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Daniel 10:1--12:13

An Angel Appears to Daniel

10:1 1 In the third 2  year of King Cyrus of Persia a message was revealed to Daniel (who was also called Belteshazzar). This message was true and concerned a great war. 3  He understood the message and gained insight by the vision.

10:2 In those days I, Daniel, was mourning for three whole weeks. 4  10:3 I ate no choice food; no meat or wine came to my lips, 5  nor did I anoint myself with oil 6  until the end of those three weeks.

10:4 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month 7  I was beside the great river, the Tigris. 8  10:5 I looked up 9  and saw a 10  man 11  clothed in linen; 12  around his waist was a belt made of gold from Upaz. 13  10:6 His body resembled yellow jasper, 14  and his face had an appearance like lightning. His eyes were like blazing torches; 15  his arms and feet had the gleam of polished bronze. His voice 16  thundered forth like the sound of a large crowd.

10:7 Only I, Daniel, saw the vision; the men who were with me did not see it. 17  On the contrary, they were overcome with fright 18  and ran away to hide. 10:8 I alone was left to see this great vision. My strength drained from 19  me, and my vigor disappeared; 20  I was without energy. 21  10:9 I listened to his voice, 22  and as I did so 23  I fell into a trance-like sleep with my face to the ground. 10:10 Then 24  a hand touched me and set me on my hands and knees. 25  10:11 He said to me, “Daniel, you are of great value. 26  Understand the words that I am about to 27  speak to you. So stand up, 28  for I have now been sent to you.” When he said this 29  to me, I stood up shaking. 10:12 Then he said to me, “Don’t be afraid, Daniel, for from the very first day you applied your mind 30  to understand and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard. I have come in response to your words. 10:13 However, the prince of the kingdom of Persia was opposing me for twenty-one days. But 31  Michael, one of the leading princes, came to help me, because I was left there 32  with the kings of Persia. 10:14 Now I have come to help you understand what will happen to your people in the latter days, for the vision pertains to future days.”

10:15 While he was saying this to me, 33  I was flat on 34  the ground and unable to speak. 10:16 Then 35  one who appeared to be a human being 36  was touching my lips. I opened my mouth and started to speak, saying to the one who was standing before me, “Sir, 37  due to the vision, anxiety has gripped me and I have no strength. 10:17 How, sir, am I able to speak with you? 38  My strength is gone, 39  and I am breathless.” 10:18 Then the one who appeared to be a human being touched me again 40  and strengthened me. 10:19 He said to me, “Don’t be afraid, you who are valued. 41  Peace be to you! Be strong! Be really strong!” When he spoke to me, I was strengthened. I said, “Sir, you may speak now, 42  for you have given me strength.” 10:20 He said, “Do you know why I have come to you? 43  Now I am about to return to engage in battle with the prince of Persia. When I go, the prince of Greece is coming. 10:21 However, I will first tell you what is written in a dependable book. 44  (There is no one who strengthens me against these princes, 45  except Michael your 46  prince. 11:1 And in the first year of Darius the Mede, I 47  stood to strengthen him and to provide protection for him.) 11:2 Now I will tell you the truth.

The Angel Gives a Message to Daniel

“Three 48  more kings will arise for Persia. Then a fourth 49  king will be unusually rich, 50  more so than all who preceded him. When he has amassed power through his riches, he will stir up everyone against 51  the kingdom of Greece. 11:3 Then a powerful king 52  will arise, exercising great authority and doing as he pleases. 11:4 Shortly after his rise to power, 53  his kingdom will be broken up and distributed toward the four winds of the sky 54  – but not to his posterity or with the authority he exercised, for his kingdom will be uprooted and distributed to others besides these.

11:5 “Then the king of the south 55  and one of his subordinates 56  will grow strong. His subordinate 57  will resist 58  him and will rule a kingdom greater than his. 59  11:6 After some years have passed, they 60  will form an alliance. Then the daughter 61  of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make an agreement, but she will not retain her power, 62  nor will he continue 63  in his strength. 64  She, together with the one who brought her, her child, 65  and her benefactor will all be delivered over at that time. 66 

11:7 “There will arise in his 67  place one from her family line 68  who will come against their army and will enter the stronghold of the king of the north and will move against them successfully. 69  11:8 He will also take their gods into captivity to Egypt, along with their cast images and prized utensils of silver and gold. Then he will withdraw for some years from 70  the king of the north. 11:9 Then the king of the north 71  will advance against the empire of the king of the south, but will withdraw to his own land. 11:10 His sons 72  will wage war, mustering a large army which will advance like an overflowing river and carrying the battle all the way to the enemy’s 73  fortress. 74 

11:11 “Then the king of the south 75  will be enraged and will march out to fight against the king of the north, who will also muster a large army, but that army will be delivered into his hand. 11:12 When the army is taken away, the king of the south will become arrogant. 76  He will be responsible for the death 77  of thousands and thousands of people, 78  but he will not continue to prevail. 11:13 For the king of the north will again muster an army, one larger than before. At the end of some years he will advance with a huge army and enormous supplies.

