Study Dictionary
Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Beth Shemesh | Beth Shittah | Beth Tappuah | Beth Zur | Beth-aram | Beth-Ashbea | Beth-baalmeon | Beth-birei | Beth-el | Beth-el-aphrah | Beth-ezal


In Bible versions:

Beth-Ashbea: NET AVS TEV
Beth Eden: NET NIV
Beth Haggan: NET NIV
Beth Millo: NET NIV
Beth Togarmah: NET NIV
Beth-Eden: AVS TEV
Beth-Gilgal: AVS TEV
Beth-Haggan: AVS TEV
Beth-Millo: AVS TEV
Beth-Togarmah: AVS TEV
Beth Ashbea: NIV
Beth-ashbea: NRSV NASB
Beth-eden: NRSV NASB
Beth-gilgal: NRSV NASB
Beth-haggan: NRSV
Beth-millo: NRSV NASB
Beth-togarmah: NRSV NASB
a town; home of the descendants of Laadah of Judah
a town, perhaps a symbolic name for Damascus (OS)
a town near Jerusalem (OS)
a town of Issachar 12 km south of Jezreel
a town near or attached to Shechem
a people of the far north; descendants of Togarmah
a place near where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet (NIVsn)
son of Joah (Gershon Levi) in King Hezekiah's time
a district along the Euphrates River south of Haran (NIVsn)
a section of Jerusalem just north of the "City of David"
son of Gomer son of Japheth son of Noah

pleasure; delight
which is all bone
NETBible Maps: Map1 F4 ; Map5 E2
Google Maps: Beth-eden (33° 31´, 36° 18´); Beth-haggan (32° 35´, 35° 10´); Beth-millo (32° 12´, 35° 16´); Beth-togarmah (40° 3´, 45° 2´)


Strongs #0791: ebva 'Ashbea`

Ashbea = "I shall make to swear"

1) the patriarch of a family of Judah

791 'Ashbea` ash-bay'-ah

from 7650; adjurer; Asbea, an Israelite:-Ashbea.
see HEBREW for 07650

Strongs #01004: tyb bayith

n m
1) house
1a) house, dwelling habitation
1b) shelter or abode of animals
1c) human bodies (fig.)
1d) of Sheol
1e) of abode of light and darkness
1f) of land of Ephraim
2) place
3) receptacle
4) home, house as containing a family
5) household, family
5a) those belonging to the same household
5b) family of descendants, descendants as organized body
6) household affairs
7) inwards (metaph.)
8) (TWOT) temple

9) on the inside

10) within

1004 bayith bah'-yith

probably from 1129 abbreviated; a house (in the greatest
variation of applications, especially family, etc.):-court,
daughter, door, + dungeon, family, + forth of, X great as
would contain, hangings, home(born), (winter)house(-hold),
inside(-ward), palace, place, + prison, + steward, + tablet,
temple, web, + within(-out).
see HEBREW for 01129

Strongs #05731: Nde `Eden

Eden= "pleasure"

n pr m loc
1) the first habitat of man after the creation; site unknown

n pr m
2) a Gershonite Levite, son of Joah in the days of king Hezekiah of Judah

5731 `Eden ay'-den

the same as 5730 (masculine); Eden, the region of Adam's
see HEBREW for 05730

Strongs #01588: Ng gan

n m/f
1) garden, enclosure
1a) enclosed garden
1a1) (fig. of a bride)
1b) garden (of plants)

n pr loc
1c) Garden of Eden

1588 gan gan

from 1598; a garden (as fenced):-garden.
see HEBREW for 01598

Strongs #04407: awlm millow' or alm mil-lo' (\\#2Ki 12:20\\)

Millo = "rampart" or "mound"

1) a place near Shechem; site unknown
2) a part of the fortifications of Jerusalem

4407 millow' mil-lo'

or mil-loe (2 Kings 12:20) {mil-lo'}; from 4390; a rampart
(as filled in), i.e. the citadel:-Millo. See also 1037.
see HEBREW for 04390
see HEBREW for 01037

Strongs #08425: hmrgwt Towgarmah or hmrgt Togarmah

Togarmah = "thou wilt break her"

n pr m
1) son of Gomer, grandson of Japheth, and great grandson of Noah

n pr terr
2) territory settled by the descendants of Togarmah
2a) probably the area known as Armenia

8425 Towgarmah to-gar-maw'

or Togarmah {to-gar-maw'}; probably of foreign derivation;
Togarmah, a son of Gomer and his posterity:-Togarmah.

