| Jehoshaphat, Valley of
In Bible versions:
the son and successor of king Asa of Judah; the father of Jehoram; an ancestor of Jesus
son of Ahilud; a recorder for King Solomon
an officer over collecting food supplies for King Solomon from Issachar; son of Paruah
son of Asa; King of Judah
son of Nimshi; father of King Jehu of Israel
a situation ("valley") of being judged (OS)
the Lord is judge ( --> same as Josaphat)
Jehoshaphat = "whom Jehovah judges"
1) the king of Judah, son of Asa
2498 Iosaphat ee-o-saf-at'
of Hebrew origin (3092); Josaphat (i.e. Jehoshaphat), an
see HEBREW for 03092
Jehoshaphat = "Jehovah has judged"
n pr m
1) son of king Asa and himself king of Judah for 25 years; one of the
best, most pious, and prosperous kings of Judah
2) son of Nimshi and father of king Jehu of the northern kingdom of Israel
3) son of Ahilud and chronicler under David and Solomon
4) son of Paruah and one of the 12 commissary officers under Solomon
5) a priest and trumpeter in the time of David
n pr loc
6) symbolical name of a valley near Jerusalem which is the place of
ultimate judgment; maybe the deep ravine which separates Jerusalem
from the Mount of Olives through which the Kidron flowed
3092 Yhowshaphat yeh-ho-shaw-fawt'
from 3068 and 8199; Jehovah-judged; Jehoshaphat, the name of
six Israelites; also of a valley near Jerusalem:-Jehoshaphat.
see HEBREW for 03068
see HEBREW for 08199
see HEBREW for 03146
Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's body-guard (1 Chr. 11:43).
(2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:24).
(3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon (2 Sam. 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom.
(4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (1 Kings 4:17).
(5.) The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah. After fortifying his kingdom against Israel (2 Chr. 17:1, 2), he set himself to cleanse the land of idolatry (1 Kings 22:43). In the third year of his reign he sent out priests and Levites over the land to instruct the people in the law (2 Chr. 17:7-9). He enjoyed a great measure of peace and prosperity, the blessing of God resting on the people "in their basket and their store."
The great mistake of his reign was his entering into an alliance with Ahab, the king of Israel, which involved him in much disgrace, and brought disaster on his kingdom (1 Kings 22:1-33). Escaping from the bloody battle of Ramoth-gilead, the prophet Jehu (2 Chr. 19:1-3) reproached him for the course he had been pursuing, whereupon he entered with rigour on his former course of opposition to all idolatry, and of deepening interest in the worship of God and in the righteous government of the people (2 Chr. 19:4-11).
Again he entered into an alliance with Ahaziah, the king of Israel, for the purpose of carrying on maritime commerce with Ophir. But the fleet that was then equipped at Ezion-gaber was speedily wrecked. A new fleet was fitted out without the co-operation of the king of Israel, and although it was successful, the trade was not prosecuted (2 Chr. 20:35-37; 1 Kings 22:48-49).
He subsequently joined Jehoram, king of Israel, in a war against the Moabites, who were under tribute to Israel. This war was successful. The Moabites were subdued; but the dreadful act of Mesha in offering his own son a sacrifice on the walls of Kir-haresheth in the sight of the armies of Israel filled him with horror, and he withdrew and returned to his own land (2 Kings 3:4-27).
The last most notable event of his reign was that recorded in 2 Chr. 20. The Moabites formed a great and powerful confederacy with the surrounding nations, and came against Jehoshaphat. The allied forces were encamped at Engedi. The king and his people were filled with alarm, and betook themselves to God in prayer. The king prayed in the court of the temple, "O our God, wilt thou not judge them? for we have no might against this great company that cometh against us." Amid the silence that followed, the voice of Jahaziel the Levite was heard announcing that on the morrow all this great host would be overthrown. So it was, for they quarrelled among themselves, and slew one another, leaving to the people of Judah only to gather the rich spoils of the slain. This was recognized as a great deliverance wrought for them by God (B.C. 890). Soon after this Jehoshaphat died, after a reign of twenty-five years, being sixty years of age, and was succeeded by his son Jehoram (1 Kings 22:50). He had this testimony, that "he sought the Lord with all his heart" (2 Chr. 22:9). The kingdom of Judah was never more prosperous than under his reign.