11:14 “In those times many will oppose 79  the king of the south. 80  Those who are violent 81  among your own people will rise up in confirmation of 82  the vision, but they will falter. 11:15 Then the king of the north will advance and will build siege mounds and capture a well-fortified city. 83  The forces of the south will not prevail, not even his finest contingents. 84  They will have no strength to prevail. 11:16 The one advancing against him will do as he pleases, and no one will be able to stand before him. He will prevail in the beautiful land, and its annihilation will be within his power. 85  11:17 His intention 86  will be to come with the strength of his entire kingdom, and he will form alliances. 87  He will give the king of the south 88  a daughter 89  in marriage in order to destroy the kingdom, but it will not turn out to his advantage. 11:18 Then he will turn his attention 90  to the coastal regions and will capture many of them. But a commander 91  will bring his shameful conduct to a halt; in addition, 92  he will make him pay for his shameful conduct. 93  11:19 He will then turn his attention to the fortresses of his own land, but he will stumble and fall, not to be found again. 11:20 There will arise after him 94  one 95  who will send out an exactor 96  of tribute to enhance the splendor of the kingdom, but after a few days he will be destroyed, 97  though not in anger or battle.

11:21 “Then there will arise in his place a despicable person 98  to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred. He will come on the scene in a time of prosperity and will seize the kingdom through deceit. 11:22 Armies 99  will be suddenly 100  swept away in defeat 101  before him; both they and a covenant leader 102  will be destroyed. 103  11:23 After 104  entering into an alliance with him, he will behave treacherously; he will ascend to power with only a small force. 105  11:24 In a time of prosperity for the most productive areas of the province he will come and accomplish what neither his fathers nor their fathers accomplished. He will distribute loot, spoils, and property to his followers, and he will devise plans against fortified cities, but not for long. 106  11:25 He will rouse his strength and enthusiasm 107  against the king of the south 108  with a large army. The king of the south will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to prevail because of the plans devised against him. 11:26 Those who share the king’s fine food will attempt to destroy him, and his army will be swept away; 109  many will be killed in battle. 11:27 These two kings, their minds 110  filled with evil intentions, will trade 111  lies with one another at the same table. But it will not succeed, for there is still an end at the appointed time. 11:28 Then the king of the north 112  will return to his own land with much property. His mind will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action, and then return to his own land. 11:29 At an appointed time he will again invade the south, but this latter visit will not turn out the way the former one did. 11:30 The ships of Kittim 113  will come against him, leaving him disheartened. 114  He will turn back and direct his indignation against the holy covenant. He will return and honor 115  those who forsake the holy covenant. 11:31 His forces 116  will rise up and profane the fortified sanctuary, 117  stopping the daily sacrifice. In its place they will set up 118  the abomination that causes desolation. 11:32 Then with smooth words he will defile 119  those who have rejected 120  the covenant. But the people who are loyal to 121  their God will act valiantly. 122  11:33 These who are wise among the people will teach the masses. 123  However, they will fall 124  by the sword and by the flame, 125  and they will be imprisoned and plundered for some time. 126  11:34 When they stumble, they will be granted some help. But many will unite with them deceitfully. 11:35 Even some of the wise will stumble, resulting in their refinement, purification, and cleansing until the time of the end, for it is still for the appointed time.

11:36 “Then the king 127  will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every deity and he will utter presumptuous things against the God of gods. He will succeed until the time of 128  wrath is completed, for what has been decreed must occur. 129  11:37 He will not respect 130  the gods of his fathers – not even the god loved by women. 131  He will not respect any god; he will elevate himself above them all. 11:38 What he will honor is a god of fortresses – a god his fathers did not acknowledge he will honor with gold, silver, valuable stones, and treasured commodities. 11:39 He will attack 132  mighty fortresses, aided by 133  a foreign deity. To those who recognize him he will grant considerable honor. He will place them in authority over many people, and he will parcel out land for a price. 134 

11:40 “At the time of the end the king of the south will attack 135  him. Then the king of the north will storm against him 136  with chariots, horsemen, and a large armada of ships. 137  He 138  will invade lands, passing through them like an overflowing river. 139  11:41 Then he will enter the beautiful land. 140  Many 141  will fall, but these will escape: 142  Edom, Moab, and the Ammonite leadership. 11:42 He will extend his power 143  against other lands; the land of Egypt will not escape. 11:43 He will have control over the hidden stores of gold and silver, as well as all the treasures of Egypt. Libyans and Ethiopians 144  will submit to him. 145  11:44 But reports will trouble him from the east and north, and he will set out in a tremendous rage to destroy and wipe out many. 11:45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas 146  toward the beautiful holy mountain. But he will come to his end, with no one to help him.

