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Acts 14

Paul and Barnabas at Iconium

14:1 The same thing happened in Iconium 1  when Paul and Barnabas 2  went into the Jewish synagogue 3  and spoke in such a way that a large group 4  of both Jews and Greeks believed. 14:2 But the Jews who refused to believe 5  stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds 6  against the brothers. 14:3 So they stayed there 7  for a considerable time, speaking out courageously for the Lord, who testified 8  to the message 9  of his grace, granting miraculous signs 10  and wonders to be performed through their hands. 14:4 But the population 11  of the city was divided; some 12  sided with the Jews, and some with the apostles. 14:5 When both the Gentiles and the Jews (together with their rulers) made 13  an attempt to mistreat 14  them and stone them, 15  14:6 Paul and Barnabas 16  learned about it 17  and fled to the Lycaonian cities of Lystra 18  and Derbe 19  and the surrounding region. 14:7 There 20  they continued to proclaim 21  the good news.

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra

14:8 In 22  Lystra 23  sat a man who could not use his feet, 24  lame from birth, 25  who had never walked. 14:9 This man was listening to Paul as he was speaking. When Paul 26  stared 27  intently at him and saw he had faith to be healed, 14:10 he said with a loud voice, “Stand upright on your feet.” 28  And the man 29  leaped up and began walking. 30  14:11 So when the crowds saw what Paul had done, they shouted 31  in the Lycaonian language, 32  “The gods have come down to us in human form!” 33  14:12 They began to call 34  Barnabas Zeus 35  and Paul Hermes, 36  because he was the chief speaker. 14:13 The priest of the temple 37  of Zeus, 38  located just outside the city, brought bulls 39  and garlands 40  to the city gates; he and the crowds wanted to offer sacrifices to them. 41  14:14 But when the apostles 42  Barnabas and Paul heard about 43  it, they tore 44  their clothes and rushed out 45  into the crowd, shouting, 46  14:15 “Men, why are you doing these things? We too are men, with human natures 47  just like you! We are proclaiming the good news to you, so that you should turn 48  from these worthless 49  things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, 50  the sea, and everything that is in them. 14:16 In 51  past 52  generations he allowed all the nations 53  to go their own ways, 14:17 yet he did not leave himself without a witness by doing good, 54  by giving you rain from heaven 55  and fruitful seasons, satisfying you 56  with food and your hearts with joy.” 57  14:18 Even by saying 58  these things, they scarcely persuaded 59  the crowds not to offer sacrifice to them.

14:19 But Jews came from Antioch 60  and Iconium, 61  and after winning 62  the crowds over, they stoned 63  Paul and dragged him out of the city, presuming him to be dead. 14:20 But after the disciples had surrounded him, he got up and went back 64  into the city. On 65  the next day he left with Barnabas for Derbe. 66 

Paul and Barnabas Return to Antioch in Syria

14:21 After they had proclaimed the good news in that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, 67  to Iconium, 68  and to Antioch. 69  14:22 They strengthened 70  the souls of the disciples and encouraged them to continue 71  in the faith, saying, “We must enter the kingdom 72  of God through many persecutions.” 73  14:23 When they had appointed elders 74  for them in the various churches, 75  with prayer and fasting 76  they entrusted them to the protection 77  of the Lord in whom they had believed. 14:24 Then they passed through 78  Pisidia and came into Pamphylia, 79  14:25 and when they had spoken the word 80  in Perga, 81  they went down to Attalia. 82  14:26 From there they sailed back to Antioch, 83  where they had been commended 84  to the grace of God for the work they had now completed. 85  14:27 When they arrived and gathered the church together, they reported 86  all the things God 87  had done with them, and that he had opened a door 88  of faith for the Gentiles. 14:28 So they spent 89  considerable 90  time with the disciples.

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1 sn Iconium. See the note in 13:51.

2 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 sn See the note on synagogue in 6:9.

4 tn Or “that a large crowd.”

5 tn Or “who would not believe.”