Strongs #05729: Nde `Eden

Eden = "pleasure"

1) a place conquered by Assyria; probably located in the northwest of

5729 `Eden eh'-den

from 5727; pleasure; Eden, a place in Mesopotamia:-Eden.
see HEBREW for 05727

Beth-gilgal [EBD]

house of Gilgal, a place from which the inhabitants gathered for the purpose of celebrating the rebuilding of the walls on the return exile (Neh. 12:29). (See GILGAL.)

Eden [EBD]

delight. (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2:8-17). No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia. The region from about lat. 33 degrees 30' to lat. 31 degrees, which is a very rich and fertile tract, has been by the most competent authorities agreed on as the probable site of Eden. "It is a region where streams abound, where they divide and re-unite, where alone in the Mesopotamian tract can be found the phenomenon of a single river parting into four arms, each of which is or has been a river of consequence."

Among almost all nations there are traditions of the primitive innocence of our race in the garden of Eden. This was the "golden age" to which the Greeks looked back. Men then lived a "life free from care, and without labour and sorrow. Old age was unknown; the body never lost its vigour; existence was a perpetual feast without a taint of evil. The earth brought forth spontaneously all things that were good in profuse abundance."

(2.) One of the markets whence the merchants of Tyre obtained richly embroidered stuffs (Ezek. 27:23); the same, probably, as that mentioned in 2 Kings 19:12, and Isa. 37:12, as the name of a region conquered by the Assyrians.

(3.) Son of Joah, and one of the Levites who assisted in reforming the public worship of the sanctuary in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 29:12).

Millo [EBD]

(Heb. always with the article, "the" Millo). (1.) Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north as its outermost defence. It is always rendered Akra i.e., "the citadel", in the LXX. It was already existing when David conquered Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:9). He extended it to the right and left, thus completing the defence of the city. It was rebuilt by Solomon (1 Kings 9:15, 24; 11:27) and repaired by Hezekiah (2 Chr. 32:5).

(2.) In Judg. 9:6, 20 it is the name of a rampart in Shechem, probably the "tower of Shechem" (9:46, 49).

Togarmah [EBD]

(1.) A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. 10:3).

(2.) A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre (Ezek. 27:14; 38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1).

Beth-haggan [NAVE]

A garden house, 2 Kin. 9:27.
Probably identical with En-gaim, Josh. 19:21.

Eden [NAVE]

1. The garden of Eden, Gen. 2:8-17; 3:23, 24; 4:16; Isa. 51:3; Ezek. 28:13; 31:9, 16, 18; 36:35; Joel 2:3.
2. An Aramaic city-state; traded with Tyre, 2 Kin. 19:12; Isa. 37:12; Ezek. 27:23; Amos 1:5.
3. A Gershonite, 2 Chr. 29:12.
4. A Levite, 2 Chr. 31:15.

Millo [NAVE]

1. The house of Millo, possibly a clan at Shechem, Judg. 9:6, 20.
2. A name given to part of the citadel of Jerusalem, 2 Sam. 5:9; 1 Chr. 11:8.
King Solomon raises a levy to repair, 1 Kin. 9:15, 24; 11:27.
Repaired by King Hezekiah, 2 Chr. 32:5.
King Joash murdered at, 2 Kin. 12:20.

Togarmah [NAVE]

Son of Gomer, Gen. 10:3; 1 Chr. 1:6.
Descendants of, Ezek. 27:14; 38:6.


