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Sidon

In Bible versions:

Sidon: NET AVS NIV NRSV NASB TEV
Sidonian: NET NRSV
Sidonians: NET AVS NIV NRSV NASB TEV
people of Sidon: NET
a Phoenician town on the Mediterranian coast north of Palestine
son of Canaan son of Ham son of Noah
a town of Phoenicia
residents of the town of Sidon

hunting; fishing; venison
hunting; fishing; venison

NET Glossary: (1) the firstborn son of Canaan (Gen 10:15); (2) a major walled city and port in ancient Phoenicia, a principal Canaanite stronghold, located on the coast of modern Lebanon (the Greek geographer Strabo mentions Sidon as one of the most ancient of the Phoenician cities)
NETBible Maps: Map1 A1 ; OT1 C3 ; OT6 C3 ; JP3 F3 ; JP4 F3
Google Maps: Sidon (33° 33´, 35° 21´)
Arts:
Arts Topics: A Prophecy against Sidon

Greek

Strongs #4605: sidwn Sidon

Sidon or Zidon = "hunting"

1) an ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the east coast of the
Mediterranean Sea, less than 20 miles (30 km) north of Tyre

4605 Sidon sid-one'

of Hebrew origin (6721); Sidon (i.e. Tsidon), a place in
Palestine:-Sidon.
see HEBREW for 06721

Strongs #4606: sidwniov Sidonios

1) an inhabitant of Sidon, a Sidonian

4606 Sidonios sid-o'-nee-os

from 4605; a Sidonian, i.e. inhabitant of Sidon:-of Sidon.
see GREEK for 4605

Hebrew

Strongs #06721: Nwdyu Tsiydown or Ndyu Tsiydon

Sidon = "hunting"

1) ancient Phoenician city, on Mediterranean coast north of Tyre

6721 Tsiydown tsee-done'

or Tsiydon {tsee-done'}; from 6679 in the sense of catching
fish; fishery; Tsidon, the name of a son of Canaan, and of a
place in Palestine:-Sidon, Zidon.
see HEBREW for 06679

Strongs #06722: yndyu Tsiydoniy

Sidonians = see hunting "hunting"

1) an inhabitant of Sidon

6722 Tsiydoniy tsee-do-nee'

patrial from 6721; a Tsidonian or inhabitant of
Tsidon:-Sidonian, of Sidon, Zidonian.
see HEBREW for 06721

Sidon [EBD]

fishing; fishery, Gen. 10:15, 19 (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon); Matt. 11:21, 22; Luke 6:17. (See ZIDON.)

Zidon [EBD]

a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north of Tyre. It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:15, 19). It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a "great" city (Josh. 11:8; 19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe of Asher, but was never subdued (Judg. 1:31). The Zidonians long oppressed Israel (Judg. 10:12). From the time of David its glory began to wane, and Tyre, its "virgin daughter" (Isa. 23:12), rose to its place of pre-eminence. Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with the Zidonians, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). This city was famous for its manufactures and arts, as well as for its commerce (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Chr. 22:4; Ezek. 27:8). It is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isa. 23:2, 4, 12; Jer. 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezek. 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). Our Lord visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Zidon = Sidon (q.v.), Matt. 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26; and from this region many came forth to hear him preaching (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). From Sidon, at which the ship put in after leaving Caesarea, Paul finally sailed for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).

This city is now a town of 10,000 inhabitants, with remains of walls built in the twelfth century A.D. In 1855, the sarcophagus of Eshmanezer was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians," probably in the third century B.C., and that his mother was a priestess of Ashtoreth, "the goddess of the Sidonians." In this inscription Baal is mentioned as the chief god of the Sidonians.