6 tn Or “embittered their minds” (Grk “their souls”). BDAG 502 s.v. κακόω 2 has “make angry, embitter τὰς ψυχάς τινων κατά τινος poison the minds of some persons against another Ac 14:2.”

7 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.

8 sn The Lord testified to the message by granting the signs described in the following clause.

9 tn Grk “word.”

10 tn Here the context indicates the miraculous nature of the signs mentioned.

11 tn BDAG 825 s.v. πλῆθος 2.b.γ has this translation for πλῆθος (plhqo").

12 tn These clauses are a good example of the contrastive μὲνδέ (mende) construction: Some “on the one hand” sided with the Jews, but some “on the other hand” sided with the apostles.

13 tn Grk “So there came about an attempt” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.

14 tn On this verb see BDAG 1022 s.v. ὑβρίζω.

15 tn The direct object “them” is repeated after both verbs in the translation for stylistic reasons, although it occurs only after λιθοβολῆσαι (liqobolhsai) in the Greek text.

16 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Paul and Barnabas) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

17 tn Grk “learning about it, fled.” The participle συνιδόντες (sunidonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. It could also be taken temporally (“when they learned about it”) as long as opening clause of v. 5 is not translated as a temporal clause too, which results in a redundancy.

18 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium, a Roman colony that was not on the main roads of Lycaonia. Because of its relative isolation, its local character was able to be preserved.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2.

19 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2.

20 tn Grk “region, and there.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, καί (kai) has not been translated and a new sentence begun in the translation.

21 tn The periphrastic construction εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ἦσαν (euangelizomenoi hsan) has been translated as a progressive imperfect.

22 tn Grk “And in.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

23 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) south of Iconium.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2.

24 tn Grk “powerless in his feet,” meaning he was unable to use his feet to walk.

25 tn Grk “lame from his mother’s womb” (an idiom).

sn The description lame from birth makes clear how serious the condition was, and how real it was. This event is very similar to Acts 3:1-10, except here the lame man’s faith is clear from the start.

26 tn Grk “speaking, who.” The relative pronoun has been replaced by the noun “Paul,” and a new sentence begun in the translation because an English relative clause would be very awkward here.

27 tn Or “looked.”

28 tn BDAG 722 s.v. ὀρθός 1.a has “stand upright on your feet.”

29 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

30 tn This verb is imperfect tense in contrast to the previous verb, which is aorist. It has been translated ingressively, since the start of a sequence is in view here.

31 tn Grk “they lifted up their voice” (an idiom).

32 tn Grk “in Lycaonian, saying.” The word “language” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.

33 tn So BDAG 707 s.v. ὁμοιόω 1. However, L&N 64.4 takes the participle ὁμοιωθέντες (Jomoiwqente") as an adjectival participle modifying θεοί (qeoi): “the gods resembling men have come down to us.”

sn The gods have come down to us in human form. Greek culture spoke of “divine men.” In this region there was a story of Zeus and Hermes visiting the area (Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.611-725). The locals failed to acknowledge them, so judgment followed. The present crowd was determined not to make the mistake a second time.

34 tn The imperfect verb ἐκάλουν (ekaloun) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect.

35 sn Zeus was the chief Greek deity, worshiped throughout the Greco-Roman world (known to the Romans as Jupiter).

36 sn Hermes was a Greek god who (according to Greek mythology) was the messenger of the gods and the god of oratory (equivalent to the Roman god Mercury).

37 tn The words “the temple of” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. The translation “the priest of (the temple/shrine of) Zeus located before the city” is given for this phrase by BDAG 426 s.v. Ζεύς.

38 sn See the note on Zeus in the previous verse.

39 tn Or “oxen.”

40 tn Or “wreaths.”

sn Garlands were commonly wreaths of wool with leaves and flowers woven in, worn on a person’s head or woven around a staff. They were an important part of many rituals used to worship pagan gods. Although it was an erroneous reaction, the priest’s reaction shows how all acknowledged their power and access to God.