(6.) The son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Israel (2 Kings 9:2, 14).
1. David's recorder, 2 Sam. 8:16
; 1 Kin. 4:3
; 1 Chr. 18:15
2. One of Solomon's commissariat officers, 1 Kin. 4:17
3. King of Judah. Succeeds Asa, 1 Kin. 15:24
; 1 Chr. 3:10
; 2 Chr. 17:1
; Matt. 1:8
Strengthens himself against Israel, 2 Chr. 17:2
Inaugurates a system of public instruction in the law, 2 Chr. 17:7-9
His wise reign, 1 Kin. 22:43
; 2 Chr. 17:7-9
His system of tribute, 2 Chr. 17:11
His military forces and armament, 2 Chr. 17:12-19
Joins Ahab in an invasion of Ramoth-gilead, 1 Kin. 22
; 2 Chr. 18
Rebuked by the prophet Jehu, 2 Chr. 19:2
The allied forces of the Amorites, Moabites, and other tribes invade his territory, and are defeated by, 2 Chr. 20
Builds ships for commerce with Tarshish, ships are destroyed, 1 Kin. 22:48
; 2 Chr. 20:35-37
Joins Jehoram, king of Israel, in an invasion of the land of Moab, defeats the Moabites, 2 Kin. 3
Makes valuable gifts to the temple, 2 Kin. 12:18
Death of, 1 Kin. 22:50
; 2 Chr. 21:1
Religious zeal of, 1 Kin. 22:43
; 2 Chr. 17:1-9
Prosperity of, 1 Kin. 22:45
; 2 Chr. 17-20
legacy of, to his children, 2 Chr. 21:2
4. Father of Jehu, 2 Kin. 9:2
5. A priest who assisted in bringing the ark from Obed-edom, 1 Chr. 15:24
6. A valley. Called Valley of Decision, Joel 3:2
(whom Jehovah judges.
- King of Judah, son of Asa, succeeded to the throne B.C. 914, when he was 35 years old, and reigned 25 years. His history is to be found among the events recorded in (1Ã‚Â Kings 15:24; 2Ã‚Â Kings 8:16) or in a continuous narrative in (2Ã‚Â Chronicles 17:1; 2Ã‚Â Chronicles 21:3) He was contemporary with Ahab, Ahaziah and Jehoram. He was one of the best, most pious and prosperous kings of Judah, the greatest since Solomon. At first he strengthened himself against Israel; but soon afterward the two Hebrew kings formed an alliance. In his own kingdom Jehoshaphat ever showed himself a zealous follower of the commandments of God: he tried to put down the high places and groves in which the people of Judah burnt incense, and sent the wisest Levites through the cities and towns to instruct the people in true morality and religion. Riches and honors increased around him. He received tribute from the Philistines and Arabians, and kept up a large standing army in Jerusalem. It was probably about the 16th year of his reign, B.C. 898, when he became Ahab?s ally in the great battle of Ramoth-gilead, for which he was severely reproved by Jehu. (2Ã‚Â Chronicles 19:2) He built at Ezion-geber, with the help of Ahaziah, a navy designed to go to Tarshish; but it was wrecked at Ezion-geber. Before the close of his reign he was engaged in two additional wars. He was miraculously delivered from a threatened attack of the people of Ammon, Moab and Seir. After this, perhaps, must be dated the war which Jehoshaphat, in conjunction with Jehoram king of Israel and the king of Edom, carried on against the rebellious king of Moab. (2Ã‚Â Kings 3:1) ... In his declining years the administration of affairs was placed, probably B.C. 891, in the hands of his son Jehoram.
- Son of Ahilud, who filled the office of recorder of annalist in the courts of David, (2Ã‚Â Samuel 8:16) etc., and Solomon. (1Ã‚Â Kings 4:3)
- One of the priests in David?s time. (1Ã‚Â Chronicles 15:24)
- Son of Paruah; one of the twelve purveyors of King Solomon. (1Ã‚Â Kings 4:17)
- Son of Nimshi and father of King Jehu. (2Ã‚Â Kings 9:2,14)
JEHOSHAPHAT (1) [ISBE]
- je-hosh'-a-fat (yehoshaphaT, "Yahweh has judged"):
(1) King of Judah. See separate article.