  1. The first residence of man, called in the Septuagint Paradise. The latter is a word of Persian origin, and describes an extensive tract of pleasure land, somewhat like an English park; and the use of it suggests a wider view of man?s first abode than a garden. The description of Eden is found in (Genesis 2:8-14) In the eastern portion of the region of Eden was the garden planted. The Hiddekel, one of its rivers, is the modern Tigris; the Euphrates is the same as the modern Euphrates. With regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again, making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus (Gihon).
  2. One of the marts which supplied the luxury of Tyre with richly-embroidered stuffs. In (2 Kings 19:12) and Isai 37:12 "The sons of Eden" are mentioned with Gozan, Haran and Rezeph as victims of the Assyrian greed of conquest. Probability seems to point to the northwest of Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden.
  3. BETH-EDEN, "house of pleasure:" probably the name of a country residence of the kings of Damascus. (Amos 1:5)


  1. A Gershonite Levite, son of Joah, in the days of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:12) (B.C. 727.)
  2. Also a Levite, probably identical with the preceding. (2 Chronicles 31:15)


(a rampart, mound) a place in ancient Jerusalem. Both name and place seem to have been already in existence when the city was taken from the Jebusites by David. (2 Samuel 5:9; 1 Chronicles 11:8) Its repair or restoration was one of the great works for which Solomon raised his "levy," (1 Kings 9:15,24; 11:27) and it formed a prominent part of the fortifications by which Hezekiah prepared for the approach of the Assyrians. (2 Chronicles 32:5) The last passage seems to show that "the Milo" was part of the "city of David," that is, of Zion. Comp. (2 Kings 12:20)


a son of Gomer, of the family of Japheth, and brother of Ashkenaz and Riphath. (Genesis 10:3) His descendants became a people engaged in agriculture, breeding horses and mules to be sold in Tyre. (Ezekiel 27:14) They were also a military people, well skilled in the use of arms. Togarmah was probably the ancient name of Armenia.


BETH-EDEN - beth-e'-den (Am 1:5 King James Version, margin; English Versions of the Bible "house of Eden").



BETH-GILGAL - beth-gil'-gal (beth ha-gilgal; Bethaggalgal; the King James Version house of Gilgal): The Gilgal which lay in the plain East of Jericho (Neh 12:29).



BETH-HAGGAN - beth-hag'-an (beth-ha-gan, "house of the garden"). The place where Ahaziah was slain by Jehu (2 Ki 9:27). The words are rendered in English Versions of the Bible "the garden house," but some take them to be a proper name. The location is doubtful.


BETH-MILLO - beth-mil'-o.



EDEN - e'-d'-n (`edhen, "delight"; Edem):

(1) The land in which "Yahweh God planted a garden," where upon his creation "he put the man whom he had formed" (Gen 2:8). In the Assyrian inscriptions idinu (Accadian, edin) means "plain" and it is from this that the Biblical word is probably derived. Following are the references to Eden in the Bible, aside from those in Gen 2 and 3: Gen 4:16; Isa 51:3; Ezek 28:13; 31:9,16,18; 36:35; Joel 2:3. The Garden of Eden is said to be "eastward, in Eden" Gen (2:8); where the vegetation was luxurious (2:9) and the fig tree indigenous (3:7), and where it was watered by irrigation. All kinds of animals, including cattle, beasts of the field and birds, were found there (2:19,20). Moreover, the climate was such that clothing was not needed for warmth. It is not surprising, therefore, that the plural of the word has the meaning "delights," and that Eden has been supposed to mean the land of delights, and that the word became a synonym for Paradise.