41 tn The words “to them” are not in the Greek text, but are clearly implied by the response of Paul and Barnabas in the following verse.

42 sn The apostles Barnabas and Paul. This is one of only two places where Luke calls Paul an apostle, and the description here is shared with Barnabas. This is a nontechnical use here, referring to a commissioned messenger.

43 tn The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") is taken temporally.

44 tn Grk “tearing their clothes they rushed out.” The participle διαρρήξαντες (diarrhxante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style. This action is a Jewish response to blasphemy (m. Sanhedrin 7.5; Jdt 14:16-17).

45 tn So BDAG 307 s.v. ἐκπηδάω 1, “rush (lit. ‘leap’) outεἰς τὸν ὄχλον into the crowd Ac 14:14.”

46 tn Grk “shouting and saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes, in v. 15) has not been translated because it is redundant.

sn What follows is one of two speeches in Acts to a purely pagan audience (Acts 17 in Athens is the other). So Paul focused on God as Creator, a common link.

47 tn Grk “with the same kinds of feelings,” L&N 25.32. BDAG 706 s.v. ὁμοιοπαθής translates the phrase “with the same nature τινί as someone.” In the immediate context, the contrast is between human and divine nature, and the point is that Paul and Barnabas are mere mortals, not gods.

48 tn Grk “in order that you should turn,” with ἐπιστρέφειν (epistrefein) as an infinitive of purpose, but this is somewhat awkward contemporary English. To translate the infinitive construction “proclaim the good news, that you should turn,” which is much smoother English, could give the impression that the infinitive clause is actually the content of the good news, which it is not. The somewhat less formal “to get you to turn” would work, but might convey to some readers manipulativeness on the part of the apostles. Thus “proclaim the good news, so that you should turn,” is used, to convey that the purpose of the proclamation of good news is the response by the hearers. The emphasis here is like 1 Thess 1:9-10.

49 tn Or “useless,” “futile.” The reference is to idols and idolatry, worshiping the creation over the Creator (Rom 1:18-32). See also 1 Kgs 16:2, 13, 26; 2 Kgs 17:15; Jer 2:5; 8:19; 3 Macc 6:11.

50 tn Grk “and the earth, and the sea,” but καί (kai) has not been translated before “the earth” and “the sea” since contemporary English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.

51 tn Grk “them, who in.” The relative pronoun (“who”) was replaced by the pronoun “he” (“In past generations he”) and a new sentence was begun in the translation at this point to improve the English style, due to the length of the sentence in Greek and the awkwardness of two relative clauses (“who made the heaven” and “who in past generations”) following one another.

52 tn On this term see BDAG 780 s.v. παροίχομαι. The word is a NT hapax legomenon.

53 tn Or “all the Gentiles” (in Greek the word for “nation” and “Gentile” is the same). The plural here alludes to the variety of false religions in the pagan world.

54 tn The participle ἀγαθουργῶν (agaqourgwn) is regarded as indicating means here, parallel to the following participles διδούς (didou") and ἐμπιπλῶν (empiplwn). This is the easiest way to understand the Greek structure. Semantically, the first participle is a general statement, followed by two participles giving specific examples of doing good.

55 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).

56 tn Grk “satisfying [filling] your hearts with food and joy.” This is an idiomatic expression; it strikes the English reader as strange to speak of “filling one’s heart with food.” Thus the additional direct object “you” has been supplied, separating the two expressions somewhat: “satisfying you with food and your hearts with joy.”

57 sn God’s general sovereignty and gracious care in the creation are the way Paul introduces the theme of the goodness of God. He was trying to establish monotheism here. It is an OT theme (Gen 8:22; Ps 4:7; 145:15-16; 147:8-9; Isa 25:6; Jer 5:24) which also appears in the NT (Luke 12:22-34).

58 tn The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is regarded as indicating means.

