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Micah

In Bible versions:

Micah: NET AVS NIV NRSV NASB TEV
Micaiah: NET AVS NIV NRSV NASB TEV
Michaiah: NET
a man of Ephraim who made an ephod
son of Shime-i of Reuben
son of Merib-Baal of Benjamin
first born son of Uzziel son of Kohath
father of Abdon/Achbor whom King Josiah used as a messenger
the prophet of Moresheth under Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah
son of Imlah; prophet of Israel in the time of King Ahab
father of Achbor/Abdon whom King Josiah used as a messenger
mother of King Abijah / Abijam of Judah
a prince King Jehoshaphat sent to teach the law around Judah
son of Zaccur, the son of Asaph
a priest trumpeter who helped dedicate the finished wall
son of Gemariah son of Shaphan

poor; humble ( --> same as Michael, Michaiah)
who is like to God? ( --> same as Micha)
poor; humble ( --> same as Micah, Michael)
Arts:
Arts Topics: Micaiah Prophesies against Ahab

Hebrew

Strongs #04321: whykym Miykay@huw or whykm Mikay@huw (\\#Jer 36:11\\)

Micah or Micaiah or Michaiah = "who is like God"

1) an Ephraimite during the period of the judges
2) son of Imlah and a prophet of Samaria who predicted the defeat and
death of king Ahab of Israel
3) son of Gemariah in the time of Jeremiah

4321 Miykayhuw me-kaw-yeh-hoo'

or Mikayhuw (Jeremiah 36:11) {me-kaw-yeh-hoo'}; abbrev. for
4322; Mikajah, the name of three Israelites:-Micah, Micaiah,
Michaiah.
see HEBREW for 04322

Strongs #04318: hkym Miykah

Micah or Micaiah or Michah = "who is like God"

1) the 6th in order of the minor prophets; a native of Moresheth, he
prophesied during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah,
and was contemporary with the prophets Hosea, Amos, and Isaiah
2) an Ephraimite during the period of the judges
3) a descendant of Joel the Reubenite
4) son of Meribbaal and grandson of Jonathan
5) a Kohathite Levite, the eldest son of Uzziel the brother of Amram
6) father of Abdon, a man of high station in the reign of Josiah
7) son of Imlah and a prophet of Samaria who predicted the defeat and
death of king Ahab of Israel

4318 Miykah mee-kaw'

an abbrev. of 4320; Micah, the name of seven
Israelites:-Micah, Micaiah, Michah.
see HEBREW for 04320

Strongs #04320: hykym Miykayah

Micah or Michaiah = "who is like God"

1) the 6th in order of the minor prophets; a native of Moresheth, he
prophesied during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah of Judah,
and was contemporary with the prophets Hosea, Amos, and Isaiah
2) father of Achbor, a man of high station in the reign of Josiah
3) one of the priests at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem

4320 Miykayah me-kaw-yaw'

from 4310 and (the prefix derivative from) 3588 and 3050; who
(is) like Jah?; Micajah, the name of two Israelites:-Micah,
Michaiah. Compare 4318.
see HEBREW for 04310
see HEBREW for 03588
see HEBREW for 03050
see HEBREW for 04318

Strongs #04319: whkym Miykahuw

Michaiah = "who is like God"

1) son of Imlah and a prophet of Samaria who predicted the defeat and
death of king Ahab of Israel

4319 Miykahuw me-kaw'-hoo

a contr. for 4321; Mikehu, an Israelite prophet:-Micaiah
(2 Chronicles 18:8).
see HEBREW for 04321

Strongs #04322: whykym Miykayahuw

Michaiah = "who is like God"

n pr m
1) one of the princes of Jehoshaphat whom he sent to teach the law of
Jehovah in the cities of Judah
2) daughter of Uriel of Gibeah, wife of king Rehoboam of Judah, and
mother of king Abijah of Judah

4322 Miykayahuw me-kaw-yaw'-hoo

for 4320; Mikajah, the name of an Israelite and an
Israelitess:-Michaiah.
see HEBREW for 04320

Micah [EBD]

a shortened form of Micaiah, who is like Jehovah? (1.) A man of Mount Ephraim, whose history so far is introduced in Judg. 17, apparently for the purpose of leading to an account of the settlement of the tribe of Dan in Northern Palestine, and for the purpose also of illustrating the lawlessness of the times in which he lived (Judg. 18; 19:1-29; 21:25).