(2) Son of Ahilud. He was recorder under David (2 Sam 8:16; 20:24; 1 Ch 18:15) and Solomon (1 Ki 4:3).
(3) Son of Paruah, and Solomon's overseer in Issachar to provide victuals for the royal household for one month of the year (1 Ki 4:17).
(4) Son of Nimshi, and father of Jehu, king of Northern Israel (2 Ki 9:2,14). His name is omitted in 9:20 and 1 Ki 19:16, where Jehu is called "son of Nimshi."
(5) the King James Version (but not Hebrew) in 1 Ch 15:24; the Revised Version (British and American) correctly JOSHAPHAT (which see).
David Francis Roberts
JEHOSHAPHAT (2) [ISBE]
- je-hosh'-a-fat (yehoshaphaT, "Yahweh judges"): The 4th king of Judah, son of Asa. His mother was Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi, of whom nothing further is known. He was 35 years of age at his accession, and reigned 25 years, circa 873-849 BC. Th e history of his reign is contained in 1 Ki 22:41-50
and in 2 Ch 17:1
through 21:1. The narrative in 1 Ki 22:1-35a
and in 2 Ki 3:4
ff belongs to the history of the Northern Kingdom. The absence from Ki of the details contained in 2 Chronicles affords no presumpt against their truth. Neither do high numbers, embellished statements, and the coloring of the writer's own age destroy the historical perspective.
1. His Religious Policy:
The reign of Jehoshaphat appears to have been one of unusual religious activity. It was, however, characterized not so much by striking religious measures as it was by the religious spirit that pervaded every act of the king, who sought the favor of Yahweh in every detail of his life (2 Ch 17:3,4). He evidently felt that a nation's character is determined by its religion. Accordingly, he made it his duty to purify the national worship. The "sodomites," i.e. those who practiced immorality in the worsh ip of Yahweh in the temple precincts, were banished from the land (1 Ki 22:46). The Asherim were taken out of Judah (2 Ch 17:6; 19:3), and "the people from Beer-sheba to the hill-country of Ephraim were brought back unto Yahweh, the God of their fathers" (2 Ch 19:4). Because of his zeal for Yahweh, Jehoshaphat is rewarded with power and "riches and honor in abundance" (2 Ch 17:5).
2. His System of Public Instruction:
Believing that religion and morals, the civilization, suffer from ignorance, Jehoshaphat introduced a system of public instruction for the whole land (2 Ch 17:7 ff). He appointed a commission, composed of princes, Levites and priests, to go from city to city to instruct the people. Their instruction was to be based on the one true foundation of sound morals and healthy religious life, "the book of the law of Yahweh" (2 Ch 17:7-9).
3. His Judicial Institutions:
Next in importance to Jehoshaphat's system of public instruction, was his provision for the better administration of justice. He appointed judges to preside over courts of common pleas, which he established in all the fortified cities of Judah. In addition to these local courts, two courts of appeal, an ecclesiastical and a civil court, were established at Jerusalem to be presided over by priests, Levites, and leading nobles as judges. At the head of the ecclesiastical court of appeal was the high priest, and a layman, "the ruler of the house of Judah," headed the civil court of appeal (2 Ch 19:4-11). The insistence that a judge was to be in character like Yahweh, with whom there is "no iniquity .... nor respect of persons, nor taking of bribes" (2 Ch 19:7), is worthy of note.
4. His Military Defenses:
According to 2 Ch 17:2, Jehoshaphat began his reign with defensive measures against Israel. Furthermore, he built castles and cities of store in the land of Judah, "and he had many works," probably military supplies, "in the cities of Judah" (17:13). He appears to have had a large standing army, including cavalry (1 Ki 22:4; 2 Ch 17:14 ff). However, the numbers in 2 Ch 17:14 ff seem to be impossibly high.