12:1 “At that time Michael,

the great prince who watches over your people, 147 

will arise. 148 

There will be a time of distress

unlike any other from the nation’s beginning 149 

up to that time.

But at that time your own people,

all those whose names are 150  found written in the book,

will escape.

12:2 Many of those who sleep

in the dusty ground will awake –

some to everlasting life,

and others to shame and everlasting abhorrence. 151 

12:3 But the wise will shine

like the brightness of the heavenly expanse.

And those bringing many to righteousness

will be like the stars forever and ever.

12:4 “But you, Daniel, close up these words and seal the book until the time of the end. Many will dash about, 152  and knowledge will increase.”

12:5 I, Daniel, watched as two others stood there, one on each side of the river. 153  12:6 One said to the man clothed in linen who was above the waters of the river, “When will the end of these wondrous events occur?” 12:7 Then I heard the man clothed in linen who was over the waters of the river as he raised both his right and left hands to the sky 154  and made an oath by the one who lives forever: “It is for a time, times, and half a time. Then, when the power of the one who shatters 155  the holy people has been exhausted, all these things will be finished.”

12:8 I heard, but I did not understand. So I said, “Sir, 156  what will happen after these things?” 12:9 He said, “Go, Daniel. For these matters are closed and sealed until the time of the end. 12:10 Many will be purified, made clean, and refined, but the wicked will go on being wicked. None of the wicked will understand, though the wise will understand. 12:11 From the time that the daily sacrifice is removed and the abomination that causes desolation is set in place, 157  there are 1,290 days. 12:12 Blessed is the one who waits and attains to the 1,335 days. 12:13 But you should go your way 158  until the end. 159  You will rest and then at the end of the days you will arise to receive 160  what you have been allotted.” 161 

1 sn This chapter begins the final unit in the book of Daniel, consisting of chapters 10-12. The traditional chapter divisions to some extent obscure the relationship of these chapters.

2 tc The LXX has “first.”

sn Cyrus’ third year would have been ca. 536 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately eighty-four years old at this time.

3 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word צָבָא (tsava’) is uncertain in this context. The word most often refers to an army or warfare. It may also mean “hard service,” and many commentators take that to be the sense here (i.e., “the service was great”). The present translation assumes the reference to be to the spiritual conflicts described, for example, in 10:1611:1.

4 tn Heb “three weeks of days.” The inclusion of “days” here and in v. 3 is perhaps intended to call attention to the fact that these weeks are very different in nature from those of chap. 9, which are “weeks of years.”

5 tn Heb “mouth.”

6 sn Anointing oneself with oil (usually olive oil) was a common OT practice due to the severity of the Middle Eastern sun (cf. Ps 121:6). It was also associated with rejoicing (e.g., Prov 27:9) and was therefore usually not practiced during a period of mourning.

7 sn The first month would be the month of Nisan, during which Passover was observed.

8 tn The Hebrew text has חִדָּקֶל (hiddaqel). “Tigris” appears here in the LXX, since it is the Greek name for this river. Elsewhere in the OT “the great river” refers to the Euphrates (e.g., Gen 15:18; Josh 1:4), leading some interpreters to think that a mistake is involved in using the expression to refer to the Tigris. But it is doubtful that the expression had such a fixed and limited usage. The Syriac, however, does render the word here by “Euphrates” (Syr. perat) in keeping with biblical usage elsewhere.

9 tn Heb “I lifted up my eyes.”

10 tn Heb “one.” The Hebrew numerical adjective is used here like an English indefinite article.

11 sn The identity of the messenger is not specifically disclosed. Presumably he is an unnamed angel. Some interpreters identify him as Gabriel, but there is no adequate reason for doing so.

12 tn The Hebrew word בַּדִּים (baddim) is a plural of extension. See GKC 396-97 §124.a, b, c and Joüon 2:500 §136.c.

13 tn The location of this place and even the exact form of the Hebrew name אוּפָז (’ufaz) are uncertain. Apparently it was a source for pure gold. (See Jer 10:9.) The Hebrew word פָז (paz, “refined gold” or “pure gold”) is more common in the OT than אוּפָז, and some scholars emend the text of Dan 10:5 to read this word. Cf. also “Ophir” (1 Kgs 9:28; Isa 13:12; Job 22:24; 28:16).