(2.) The son of Merib-baal (Mephibosheth), 1 Chr. 8:34, 35.

(3.) The first in rank of the priests of the family of Kohathites (1 Chr. 23:20).

(4.) A descendant of Joel the Reubenite (1 Chr. 5:5).

(5.) "The Morasthite," so called to distinguish him from Micaiah, the son of Imlah (1 Kings 22:8). He was a prophet of Judah, a contemporary of Isaiah (Micah 1:1), a native of Moresheth of Gath (1:14, 15). Very little is known of the circumstances of his life (comp. Jer. 26:18, 19).

Micaiah [EBD]

who is like Jehovah?, the son of Imlah, a faithful prophet of Samaria (1 Kings 22:8-28). Three years after the great battle with Ben-hadad (20:29-34), Ahab proposed to Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, that they should go up against Ramoth-Gilead to do battle again with Ben-hadad. Jehoshaphat agreed, but suggested that inquiry should be first made "at the word of Jehovah." Ahab's prophets approved of the expedition; but Jehoshaphat, still dissatisfied, asked if there was no other prophet besides the four hundred that had appeared, and was informed of this Micaiah. He was sent for from prison, where he had been confined, probably on account of some prediction disagreeable to Ahab; and he condemned the expedition, and prophesied that it would end, as it did, in disaster. We hear nothing further of this prophet. Some have supposed that he was the unnamed prophet referred to in 1 Kings 20:35-42.

Michaiah [EBD]

(1.) The queen-mother of King Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2). (See MAACAH [4]).

(2.) One of those sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7).

(3.) 2 Kings 22:12.

(4.) The son of Gemariah. He reported to the king's officers Jeremiah's prediction, which he had heard Baruch read (Jer. 36:11, 13) from his father Gemariah's chamber in the temple.

(5.) A Levite (Neh. 12:35).

(6.) A priest (Neh. 12:41).

Micah [NAVE]

MICAH
1. An Ephraimite. His robbery and idolatry, Judg. 17:18.
2. Head of a family of Reuben, 1 Chr. 5:5.
3. Called also Micha. Son of Mephibosheth, 2 Sam. 9:12; 1 Chr. 8:34, 35; 9:40, 41.
4. Called also Michah. A Kohathite, 1 Chr. 23:20; 24:24, 25.
5. Father of Abdon, 2 Chr. 34:20.
6. One of the minor prophets, Jer. 26:18, 19; Mic. 1:1, 14, 15.
Denounces the idolatry of his times, Mic. 1; the oppressions of the covetous, Mic. 2:1-11.
Foretells the restoration of Israel, Mic. 2:12, 13; the injustice of judges and falsehoods of false prophets, Mic. 3.
Prophesies the coming of the Messiah, Mic. 4; 5.
Denounces the oppressions, frauds, and other abominations, Mic. 6.
Laments the state of Zion, and foretells the triumphs, righteousness, and the mercies of God, Mic. 7.

Micaiah [NAVE]

MICAIAH, a prophet who reproved King Ahab, 1 Kin. 22:8-28; 2 Chr. 18:4-27.

Michaiah [NAVE]

MICHAIAH
1. Father of Achbor, 2 Kin. 22:12.
2. See: Maachah, 4.
3. A prince sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law in the cities of Judah, 2 Chr. 17:7.
4. A priest of the family of Asaph, Neh. 12:35, 41.
5. Son of Gemariah. Who expounds to the princes the prophecies of Jeremiah read by Baruch to the people, Jer. 36:11-14.

