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Revelation 16:2-11

Context
16:2 So 1  the first angel 2  went and poured out his bowl on the earth. Then 3  ugly and painful sores 4  appeared on the people 5  who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image.

16:3 Next, 6  the second angel 7  poured out his bowl on the sea and it turned into blood, like that of a corpse, and every living creature that was in the sea died.

16:4 Then 8  the third angel 9  poured out his bowl on the rivers and the springs of water, and they turned into blood. 16:5 Now 10  I heard the angel of the waters saying:

“You are just 11  – the one who is and who was,

the Holy One – because you have passed these judgments, 12 

16:6 because they poured out the blood of your saints and prophets,

so 13  you have given them blood to drink. They got what they deserved!” 14 

16:7 Then 15  I heard the altar reply, 16  “Yes, Lord God, the All-Powerful, 17  your judgments are true and just!”

16:8 Then 18  the fourth angel 19  poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was permitted to scorch people 20  with fire. 16:9 Thus 21  people 22  were scorched by the terrible heat, 23  yet 24  they blasphemed the name of God, who has ruling authority 25  over these plagues, and they would not repent and give him glory.

16:10 Then 26  the fifth angel 27  poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 28  darkness covered his kingdom, 29  and people 30  began to bite 31  their tongues because 32  of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 33  and because of their sores, 34  but nevertheless 35  they still refused to repent 36  of their deeds.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the directions given by the voice from the temple.

2 tn Grk “the first”; the referent (the first angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

4 tn Or “ulcerated sores”; the term in the Greek text is singular but is probably best understood as a collective singular.

5 tn Grk ‘the men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “next” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

7 tn Grk “the second”; the referent (the second angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

9 tn Grk “the third”; the referent (the third angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the somewhat parenthetical nature of the remarks that follow.

11 tn Or “righteous,” although the context favors justice as the theme.

12 tn Or “because you have judged these things.” The pronoun ταῦτα (tauta) is neuter gender.

13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate that this judgment is the result of what these wicked people did to the saints and prophets.

14 tn Grk “They are worthy”; i.e., of this kind of punishment. By extension, “they got what they deserve.”

15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

16 tn Grk “the altar saying.”

17 tn On this word BDAG 755 s.v. παντοκράτωρ states, “the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent (One) only of God…() κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὁ π. …Rv 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22.”

18 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

19 tn Grk “the fourth”; the referent (the fourth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

20 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “thus” to indicate the implied result of the bowl poured on the sun.

22 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

23 tn On this phrase BDAG 536 s.v. καῦμα states, “burning, heat Rv 7:16καυματίζεσθαι κ. μέγα be burned with a scorching heat 16:9.”

24 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.

25 tn For the translation “ruling authority” for ἐξουσία (exousia) see L&N 37.35.

26 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.

27 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

28 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.

29 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”

30 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.

31 tn On this term BDAG 620 s.v. μασάομαι states, “bite w. acc. τὰς γλώσσας bite their tongues Rv 16:10.”

32 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.

33 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in painRv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”

34 tn Or “ulcerated sores” (see 16:2).

35 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.

36 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.



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