59 tn BDAG 524 s.v. καταπαύω 2.b gives both “restrain” and “dissuade someone fr. someth.,” but “they scarcely dissuaded the crowds from offering sacrifice,” while accurate, is less common in contemporary English than saying “they scarcely persuaded the crowds not to offer sacrifice.” Paganism is portrayed as a powerful reality that is hard to reverse.

60 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2; JP4-E2.

61 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra. Note how Jews from other cities were chasing Paul (2 Cor 11:4-6; Gal 2:4-5; Acts 9:16).

62 tn The participle πείσαντες (peisante") is taken temporally (BDAG 791 s.v. πείθω 1.c).

63 tn Grk “stoning Paul they dragged him.” The participle λιθάσαντες (liqasante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

64 tn Grk “and entered”; the word “back” is not in the Greek text but is implied.

65 tn Grk “And on.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.

66 sn Derbe was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) southeast of Lystra. This was the easternmost point of the journey.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2.

67 sn Lystra was a city in Lycaonia about 35 mi (60 km) northwest of Derbe.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2.

68 sn Iconium was a city in Lycaonia about 18 mi (30 km) north of Lystra.

69 sn Antioch was a city in Pisidia about 90 mi (145 km) west northwest of Lystra.

map For location see JP1-E2; JP2-E2; JP3-E2; JP4-E2.

70 tn Grk “to Antioch, strengthening.” Due to the length of the Greek sentence and the tendency of contemporary English to use shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here. This participle (ἐπιστηρίζοντες, episthrizonte") and the following one (παρακαλοῦντες, parakalounte") have been translated as finite verbs connected by the coordinating conjunction “and.”

71 sn And encouraged them to continue. The exhortations are like those noted in Acts 11:23; 13:43. An example of such a speech is found in Acts 20:18-35. Christianity is now characterized as “the faith.”

72 sn This reference to the kingdom of God clearly refers to its future arrival.

73 tn Or “sufferings.”

74 sn Appointed elders. See Acts 20:17.

75 tn The preposition κατά (kata) is used here in a distributive sense; see BDAG 512 s.v. κατά B.1.d.

76 tn Literally with a finite verb (προσευξάμενοι, proseuxamenoi) rather than a noun, “praying with fasting,” but the combination “prayer and fasting” is so familiar in English that it is preferable to use it here.

77 tn BDAG 772 s.v. παρατίθημι 3.b has “entrust someone to the care or protection of someone” for this phrase. The reference to persecution or suffering in the context (v. 22) suggests “protection” is a better translation here. This looks at God’s ultimate care for the church.

78 tn Grk “Then passing through Pisidia they came.” The participle διελθόντες (dielqonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.

79 sn Pamphylia was a province along the southern coast of Asia Minor.

80 tn Or “message.”

81 sn Perga was a city in Pamphylia near the southern coast of Asia Minor.

82 sn Attalia was a seaport in the province of Pamphylia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, about 12 mi (20 km) southwest of Perga.

83 sn Antioch was the city in Syria (not Antioch in Pisidia) from which Paul’s first missionary journey began (see Acts 13:1-4). That first missionary journey ends here, after covering some 1,400 mi (2,240 km).

map For location see JP1-F2; JP2-F2; JP3-F2; JP4-F2.

84 tn Or “committed.” BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 2 gives “commended to the grace of God for the work 14:26” as the meaning for this phrase, although “give over” and “commit” are listed as alternative meanings for this category.

85 tn BDAG 829 s.v. πληρόω 5 has “to bring to completion an activity in which one has been involved from its beginning, complete, finish” as meanings for this category. The ministry to which they were commissioned ends with a note of success.

86 tn Or “announced.”

87 sn Note that God is the subject of the activity. The outcome of this mission is seen as a confirmation of the mission to the Gentiles.

88 sn On the image of opening, or of the door, see 1 Cor 16:9; 2 Cor 2:12; Col 4:3.

89 tn BDAG 238 s.v. διατρίβω gives the meaning as “spend” when followed by an accusative τὸν χρόνον (ton cronon) which is the case here.

90 tn Grk “no little (time)” (an idiom).

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