MICAH [SMITH]

(who is like God?), the same name as Micaiah. [MICAIAH]
  1. An Israelite whose familiar story is preserved in the 17th and 18th chapters of Judges. Micah is evidently a devout believers in Jehovah, and yet so completely ignorant is he of the law of Jehovah that the mode which he adopts of honoring him is to make a molten and graven image, teraphim or images of domestic gods, and to set up an unauthorized priesthood, first in his own family, (Judges 17:5) and then in the person of a Levite not of the priestly line. ver. (Judges 17:12) A body of 600 Danites break in upon and steal his idols from him.
  2. The sixth in order of the minor prophets. He is called the Morasthite, that is, a native of Moresheth, a small village near Eleutheropolis to the east, where formerly the prophet?s tomb was shown, though in the days of Jerome it had been succeeded by a church. Micah exercised the prophetical office during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, giving thus a maximum limit of 59 years, B.C. 756-697, from the accession of Jotham to the death of Hezekiah, and a minimum limit of 16 years, B.C. 742-726, from the death of Jotham to the accession of Hezekiah. He was contemporary with Hosea and Amos during the part of their ministry in Israel, and with Isaiah in Judah.
  3. A descendant of Joel the Reubenite. (1 Chronicles 5:5)
  4. The son of Meribbaal or Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan. (1 Chronicles 8:34,35; 9:40,41)
  5. A Kohathite levite, the eldest son of Uzziel the brother of Amram. (1 Chronicles 23:30)
  6. The father of Abdon, a man of high station in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 34:20)

MICAIAH [SMITH]

(who is like God?). Micahiah, the son of Imlah, was a prophet of Samaria, who in the last year of the reign of Ahab king of Israel predicted his defeat and death, B.C. 897. (1 Kings 22:1-35; 2 Chronicles 18:1) ...

MICHAIAH [SMITH]

(who is like God?).
  1. Same as MICAH 6. (2 Chronicles 34:25)
  2. Same as MICHA 3. (1 Chronicles 9:15; Nehemiah 12:35)
  3. One of the priests at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:41)
  4. The daughter of Uriel of Gibeah, wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijah king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 13:2) [MAACHAH,3]
  5. One of the princes of Jehoshaphat whom he sent to teach the law of Jehovah in the cities of Judah. (2 Chronicles 17:7)
  6. The son of Gemariah. He is only mentioned on one occasion. (Jeremiah 36:11,13,14)

MICAH (1) [ISBE]

MICAH (1) - mi'-ka (mikhah, contracted from mikhayahu, "who is like Yah?"; Codex Vaticanus, Meichaias; Codex Alexandrinus, Micha; sometimes in the King James Version spelled Michah):

(1) The chief character of an episode given as an appendix to the Book of Judges (Jdg 17; 18). Micah, a dweller in Mt. Ephraim, was the founder and owner of a small private sanctuary with accessories for worship (17:1-5), for which he hired as priest a Judean Levite (17:7-13). Five men sent in quest of new territory by the Danites, who had failed to secure a settlement upon their own tribal allotment, visited Micah's shrine, and obtained from his priest an oracle favoring their quest (Jdg 18:1-6). They then went on until they reached the town of Laish in the extreme North, and deeming it suitable for the purpose, they returned to report to their fellow-tribesmen. These at once dispatched thither 600 armed men, accompanied by their families (Jdg 18:7-12). Passing Micah's abode, they appropriated his idols and his priest, and when their owner pursued, he was insulted and threatened (Jdg 18:13-26). They took Laish, destroyed it with its inhabitants and rebuilt it under the name of Dan. There they established the stolen images, and appointed Micah's Levite, Jonathan, a grandson of Moses (the King James Version "Manasseh"), priest of the new sanctuary, which was long famous in Israel (Jdg 18:27-31).

The purpose of the narrative is evidently to set forth the origin of the Danite shrine and priesthood. A few peculiarities in the story have led some critics--e.g., Moore, "Judges," in ICC and "Judges" in SBOT; Budde, Richter--to regard it as composite. Wellhausen, however, considers that the peculiarities are editorial and have been introduced for the purpose of smoothing or explaining the ancient record. Most authorities are agreed that the story is nearly contemporary with the events which it narrates, and that it is of the highest value for the study of the history of Israelite worship.

See also JUDGES; DAN; PRIESTHOOD.

(2) A Reubenite, whose descendant Beerah was carried into exile by Tiglath-pileser (1 Ch 5:5).