Sidon [NAVE]

SIDON
1. Called also Zidon. Son of Canaan, Gen. 10:15; 1 Chr. 1:13.
2. A city on the northern boundary of the Canaanites, Gen. 10:19.
Designated by Jacob as the border of Zebulun, Gen. 49:13.
Was on the northern boundary of Asher, Josh. 19:28; 2 Sam. 24:6.
Belonged to the land of Israel according to promise, Josh. 13:6.
Inhabitants of, dwelt in security and carelessness, Judg. 18:7.
Israelites failed to make conquest of, Judg. 1:31; 3:3.
The inhabitants of, contributed cedar for the first and second temple, 1 Kin. 5:6; 1 Chr. 22:4; Ezra 3:7.
Solomon marries women of, 1 Kin. 11:1.
Ahab marries a woman of, 1 Kin. 16:31.
People of, come to hear Jesus, Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17.
Inhabitants of, offend Herod, Acts 12:20-23.
Commerce of, Isa. 23:2, 4, 12.
Seamen of, Ezek. 27:8.
Prophecies concerning, Jer. 25:15-22; 27:3-11; 47:4; Ezek. 28:21-23; 32:30; Joel 3:4-8.
Jesus visits the region of, and heals the daughter of the Syrophenician woman, Matt. 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-31.
Visited by Paul, Acts 27:3.

Sidonians [NAVE]

SIDONIANS
See: Sidon 2.

Zidon [NAVE]

ZIDON
See: Sidon.

Zidonians [NAVE]

ZIDONIANS
See: Sidon 2.

SIDON [SMITH]

the Greek form of the Phoenician name Zidon. [ZIDON, OR SIDON]

SIDONIANS [SMITH]

the Greek form of the word Zidonians, usually so exhibited in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament. It occurs (3:9; Joshua 13:4,6; Judges 3:3; 1 Kings 5:6) [ZIDON, OR SIDON]

ZIDON, OR SIDON [SMITH]

(Genesis 10:15,19; Joshua 11:8; 19:28; Judges 1:31; 18:28; Isaiah 23:2,4,12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; Ezekiel 28:21,22; Joel 3:4) (Joel 4:4); Zech 9:2; Matt 11:21,22; 15:21; Mark 3:8; 1:24,31; Luke 6:17; 10:13,14 An ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, less than twenty English miles to the north of Tyre. Its Hebrew name, Tsidon , signifies fishing or fishery . Its modern name is Saida . It is situated in the narrow plain between the Lebanon and the sea. From a biblical point of view this city is inferior in interest to its neighbor Tyre; though in early times Sidon was the more influential of the two cities. This view is confirmed by Zidonians being used as the generic name of Phoenicians or Canaanites. (Joshua 13:6; Judges 18:7) From the time of Solomon to the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar Zidon is not often directly mentioned in the Bible, and it appears to have been subordinate to Tyre. When the people called "Zidonians" are mentioned, it sometimes seems that the Phoenicians of the plain of Zidon are meant. (1 Kings 5:6; 11:1,5,33; 16:31; 2 Kings 23:13) All that is known are respecting the city is very scanty, amounting to scarcely more than that one of its sources of gain was trade in slaves, in which the inhabitants did not shrink from selling inhabitants of Palestine and that it was governed by kings. (Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3) During the Persian domination Zidon seems to have attained its highest point of prosperity; and it is recorded that, toward the close of that period, it far excelled all other Phoenician cities in wealth and importance. Its prosperity was suddenly cut short by an unsuccessful revolt against Persia, which ended in the destruction of the town, B.C. 351. Its king, Tennes had proved a traitor and betrayed the city to Ochus, king of the Persians; the Persian troops were admitted within the gates, and occupied the city walls. The Zidonians, before the arrival of Ochus, had burnt their vessels to prevent any one?s leaving the town; and when they saw themselves surrounded by the Persian troops, they adopted the desperate resolution of shutting themselves up with their families, and setting fire each man to his own house. Forty thousand persons are said to have perished in the flames. Zidon however, gradually recovered from the blow, and became again a flourishing town. It is about fifty miles distant from Nazareth, and is the most northern city which is mentioned in connection with Christ?s journeys. (The town Saida still shows signs of its former wealth, and its houses are better constructed and more solid than those of Tyre, many of them being built of stone; but it is a poor, miserable place, without trade or manufactures worthy of the name. The city that once divided with Tyre the empire of the seas is now almost without a vessel. Silk and fruit are its staple products. Its population is estimated at 10,000, 7000 of whom are Moslems, and the rest Catholics, Maronites and Protestants. --McClintock and Strong?s Cyclopaedia. There is a flourishing Protestant mission here. --ED.)

