kor'-ner (miqtsoa`, pe'ah, pinnah; arche, gonia, akrogoniaios): In Ex 26:24; Ezek 41:22; 46:21,22, miqtsoa`, "angle" is translated "corner"; pe'ah, "side," "quarter" and pinnah "corner," "front," "chief," are more frequently so translated, e.g. Ex 25:26; Lev 19:9; Jer 9:26; 25:23; and Ex 27:2; 1 Ki 7:34; Ps 118:22; Isa 28:16 ("corner-stone"); Jer 51:26. Other words are kanaph, "wing" (Isa 11:12; Ezek 7:2); katheph, "shoulder" (2 Ki 11:11 the King James Version, twice); pa`am, "foot" (Ex 25:12 the King James Version); zawiyoth, "corner-stones" (Ps 144:12; Zec 9:15, translated "corners").

For "corner" the Revised Version (British and American) has "side" (Ex 36:25), "corner-stone" (Zec 10:4), also for "stay" (Isa 19:13); instead of "teacher removed into a corner" (Isa 30:20), "be hidden," "hide themselves"; for "corners" we have "feet" (Ex 25:12; 1 Ki 7:30); "ribs" (Ex 30:4; 37:27); for "divide into corners" (Neh 9:22), "allot after their portions"; for "into corners" (Dt 32:26), "afar"; the words to Israel (Isa 41:9) "called thee from the chief men 'atsilim thereof" are rendered by the Revised Version (British and American) "called thee from the corners thereof" (of the earth).

In the New Testament we have gonia ("angle," "corner"), "in the corners of the streets" (Mt 6:5), "the head of the corner" (Mt 21:42), "the four corners of the earth" (Rev 7:1; 20:8); arche ("a beginning") (Acts 10:11; 11:5); "chief corner stone" (Eph 2:20; 1 Pet 2:6), is a translation of akrogoniaios ("at the extreme angle").

W. L. Walker


CORNER GATE - kor'-ner gat.



DUNG; DUNG GATE - dung ('ashpoth, domen, peresh; skubalon, etc.): Nine different words occurring in the Hebrew have been translated "dung" in the Old Testament. The word used to designate one of the gates of Jerusalem ('ashpoth, Neh 2:13; 3:14) is more general than the others and may mean any kind of refuse. The gate was probably so named because outside it was the general dump heap of the city. Visitors in recent years riding outside the city walls of Jerusalem, on their way to the Mt. of Olives or Jericho, may have witnessed such a dump against the wall, which has existed for generations.

The first mention made of dung is in connection with sacrificial rites. The sacred law required that the dung, along with what parts of the animal were not burned on the altar, should be burned outside the camp (Ex 29:14; Lev 4:11; 8:17; 16:27; Nu 19:5).

The fertilizing value of dung was appreciated by the cultivator, as is indicated by Lk 13:8 and possibly Ps 83:10 and Isa 25:10.

Dung was also used as a fuel. Ezek 4:12,15 will be understood when it is known that the dung of animals is a common fuel throughout Palestine and Syria, where other fuel is scarce. During the summer, villagers gather the manure of their cattle, horses or camels, mix it with straw, make it into cakes and dry it for use as fuel for cooking, especially in the winter when wood or charcoal or straw are not procurable. It burns slowly like peat and meets the needs of the kitchen. In Mesopotamia the writer saw it being used with forced draft to fire a steam boiler. There was no idea of uncleanness in Ezekiel's mind, associated with the use of animal dung as fuel (Ezek 4:15).

Figuratively: Dung was frequently used figuratively to express the idea (a) of worthlessness, especially a perishable article for which no one cares (1 Ki 14:10; 2 Ki 6:25; 9:37; Job 20:7; Ps 83:10; Jer 8:2; 9:22; 16:4; 25:33; Zeph 1:17; Phil 3:8 (the American Standard Revised Version "refuse")). Dunghill was used in the same way (1 Sam 2:8; Ezr 6:11; Ps 113:7; Isa 25:10; Dan 2:5; 3:29; Lk 14:35; Lam 4:5); (b) as an expression of disgust (2 Ki 18:27; Isa 36:12); (c) of rebuke (Mal 2:3).

