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Luke 22:14-23

The Lord’s Supper

22:14 Now 1  when the hour came, Jesus 2  took his place at the table 3  and the apostles joined 4  him. 22:15 And he said to them, “I have earnestly desired 5  to eat this Passover with you before I suffer. 22:16 For I tell you, I will not eat it again 6  until it is fulfilled 7  in the kingdom of God.” 8  22:17 Then 9  he took a cup, 10  and after giving thanks he said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves. 22:18 For I tell you that from now on I will not drink of the fruit 11  of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 12  22:19 Then 13  he took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body 14  which is given for you. 15  Do this in remembrance of me.” 22:20 And in the same way he took 16  the cup after they had eaten, 17  saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant 18  in my blood.

A Final Discourse

22:21 “But look, the hand of the one who betrays 19  me is with me on the table. 20  22:22 For the Son of Man is to go just as it has been determined, 21  but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!” 22:23 So 22  they began to question one another as to which of them it could possibly be who would do this.

1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.

2 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

3 tn Grk “reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away.

4 tn Grk “the apostles with him.”

5 tn This phrase parallels a Hebrew infinitive absolute and serves to underline Jesus’ enthusiasm for holding this meal (BDF §198.6).

6 tn Although the word “again” is not in the Greek text, it is supplied to indicate that Jesus did indeed partake of this Passover meal, as statements in v. 18 suggest (“from now on”). For more complete discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 2:1720.

7 sn Jesus looked to a celebration in the kingdom to come when the Passover is fulfilled. This reference could well suggest that some type of commemorative sacrifice and meal will be celebrated then, as the antecedent is the Passover sacrifice. The reference is not to the Lord’s supper as some argue, but the Passover.

8 sn The kingdom of God here refers to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37.

9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

10 sn Then he took a cup. Only Luke mentions two cups at this meal; the other synoptic gospels (Matt, Mark) mention only one. This is the first of the two. It probably refers to the first cup in the traditional Passover meal, which today has four cups (although it is debated whether the fourth cup was used in the 1st century).

11 tn Grk “the produce” (“the produce of the vine” is a figurative expression for wine).

12 sn Until the kingdom of God comes is a reference to the kingdom in all its power. See Luke 17:20-37. Jesus awaits celebration with the arrival of full kingdom blessing.

13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.

14 tc Some important Western mss (D it) lack the words from this point to the end of v. 20. However, the authenticity of these verses is very likely. The inclusion of the second cup is the harder reading, since it differs from Matt 26:26-29 and Mark 14:22-25, and it has much better ms support. It is thus easier to explain the shorter reading as a scribal accident or misunderstanding. Further discussion of this complicated problem (the most difficult in Luke) can be found in TCGNT 148-50.

15 sn The language of the phrase given for you alludes to Christ’s death in our place. It is a powerful substitutionary image of what he did for us.

16 tn The words “he took” are not in the Greek text at this point, but are an understood repetition from v. 19.

17 tn The phrase “after they had eaten” translates the temporal infinitive construction μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι (meta to deipnhsai), where the verb δειπνέω (deipnew) means “to eat a meal” or “to have a meal.”

18 sn Jesus’ death established the forgiveness promised in the new covenant of Jer 31:31. Jesus is reinterpreting the symbolism of the Passover meal, indicating the presence of a new era.

19 sn The one who betrays me. Jesus knows about Judas and what he has done.

20 sn The point of Jesus’ comment here is not to identify the specific individual per se, but to indicate that it is one who was close to him – somebody whom no one would suspect. His comment serves to heighten the treachery of Judas’ betrayal.

21 sn Jesus’ death has been determined as a part of God’s plan (Acts 2:22-24).

22 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ comments: The disciples begin wondering who would betray him.

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