The location of Eden is in part to be determined from the description already given. It must be where there is a climate adapted to the production of fruit trees and of animals capable of domestication, and in general to the existence of man in his primitive condition. In particular, its location is supposed to be determined by the statements regarding the rivers coursing through it and surrounding it. There is a river (nahar) (Gen 2:10) which was parted and became four heads (ro'shim), a word which (Jdg 8:16; Job 1:17) designates main detachments into which an army is divided, and therefore would more properly signify branches than heads, permitting Josephus and others to interpret the river as referring to the ocean, which by the Greeks was spoken of as the river (okeanos) surrounding the world. According to Josephus, the Ganges, the Tigris, the Euphrates and the Nile are the four rivers, being but branches of this one river. Moreover, it is contended by some, with much show of reason, that the word perath translated Euphrates is a more general term, signifying "the broad" or "deep" river, and so may here refer to some other stream than the Euphrates, possibly to a river in some other region whose name is perpetuated in the present Euphrates, as "the Thames" of New England perpetuates the memory of the Thames of Old England. In ancient times there was a river Phrath in Persia, and perhaps two. It is doubtful whether the phrase "eastward, in Eden" refers to the position with reference to the writer or simply with reference to Eden itself. So far as that phrase is concerned, therefore, speculation is left free to range over the whole earth, and this it has done.

1. Central Asia:

Columbus when passing the mouth of the Orinoco surmised that its waters came down from the Garden of Eden. It is fair to say, however, that he supposed himself to be upon the East coast of Asia. The traditions of its location somewhere in Central Asia are numerous and persistent. Naturalists have, with Quatrefages, pretty generally fixed upon the portion of Central Asia stretching East from the Pamir, often referred to as the roof of the world, and from which flow four great rivers--the Indus, the Tarim, the Sur Daria (Jaxartes), and the Ainu Daria (Oxus)--as the original cradle of mankind. This conclusion has been arrived at from the fact that at the present time the three fundamental types of the races of mankind are grouped about this region. The Negro races are, indeed, in general far removed from the location, but still fragments of them both pure and mixed are found in various localities both in the interior and on the seashore and adjacent islands where they would naturally radiate from this center, while the yellow and the white races here meet at the present time in close contact. In the words of Quatrefages, "No other region of the globe presents a similar union of extreme human types distributed round a common center" (The Human Species, 176).

Philology, also, points to this same conclusion. On the East are the monosyllabic languages, on the North the polysyllabic or agglutinative languages, and on the West and South the inflectional or Aryan languages, of which the Sanskrit is an example, being closely allied to nearly all the languages of Europe. Moreover, it is to this center that we trace the origin of nearly all our domesticated plants and animals. Naturally, therefore, the same high authority writes, "There we are inclined to say the first human beings appeared and multiplied till the populations overflowed as from a bowl and spread themselves in waves in every direction" (ibid., 177). With this conclusion, as already said, a large number of most eminent authorities agree. But it should be noted that if, as we believe, there was a universal destruction of antediluvian man, the center of dispersion had in view by these naturalists and archaeologists would be that from the time of Noah, and so would not refer to the Eden from which Adam and Eve were driven. The same may be said of Haeckel's theory that man originated in a submerged continent within the area of the Indian Ocean.

2. The North Pole:

Dr. William F. Warren has with prodigious learning attempted to show that the original Eden was at the North Pole, a theory which has too many considerations in its support to be cast aside unceremoniously, for it certainly is true that in preglacial times a warm climate surrounded the North Pole in all the lands which have been explored. In Northern Greenland and in Spitzbergen abundant remains of fossil plants show that during the middle of the Tertiary period the whole circumpolar region was characterized by a climate similar to that prevailing at the present time in Southern Europe, Japan, and the southern United States (see Asa Gray's lectures on "Forest Geography and Archaeology" in the American Journal of Science, CXVI, 85-94, 183-96, and Wright, Ice Age in North America, 5th edition, chapter xvii). But as the latest discoveries have shown that there is no land within several hundred miles of the North Pole, Dr. Warren's theory, if maintained at all, will have to be modified so as to place Eden at a considerable distance from the actual pole. Furthermore, his theory would involve the existence of "Tertiary man," and thus extend his chronology to an incredible extent, even though with Professor Green (see ANTEDILUVIANS) we are permitted to consider the genealogical table of Gen 5 as sufficiently elastic to accommodate itself to any facts which may be discovered.