(3) A son of Merib-baal (1 Ch 8:34 f; 9:40 f).

See MICA, (1).

(4) A Kohathite Levite (1 Ch 23:20; 24:24 f).

(5) The father of Abdon, one of Josiah's messengers to the prophetess Huldah (2 Ch 34:20). In the parallel passage (2 Ki 22:12), the reading is "Achbor the son of Micaiah," the King James Version "Michaiah."

(6) A Simeonite mentioned in the Book of Judith (Judith 6:15).

(7) The prophet, called, in Jer 26:18 (Hebrew), "Micaiah the Morashtite." See special article.

(8) The son of Imlah.

See MICAIAH, (7).

John A. Less

MICAH (2) [ISBE]

MICAH (2) - (mikhah; Meichaias; an abbreviation for Micaiah (Jer 26:18), and this again of the longer form of the word in 2 Ch 17:7; compare 1 Ki 22:8):

1. Name and Person:

The name signifies "who is like Yah?"; compare Michael, equal to "who is like El?" (i.e. God). As this name occurs not infrequently, he is called the "Morashtite," i.e. born in Moresheth. He calls his native city, in Mic 1:14, Moresheth-gath, because it was situated near the Philistine city of Gath. According to Jerome and Eusebius, this place was situated not far eastward from Eleutheropolis. The prophet is not to be confounded with Micah ben Imla, in 1 Ki 22:8, an older prophet of the Northern Kingdom.

2. Time of Micah:

According to Jer 26:18, Micah lived and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah; according to Mic 1:1, he labored also under Jotham and Ahaz. This superscription has, it must be said, great similarity to Isa 1:1 and is probably of a later date. Yet the contents of his first discourse confirm the fact that he prophesied, not only before the destruction of Samaria, but also before the reformation of Hezekiah (compare Mic 1:5). Accordingly, Micah 1 is probably a discourse spoken already under Ahaz, and Micah 2 through 5 under Hezekiah. No mention is any longer made of Samaria in chapters 2 to 5. This city has already been destroyed; at any rate, is being besieged. Accordingly, these discourses were pronounced after the year 722 BC, but earlier than 701 BC, as the reformation of Hezekiah had not yet been entirely completed. It is impossible to date exactly these discourses, for this reason, that all the separate sentences and addresses were afterward united into one well-edited collection, probably by Micah himself. The attacks that have been made by different critics on the authenticity of Micah 4 and 5 have but a poor foundation. It is a more difficult task to explain the dismal picture of the conditions of affairs as described in Micah 6 and 7 as originating in the reign of Hezekiah. For this reason, scholars have thought of ascribing them to the reigns of Jotham and Ahaz. But better reasons speak for placing them in the degenerate reign of Manasseh. There is no reason for claiming that Micah no longer prophesied in the times of this king. It is true that a number of critics declare that Micah did not write these chapters, especially the so-called psalm in 7:7-20, which, it is claimed, clearly presupposes the destruction of Jerusalem (7:11)! But it is a fact that Micah did really and distinctly predict this destruction and the exile that followed this event in 3:12; and accordingly he could in this concluding hymn very easily have looked even beyond this period.

Micah is, then, a younger contemporary of Isaiah, and, like the latter, he prophesied in Judah, perhaps also in Jerusalem. To the writings of this great prophet his book bears a close resemblance both in form and in contents, although he did not, as was the case with Isaiah, come into personal contact with the kings and make his influence felt in political affairs.

3. Relation to Isaiah:

The statement in Mic 4:1 ff is found almost literally in Isa 2:2 ff. Opinions differ as to who is to be credited with the original, Isaiah or Micah. In the latter, the passage seems to suit better into the connection, while in Isa 2 it begins the discourse abruptly, as though the prophet had taken it from some other source. However, Mic 4:4 f is certainly a sentence added by Micah, who, accordingly, was not the first to formulate the prophecy itself. It is possible that both prophets took it from some older prophet. But it is also conceivable that Isaiah is the author. In this case, he placed this sentence at the head of his briefer utterances when he composed his larger group of addresses in Micah 2--4, for the purpose of expressing the high purposes which God has in mind in His judgments.

