1:6 You also know that 1 the angels who did not keep within their proper domain 2 but abandoned their own place of residence, he has kept 3 in eternal chains 4 in utter 5 darkness, locked up 6 for the judgment of the great Day.
1:13 wild sea waves, 7 spewing out the foam of 8 their shame; 9 wayward stars 10 for whom the utter depths of eternal darkness 11 have been reserved.
2 tn Grk “who did not keep their own domain.”
sn The idea is that certain angels acted improperly, going outside the bounds prescribed by God (their proper domain).
3 sn There is an interesting play on words used in this verse. Because the angels did not keep their proper place, Jesus has kept them chained up in another place. The same verb keep is used in v. 1 to describe believers’ status before God and Christ.
6 tn The words “locked up” are not in Greek, but is expressed in English as a resumptive point after the double prepositional phrase (“in eternal chains in utter darkness”).
7 tn Grk “wild waves of the sea.”
8 tn Grk “foaming, causing to foam.” The verb form is intensive and causative. BDAG 360 s.v. ἐπαφρίζω suggests the meaning “to cause to splash up like froth, cause to foam,” or, in this context, “waves casting up their own shameless deeds like (dirty) foam.”
9 tn Grk “shames, shameful things.” It is uncertain whether shameful deeds or shameful words are in view. Either way, the picture has taken a decided turn: Though waterless clouds and fruitless trees may promise good things, but deliver nothing, wild sea-waves are portents of filth spewed forth from the belly of the sea.
10 sn The imagery of a star seems to fit the nautical theme that Jude is developing. Stars were of course the guides to sailors at night, just as teachers are responsible to lead the flock through a benighted world. But false teachers, as wayward stars, are not fixed and hence offer unreliable, even disastrous guidance. They are thus both the dangerous reefs on which the ships could be destroyed and the false guides, leading them into these rocks. There is a special irony that these lights will be snuffed out, reserved for the darkest depths of eternal darkness.