3. Armenia:

Much also can be said in favor of identifying Eden with Armenia, for it is here that the Tigris and Euphrates have their origin, while two others, the Aras (Araxes) emptying into the Caspian Sea and the Choruk (thought by some to be the Phasis) emptying into the Black Sea, would represent the Gihon and the Pishon. Havilah would then be identified with Colchis, famous for its golden sands. But Cush is difficult to find in that region; while these four rivers could by no possibility be regarded as branches of one parent stream.

4. Babylonia:

Two theories locate Eden in the Euphrates valley. Of these the first would place it near the head of the Persian Gulf where the Tigris and Euphrates after their junction form the Shatt el-'Arab which bifurcates into the eastern and the western arm before reaching the Gulf. Calvin considered the Pishon to be the eastern arm and the Gihon the western arm. Other more recent authorities modify theory by supposing that Gihon and Pishon are represented by the Karum and the Kerkhah rivers which come into the Shatt el-'Arab from the east. The most plausible objection to this theory is that the Biblical account represents all these branches as down stream from the main river, whereas this theory supposes that two of them at least are up stream. This objection has been ingeniously met by calling attention to the fact that 2,000 years before Christ the Persian Gulf extended up as far as Eridu, 100 miles above the present mouth of the river, and that the Tigris and the Euphrates then entered the head of the Gulf through separate channels, the enormous amount of silt brought down by the streams having converted so much of the valley into dry land. In consequence of the tides which extend up to the head of the Gulf, the current of all these streams would be turned up stream periodically, and so account for the Biblical statement. In this case the river (nahar) would be represented by the Persian Gulf itself, which was indeed called by the Babylonians nar marratum, "the bitter river." This theory is further supported by the fact that according to the cuneiform inscriptions Eridu was reputed to have in its neighborhood a garden, "a holy place," in which there grew a sacred palm tree. This "tree of life" appears frequently upon the inscriptions with two guardian spirits standing on either side.

The other theory, advocated with great ability by Friedrich Delitzsch, places Eden just above the site of ancient Babylon, where the Tigris and Euphrates approach to within a short distance of one another and where the country is intersected by numerous irrigating streams which put off from the Euphrates and flow into the Tigris, whose level is here considerably lower than that of the Euphrates--the situation being somewhat such as it is at New Orleans where the Mississippi River puts off numerous streams which empty into Lake Pontchartrain. Delitzsch supposes the Shatt el-Nil, which flows eastward into the Tigris, to be the Gihon, and the Pallacopas, flowing on the West side of the Euphrates through a region producing gold, to be the Pishon. The chief difficulties attending this theory pertain to the identification of the Pishon with the Pallacopas, and the location of Havilah on its banks. There is difficulty, also, in all these theories in the identification of Cush (Ethiopia), later associated with the country from which the Nile emerges, thus giving countenance to the belief of Josephus and many others that that river represented the Gihon. If we are compelled to choose between these theories it would seem that the one which locates Eden near the head of the Persian Gulf combines the greater number of probabilities of every kind.

(2) A Levite of the time of Hezekiah (2 Ch 29:12; 31:15).


Dawson Modern Science in Bible Lands; Friedrich Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? (1881); Sayce, HCM, 95 ff; Hommel, Anc. Hebrew Tradition, 314; William F. Warren, Paradise Found, 1885.

George Frederick Wright


MILLO - mil'-o. (millo generally interpreted to mean a "filling," e.g. a solid tower or an earth embankment; in Jdg 9:6,20; 2 Ki 12:20, we get beth millo', translated in English Versions of the Bible "House of Millo," which Winckler thinks may have been the original Jebusite temple-shrine of Jerusalem (see BETH-MILLO); Septuagint reads Bethmaalon, also Maalon and oikos Maallon):