James A. Patch


HORSE - hors:

1. Names:

The common names are (1) cuc, and (2) hippos. (3) The word parash, "horseman," occurs often, and in several cases is translated "horse" or "warhorse" (Isa 28:28; Ezek 27:14; Joel 2:4 the Revised Version, margin); also in 2 Sam 16, where the "horsemen" of English Versions of the Bible is ba`ale ha-parashim, "owners of horses"; compare Arabic faris, "horseman," and faras, "horse". (4) The feminine form cucah, occurs in Song 1:9, and is rendered as follows: Septuagint he hippos; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) equitatum; the King James Version "company of horses," the Revised Version (British and American) "steed." It is not clear why English Versions of the Bible does not have "mare." (5) The word 'abbirim, "strong ones," is used for horses in Jdg 5:22; Jer 8:16; 47:3; 50:11 (the King James Version "bulls"). In Ps 22:12 the same word is translated "strong bulls" (of Bashan). (6) For [~rekhesh (compare Arabic rakad, "to run"), in 1 Ki 4:28; Est 8:10,14; Mic 1:13, the Revised Version (British and American) has "swift steeds," while the King James Version gives "dromedaries" in 1 Ki and "mules" in Est. (7) For kirkaroth (Isa 66:20), the King James Version and the English Revised Version have "swift beasts"; the English Revised Version margin and the American Standard Revised Version "dromedaries"; Septuagint skiddia, perhaps "covered carriages." In Est 8:10,14 we find the doubtful words (8) 'achashteranim, and (9) bene ha-rammakim, which have been variously translated. the King James Version has respectively "camels" and "young dromedaries," the Revised Version (British and American) "used in the king's service" and "bred of the stud," the Revised Version margin "mules" and "young dromedaries."


2. Origin:

The Hebrew and Egyptian names for the horse are alike akin to the Assyrian. The Jews may have obtained horses from Egypt (Dt 17:16), but the Canaanites before them had horses (Josh 17:16), and in looking toward the Northeast for the origin of the horse, philologists are in agreement with zoologists who consider that the plains of Central Asia, and also of Europe, were the original home of the horse. At least one species of wild horse is still found in Central Asia.

3. Uses:

The horses of the Bible are almost exclusively war-horses, or at least the property of kings and not of the common people. A doubtful reference to the use of horses in threshing grain is found in Isa 28:28. Horses are among the property which the Egyptians gave to Joseph in exchange for grain (Gen 47:17). In Dt 17:16 it is enjoined that the king "shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he may multiply horses." This and other injunctions failed to prevent the Jews from borrowing from the neighboring civilizations their customs, idolatries, and vices. Solomon's horses are enumerated in 1 Ki 4, and the se`irim and tebhen of 1 Ki 4:28 (5:8) are identical with the sha`ir ("barley") and tibn ("straw") with which the arab feeds his horse today. In war, horses were ridden and were driven in chariots (Ex 14:9; Josh 11:4; 2 Sam 15:1, etc.).

4. Figurative and Descriptive:

The horse is referred to figuratively chiefly in Zechariah and Revelation. A chariot and horses of fire take Elijah up to heaven (2 Ki 2:11 f). In Ps 20:7; 33:17; and 76:6, the great strength of the horse is recalled as a reminder of the greater strength of God. In Jas 3:3, the small bridle by which the horse can be managed is compared to the tongue (compare Ps 32:9). In Job 39:19-25 we have a magnificent description of a spirited war-horse.

Alfred Ely Day






SHEEP GATE - (sha`ar ha-tso'-n (Neh 3:1,32; 12:39)): One of the gates of Jerusalem, probably near the northeast corner. See JERUSALEM. For the "sheep gate" of Jn 5:2, see BETHESDA; SHEEP MARKET.


VALLEY GATE - (sha`ar ha-gay', "Gate of the Gai"): Is placed (Neh 3:13) between the "tower of the furnaces" and the "dung gate"; from here Nehemiah (2:13) set out on his ride down the "Gai" (Hinnom) to Siloam, and, too (12:31,38), from here the Levites commenced their compass of the city in two directions. It must have been an ancient gate, for Uzziah added towers to it (2 Ch 26:9). It was probably near the Southwest corner of the city and near to, if not identical with, the gate found by Bliss near (now in) the Protestant Cemetery.


E. W. G. Masterman

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