ZIDONIANS [SMITH]

the inhabitants of Zidon. They were among the nations of Canaan; left to give the Israelites practice in the art of war, (Judges 3:3) and colonies of them appear to have spread up into the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephothmaim, (Joshua 13:4,6) whence in later times they hewed cedar trees for David and Solomon. (1 Chronicles 22:4) They oppressed the Israelites on their first entrance into the country, (Judges 10:12) and appear to have lived a luxurious, reckless life. (Judges 18:7) They were skillful in hewing timber, (1 Kings 5:8) and were employed for this purpose by Solomon. They were idolaters, and worshipped Ashtoreth as their tutelary goddess, (1 Kings 11:5,33; 2 Kings 23:13) as well as the sun-god Baal from whom their king was named. (1 Kings 16:31)

SIDON (1) [ISBE]

SIDON (1) - si'-don (tsidhon): The oldest son of Canaan (Gen 10:15).

SIDON (2) [ISBE]

SIDON (2) - si'-don (tsidhon; Sidon; the King James Version, Sidon and Zidon; the Revised Version (British and American) SIDON only):

1. Location and Distinction:

One of the oldest Phoenician cities, situated on a narrow plain between the range of Lebanon and the sea, in latitude 33 degrees 34 minutes nearly. The plain is well watered and fertile, about 10 miles long, extending from a little North of Sarepta to the Bostrenus (Nahr el-'Auly). The ancient city was situated near the northern end of the plain, surrounded with a strong wall. It possessed two harbors, the northern one about 500 yds. long by 200 wide, well protected by little islets and a breakwater, and a southern about 600 by 400 yards, surrounded on three sides by land, but open to the West, and thus exposed in bad weather. The date of the founding of the city is unknown, but we find it mentioned in the Tell el-Amarna Letters in the 14th century BC, and in Gen 10:19 it is the chief city of the Canaanites, and Joshua (Josh 11:8) calls it Great Sidon. It led all the Phoenician cities in its early development of maritime affairs, its sailors being the first to launch out into the open sea out of sight of land and to sail by night, guiding themselves by the stars. They were the first to come into contact with the Greeks and we find the mention of them several times in Homer, while other Phoenician towns are not noticed. Sidon became early distinguished for its manufactures and the skill of its artisans, such as beautiful metal-work in silver and bronze and textile fabrics embroidered and dyed with the famous purple dye which became known as Tyrian, but which was earlier produced at Sidon. Notices of these choice articles are found in Homer, both in the Iliad and the Odyssey. Sidon had a monarchical form of government, as did all the Phoenician towns, but it also held a sort of hegemony over those to the South as far as the limit of Phoenicia. It likewise made one attempt to establish an inland colony at Laish or Dan, near the headwaters of the Jordan, but this ended in disaster (Jdg 18:7,27,28). The attempt was not renewed, but many colonies were established over-sea. Citium, in Cyprus, was one of the earliest.

2. Historical:

(1) The independence of Sidon was lost when the kings of the XVIIIth and XIXth Dynasties of Egypt added Palestine and Syria to their dominions (1580-1205 BC). The kings of Sidon were allowed to remain on the throne as long as they paid tribute, and perhaps still exercised authority over the towns that had before been subject to them. When the power of Egypt declined under Amenhotep IV (1375-1358), the king of Sidon seems to have thrown off the yoke, as appears from the Tell el-Amarna Letters. Rib-addi of Gebal writes to the king of Egypt that Zimrida, king of Sidon, had joined the enemy, but Zimrida himself claims, in the letters he wrote, to be loyal, declaring that the town belonging to him had been taken by the Khabiri (Tab. 147). Sidon, with the other towns, eventually became independent of Egypt, and she retained the hegemony of the southern towns and perhaps added Dor, claimed by the Philistines, to her dominion. This may have been the reason for the war that took place about the middle of the 12th century BC, in which the Philistines took and plundered Sidon, whose inhabitants fled to Tyre and gave the latter a great impetus. Sidon, however, recovered from the disaster and became powerful again. The Book of Judges claims that Israel was oppressed by Sidon (10:12), but it is probable Sidon stands here for Phoenicia in general, as being the chief town.