1. Old Testament References

It is generally supposed that "The Millo" was some kind of fortress or other defense, but many speculations have been made regarding its position. In 2 Sam 5:9, we read that David built round about from the Millo and inward, or (in the Septuagint, Septuagint) "he fortified it, the city, round about from the Millo and his house" (compare 1 Ch 11:8). In connection with Solomon's strengthening of the fortifications, there are several references to Millo. In 1 Ki 9:15, Solomon raised a levy "to build the house of Yahweh, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem," etc.; in 9:24, "Pharaoh's daughter came up out of the city of David unto her house which Solomon had built for her: then did he build Millo"; in 1 Ki 11:27, Solomon "built Millo, and repaired the breach of the city of David his father." At a later time Hezekiah "took courage, and built up all the wall that was broken down, and raised it up to the towers, and the other wall without, and strengthened Millo in the city of David" (2 Ch 32:5; 2 Ki 12:20); Joash was slain by his servants "at the house of Millo, on the way that goeth down to Silla," but possibly this may have been in Shechem (compare Jdg 9:6).

2. Identical with the Akra Site:

The mention of the site in the days of David and the reference to it in connection with the city of David (1 Ki 11:27) point to some part of the southeastern hill South of the temple. It is suggestive that Millo is in Septuagint always translated by "Akra." It seems to the present writer very probable that it was a fortress crowning the hill on which at a later time stood the Syrian Akra, which hill, if we are to believe Josephus (BJ, V, iv, 1, etc.), was cut down because its commanding situation dominated the temple. This hill cannot have been the site of Zion afterward known as "David's Burg" (City of David), because the tombs of the Judean kings were within its walls, and that alone would have made the complete leveling of the site impossible, but whereas the Jebusite fortress was probably not far from Gihon, this fortified summit may have been, as Watson suggests for the Akra, as far north as where the present Al Aqsa mosque is situated. In David's time it may have been an isolated and detached fort guarding the north approach, but if it was originally a Jebusite high place (Winckler) partly of sun-dried brick like similar constructions in Babylonia, the account of its being leveled would be much more credible. The importance of this site in the days of Solomon is fully explicable if this was the citadel guarding the newly built temple and royal palaces.

Dr. G.A. Smith is inclined to think that Millo may have been a fortress "off the south end of Ophel, to retain and protect the old pool," and Vincent suggests that the site of Millo is that now occupied by the great causeway connecting the Western and Eastern hills along which runs the Tariq bab es silsileh.

E. W. G. Masterman


TOGARMAH - to-gar'-ma (~togharmah]; Thorgama, Thergama, Thurgama, Thurgaba; Vulgate (Jerome's Latin Bible, 390-405 A.D.) Thorgoma):

1. Its Forms: A Suggested Identification:

The 3rd son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth, his brothers being Ashkenaz and Riphath (Gen 10:3). The meaning of the name is doubtful. Grimm (Gesch. deutsch. Sprache, II, 325) suggests Sanskr. toka, "tribe," and arma = Armenia. Etymological and other difficulties stand in the way of French Delitzsch's identification of Togarmah with the Assyrian Til-garimmu, "hill of Garimmu," or, possibly, "of the bone-heap," a fortress of Melitene, on the borders of Tabal (Tubal).

2. Probably Armenia or a Tract Connected Therewith:

In Ezek 27:14 Togarmah is mentioned after Tubal, Javan and Mesech as supplying horses and mules to the Tyrians, and in 38:6 it is said to have supplied soldiers to the army of Gog (Gyges of Lydia). In the Assyrian inscriptions horses came from Kusu (neighborhoed of Cappadocia), Andia and Mannu, to the North of Assyria. Both Kiepert and Dillmann regard Togarmah as having been Southeastern Armenia, and this is at present the general opinion. The ancient identification of their country with Togarmah by the Armenians, though correct, is probably due to the Septuagint transposition of "g" and "r" (Thorgama for Togarmah), which has caused them to see therein the name of Thorgom, father of Haik, the founder of their race (Moses of Khor, I, 4, secs. 9-11). Ezek 27:14 (Swete) alone has "g" before "r": Thaigrama. The name "Armenia" dates from the 5th century BC.


T. G. Pinches

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