4. Contents of the Prophecies:

Micah combats in his discourses, as does Isaiah, the heathenish abuses which had found their way into the cult, not only in Samaria, but also in Judah and Jerusalem, and which the reformation of Hezekiah could counteract only in part and not at all permanently (compare Mic 1:5-7; 5:11-13; 6:7,16). Further, he rebukes them for the social injustice, of which particularly the powerful and the great in the land were guilty (Mic 2:1 ff; 3:2 f.10 f); and the dishonesty and unfaithfulness in business and in conduct in general (compare Mic 6:10 ff; 7:2 ff). At all times Micah, in doing this, was compelled to defend himself against false prophets, who slighted these charges as of little importance, and threatened and antagonized the prophet in his announcements of impending evil (compare 2:5 ff,11 ff). In pronounced opposition to these babblers and their predictions of good things, Micah announces the judgment through the enemies that are approaching, and he even goes beyond Isaiah in the open declaration that Jerusalem and the temple are to be destroyed (Mic 3:12; 4:10; 5:1). The first-mentioned passage is also confirmed by the event reported in Jer 26:17 ff. The passage Mic 4:10, where in a surprising way Babylon is mentioned as the place of the exile, is for this reason regarded as unauthentic by the critics, but not justly. Micah predicts also the deliverance from Babylon and the reestablishment of Israel in Jerusalem, and declares that this is to take place through a King who shall come forth from the deepest humiliation of the house of David and shall be born in Bethlehem, and who, like David, originally a simple shepherd boy, shall later become the shepherd of the people, and shall make his people happy in peace and prosperity. Against this King the last great onslaught of the Gentiles will avail nothing (4:11-13; 5:4 ff). As a matter of course, he will purify the country of all heathen abuses (5:9 ff). In the description of this ruler, Micah again agrees with Isaiah, but without taking the details from that prophet.

5. Form of the Prophecies:

The form of the prophecies of Micah, notwithstanding their close connection with those of his great contemporary, has nevertheless its unique features. There is a pronounced formal similarity between Mic 1:10 ff and Isa 10:28 ff. Still more than is the case in Isaiah, Micah makes use of the names of certain places. Witty references, which we can understand only in part, are not lacking in this connection; e.g. Lachish, the "city of horses," is made the object of a play on words. (Recently in the ruins of this city a large wall has been unearthed.) The style of Micah is vigorous and vivid. He loved antitheses. It is a peculiarity of his style that he indulges in dramatic interruptions and answers; e.g. 2:5,12; 3:1; 6:6-8; 7:14 f. He also loves historical references; as e.g. 1:13,15; 5:5; 6:4 f,6,16; 7:20. He makes frequent use of the image of the shepherd, 2:12; 3:2 f; 4:6; 5:3 ff; 7:14. The fact that these peculiarities appear in all parts of his little book is an argument in favor of its being from one author. He is superior to Isaiah in his tendency to idyllic details, and especially in a deeper personal sympathy, which generally finds expression in an elegiac strain. His lyrical style readily takes the form of a prayer or of a psalm (compare Mic 7).

LITERATURE.

C. P. Caspari; Ueber Micha den Morasthiten, 1851; T.K. Cheyne, Micah with Notes and Introduction, 1882; V. Ryssel, Untersuchungen uber Textoeatalt und Echtheit des Buches Micha, 1887. See the commentaries on the 12 minor prophets by Hitzig, Ewald, C. F. Keil, P. Kleinert, W. Nowack, C. v. Orelli, K. Marti; Paul Haupt, The Book of Micah, 1910; Pusey, The Minor Prophets, 1860.

C. von Orelli

MICAIAH [ISBE]

MICAIAH - mi-ka'-ya, mi-ki'-a (mikhayahu, "who is like Yah?"; Meichaias): A frequently occurring Old Testament name occasionally contracted to MICA or MICAH (which see). In the King James Version it is usually spelled "Michaiah."

(1) The mother of Abijah (2 Ch 13:2, the King James Version "Michaiah"). The parallel passage (1 Ki 15:2; compare 2 Ch 11:20) indicates that Michaiah here is a corruption of MAACAH (which see) (so the Septuagint).