(2) Sidon submitted to the Assyrian kings as did the Phoenician cities generally, but revolted against Sennacherib and again under Esar-haddon. The latter destroyed a large part of the city and carried off most of the inhabitants, replacing them by captives from Babylon and Elam, and renamed it Ir-Esar-had-don ("City of Esar-haddon"). The settlers readily mingled with the Phoenicians, and Sidon rose to power again when Assyria fell, was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar at the time of his siege of Jerusalem and Tyre, and was taken, having lost about half of its inhabitants by plague. The fall of Babylon gave another short period of independence, but the Persians gained control without difficulty, and Sidon was prominent in the Persian period as the leading naval power among the Phoenicians who aided their suzerain in his attacks upon Greece. In 351 BC, Sidon rebelled under Tabnit II (Tennes), and called in the aid of Greek mercenaries to the number of 10,000; but Ochus, the Persian king, marched against him with a force of 300,000 infantry and 30,000 horse, which so frightened Tabnit that he betrayed the city to save his own life. But the citizens, learning of the treachery, first burned their fleet and then their houses, perishing with their wives and children rather than fall into the hands of Ochus, who butchered all whom he seized, Tabnit among them. It is said that 40,000 perished in the flames. A list of the kings of Sidon in the Persian period has been recovered from the inscriptions and the coins, but the dates of their reigns are not accurately known. The dynasty of the known kings begins with Esmunazar I, followed by Tabnit I, Amastoreth; Esmunazar II, Strato I (Bodastart), Tabnit II (Tennes) and Strato II. Inscriptions from the temple of Esmun recently discovered give the name of a Bodastart and a son Yatonmelik, but whether the first is one of the Stratos above mentioned or a third is uncertain; also whether the son ever reigned or not. As Bodastart calls himself the grandson of Esmunazar, he is probably Strato I who reigned about 374-363 BC, and hence, his grandfather, Esmunazar I, must have reigned in 400 BC or earlier. Strato II was on the throne when Alexander took possession of Phoenicia and made no resistance to him, and even aided him in the siege of Tyre, which shows that Sidon had recovered after the terrible disaster it suffered in the time of Ochus. It perhaps looked upon the advance of Alexander with content as its avenger. The destruction of Tyre increased the importance of Sidon, and after the death of Alexander it became attached to the kingdom of the Ptolemies and remained so until the victory of Antiochus III over Scopas (198 BC), when it passed to the Seleucids and from them to the Romans, who granted it a degree of autonomy with native magistrates and a council, and it was allowed to coin money in bronze.

3. New Testament Mention:

Sidon comes into view several times in the New Testament; first when Christ passed into the borders of Tyre and Sidon and healed the daughter of the Syro-phoenician woman (Mk 7:24-30); also when Herod Agrippa I received a delegation from Tyre and Sidon at Caesarea (Acts 12:20), where it appears to have been outside his jurisdiction. Paul, on his way to Rome, was permitted to visit some friends at Sidon (Acts 27:3). See also Mt 11:21 f and Mk 3:8.

It was noted for its school of philosophy under Augustus and Tiberius, its inhabitants being largely Greek; and when Berytus was destroyed by an earthquake in 551, its great law school was removed to Sidon. It was not of great importance during the Crusades, being far surpassed by Acre, and in modern times it is a small town of some 15,000.

LITERATURE.

See PHOENICIA.

H. Porter

SIDONIANS [ISBE]

SIDONIANS - si-do'-ni-anz: Natives or inhabitants of Sidon (Dt 3:9; Josh 13:4,6; Jdg 3:3; 1 Ki 5:6).

ZIDON; ZIDONIANS [ISBE]

ZIDON; ZIDONIANS - zi'-don, zi-do'-ni-anz.

See SIDON, SIDONIANS.


Also see definition of "Sidon" in Word Study


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