5. His Foreign Policy:
Godliness and security at home were followed by respect and peace abroad. The fact that the Philistines and the Arabians brought tribute (2 Ch 17:11), and that Edom had no king (1 Ki 22:47), but a deputy instead, who possibly was appointed by Jehoshaphat, would indicate that he held the suzerainty over the nations and tribes bordering Judah on the South and West Holding the suzerainty over the weaker nations, and being allied with the stronger, Jehoshaphat secured the peace for the greater part of his reign (1 Ch 17:10) that fostered the internal development of the kingdom.
6. His Alliance with Ahab:
In contrast to the former kings of Judah, Jehoshaphat saw greater benefit in an alliance with Israel than in civil war. Accordingly, the old feud between the two kingdoms (1 Ki 14:30; 15:6) was dropped, and Jehoshaphat made peace with Israel (1 Ki 22:44). The political union was cemented by the marriage of Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. Shortly after the marriage, Jehoshaphat joined Ahab in a campaign against Syria (2 Ch 18:1-3). In view of the subordinate position that Jehoshaphat seems to take in the campaign (1 Ki 22:4,30), and in view of the military service rendered to Jehoram (2 Ki 3:4 ff), Judah seems to have become a dependency of Israel. Nevertheless, the union may have contributed to the welfare and prospity of Judah, and it may have enabled Jehoshaphat to hold the suzerainty over the neighboring nations. However, the final outcome of the alliance with the house of Omri was disastrous for Judah. The introduction into Judah of Baalism more than counterbalanced any political and material advantage gained, and in the succeeding reigns it indirectly led to the almost total extinction of the royal family of Judah (2 Ki 11:1 ff).
7. His Alliance with Jehoram:
In spite of the denunciation of the prophet Jehu for his expedition with Ahab, thus "help(ing) the wicked" (2 Ch 19:2), Jehoshaphat entered into a similar alliance with Jehoram of Israel (2 Ki 3:4 ff). On the invitation of Jehoram to join him in an expedition against Moab, Jehoshaphat was ready with the same set speech of acceptance as in the case of Ahab (2 Ki 3:7; compare 1 Ki 22:4). For the details of the expedition see JEHORAM, (1).
8. Victory over the Moabites and Ammonites:
The Chronicler has given us a very remarkable account of a victory gained by Jehoshaphat over the Moabites and Ammonites. No doubt he made use of a current historical Midrash. Many find the historical basis of the Midrash in the events recorded in 2 Ki 3:4 ff. However, the localities are different, and there a defeat is recorded, while in this case we have a victory. The story in outline bears the stamp of probability. 1 Ki 22:45 seems to suggest wars of Jehoshaphat that are not mentioned in Kings. The tribes mentioned in the account are represented as trying to make permanent settlement in Judah (2 Ch 20:11). In their advance through the South of Judah, they were doubtless harassed by the shepherd population of the country. Jehoshaphat, according to his custom, sought the help of Yahweh. The invading forces fell to quarreling among themselves (2 Ch 20:23), and destroyed one another. The spoil was great because the invaders had brought all their goods with them, expecting to remain in the land.
9. Destruction of Jehoshaphat's Fleet:
The destruction of Jehoshaphat's fleet is recorded in 1 Ki 22:48,49 and in 2 Ch 20:35-37. However, the two accounts are quite different. According to Kings, Jehoshaphat built ships of Tarshish to sail to Ophir for gold, but the vessels were wrecked at zion-geber. Thereupon Ahaziah offered to assist Jehoshaphat with seamen, but Jehoshaphat refused to enter into the alliance. According to Chronicles the alliance had been formed, and together they built ships at Ezion-geber, which were destroyed because Jehoshaphat had made an alliance with the wicked king of Israel. In view of Jehoshaphat's other alliances, the Chronicler may be in the right. Chronicles, however, misunderstood the term "ships of Tarshish."
10. His Death:
Jehoshaphat died at the age of 60. Josephus says (Ant., IX, iii, 2) that he was buried in a magnificent manner, for he had imitated the actions of David. The kingdom was left to Jehoram, who inaugurated the beginning of his reign by causing the massacre of his brethren.
S. K. Mosiman