(2) The father of Achbor (2 Ki 22:12, the King James Version "Michaiah").

See MICAH, (5).

(3) A prince of Judah sent by Jehoshaphat to teach in the cities of Judah (2 Ch 17:7, the King James Version "Michaiah").

(4) The son of Zaccur, a priestly processionist at the derivation of the wall (Neh 12:35, the King James Version, "Michaiah").

(5) A priestly processionist at the dedication of the wall (Neh 12:41; wanting in the Septuagint (Septuagint)).

(6) The canonical prophet.

See MICAH, (7), and special article.

(7) The son of Imlah, the chief character of an important episode near the end of the reign of Ahab (1 Ki 22:4-28 parallel 2 Ch 18:3-27). In the Hebrew, his name appears once in the contracted form "Micah" (2 Ch 18:14). Ahab had suggested to his victor, Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, that they should undertake a joint campaign against Ramoth-gilead. Jehoshaphat politely acquiesced, but asked that the mind of Yahweh should first be ascertained. Ahab forthwith summoned the official prophets to the number of 400, into the royal presence. Obsequious to their master, they, both by oracular utterance and by the symbolic action of their leader, Zedekiah, the son of Chenaanah, gave the king a favorable answer. Their ready chorus of assent seems to have made Jehoshaphat suspicious, for he pleaded that further guidance be sought. Micaiah, for whom Ahab, then, with evident reluctance, sent, at first simply repeated the favorable response of the 400; but adjured by the king to speak the whole truth, he dropped his ironical tone, and in sad earnest described a vision of disaster. Ahab endeavored to lessen the effect of this oracle by pettishly complaining that Micaiah was always to him a prophet of evil. The latter thereupon related an impressive vision of the heavenly court, whence he had seen a lying spirit dispatched by Yahweh to the prophets in order to bring about Ahab's delusion and downfall. In answer to a rude challenge from Zedekiah, who acted as spokesman for the 400, Micaiah confidently appealed to the issue for proof of the truth of his prediction, and was promptly commuted to prison by the king.

The narrative is exceedingly vivid and of the utmost interest to students of Issraelite prophecy. Several of its details have given rise to discussion, and the questions: How far were the prophet's visions objective? How far did he admit the inspiration of his opponents? Is the Divine action described consistent with the holy character of Yahweh? have occasioned difficulty to many. But their difficulty arises largely either because of their Christian viewpoint, or because of their hard and mechanical theory of prophetic inspiration. Micaiah's position was a delicate one. Foreboding or foreseeing disaster, he did his best to avert it. This he could do only by weaning the king from the influence of the 400 time-serving prophets. He sought to gain his end; first, by an ironical acquiescence in their favorable answer; then, by a short oracle forecasting disaster especially to Ahab; and, these means having failed, by discrediting in the most solemn manner the courtly prophets opposed to him. Thus regarded, his vision contains no admission of their equal inspiration; rather is it an emphatic declaration that these men were uttering falsehood in Yahweh's name, thereby endangering their country's safety and their king's life. Their obsequious time-service made them fit forerunners of the false prophets denounced by Jeremiah (Jer 23:9-40) and by Ezekiel (Ezek 13:1-15). The frank anthropomorphism of the vision need be no stumbling-block if allowed to drop into its proper place as the literary device of a prophet intensely conscious of his own inspiration and as whole-heartedly patriotic as those opposed to him.

The record ends very abruptly, giving no account of Micaiah's vindication when at length the course of events brought about the fulfillment of his prediction. The closing words, "Hear, ye peoples, all of you" (1 Ki 22:28 parallel 2 Ch 18:27), a quotation of Mic 1:2, are an evident interpolation by some late scribe who confused the son of Imlah with the contemporary of Isaiah.

For fuller treatment see EB, HDB, and commentaries on Kings and Chronicles.

John A. Lees

MICHAIAH [ISBE]

MICHAIAH - mi-ka'-ya, mi-ki'-a.

See MICAIAH.


Also see definition of "Micah" in Word Study


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