14 tn The Hebrew word translated “yellow jasper” is תַּרשִׁישׁ (tarshish); it appears to be a semiprecious stone, but its exact identity is somewhat uncertain. It may be the yellow jasper, although this is conjectural. Cf. NAB, NIV “chrysolite”; NASB, NRSV “beryl.”

15 tn Heb “torches of fire.”

16 tn Heb “The sound of his words” (cf. v. 9).

17 tn Heb “the vision.”

18 tn Heb “great trembling fell on them.”

19 tn Heb “did not remain in.”

20 tn Heb “was changed upon me for ruin.”

21 tn Heb “strength.”

22 tc Heb “I heard the sound of his words.” These words are absent in the LXX and the Syriac.

23 tn Heb “as I listened to the sound of his words.”

24 tn Heb “Behold.”

25 tc Theodotion lacks “and the palms of my hands.”

tn Heb “on my knees and the palms of my hands.”

26 tn Or “a treasured person”; KJV “a man greatly beloved”; NASB “man of high esteem.”

27 tn The Hebrew participle is often used, as here, to refer to the imminent future.

28 tn Heb “stand upon your standing.”

29 tn Heb “spoke this word.”

30 tn Heb “gave your heart.”

31 tn Heb “and behold.”

32 tc The Greek version of Theodotion reads “I left him [i.e., Michael] there,” and this is followed by a number of English translations (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT).

33 tn Heb “speaking to me according to these words.”

34 tn Heb “I placed my face toward.”

35 tn Heb “Behold.”

36 tc So most Hebrew MSS; one Hebrew MS along with the Dead Sea Scrolls and LXX read “something that looked like a man’s hand.”

37 tn Heb “my lord,” here a title of polite address. Cf. v. 19.

38 tn Heb “How is the servant of this my lord able to speak with this my lord?”

39 tn Heb “does not stand.”

40 tn Heb “He added and touched me.” The construction is a verbal hendiadys.

41 tn Heb “treasured man.”

42 tn Heb “my lord may speak.”

43 sn The question is rhetorical, intended to encourage reflection on Daniel’s part.

44 tn Heb “a book of truth.” Several English versions treat this as a title of some sort (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT), although the NAB’s rendering “the truthful book” regards “truth” as an attributive adjective, as does the present translation.

45 tn The word “princes” is supplied for clarity.

46 tn The pronoun is plural in Hebrew, suggesting that Michael is the angelic prince of Daniel and his people.

47 sn The antecedent of the pronoun “I” is the angel, not Daniel. The traditional chapter division at this point, and the presence of a chronological note in the verse similar to ones used elsewhere in the book to position Daniel’s activities in relation to imperial affairs, sometimes lead to confusion on this matter.

48 sn Perhaps these three more kings are Cambyses (ca. 530-522 B.C.), Pseudo-Smerdis (ca. 522 B.C.), and Darius I Hystaspes (ca. 522-486 B.C.).

49 sn This fourth king is Xerxes I (ca. 486-465 B.C.). The following reference to one of his chiefs apparently has in view Seleucus Nicator.

50 tn Heb “rich with great riches.”

51 tn The text is difficult. The Hebrew has here אֶת (’et), the marker of a definite direct object. As it stands, this would suggest the meaning that “he will arouse everyone, that is, the kingdom of Greece.” The context, however, seems to suggest the idea that this Persian king will arouse in hostility against Greece the constituent elements of his own empire. This requires supplying the word “against,” which is not actually present in the Hebrew text.

52 sn The powerful king mentioned here is Alexander the Great (ca. 336-323 B.C.).

53 tn Heb “and when he stands.”

54 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

55 sn The king of the south is Ptolemy I Soter (ca. 323-285 B.C.). The following reference to one of his subordinates apparently has in view Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 311-280 B.C.). Throughout the remainder of chap. 11 the expressions “king of the south” and “king of the north” repeatedly occur. It is clear, however, that these terms are being used generically to describe the Ptolemaic king (i.e., “of the south”) or the Seleucid king (i.e., “of the north”) who happens to be in power at any particular time. The specific identity of these kings can be established more or less successfully by a comparison of this chapter with the available extra-biblical records that discuss the history of the intertestamental period. In the following notes the generally accepted identifications are briefly mentioned.

56 tn Heb “princes.”

57 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the subordinate prince mentioned in the previous clause) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

58 tn Heb “be strong against.”

59 tn Heb “greater than his kingdom.”

60 sn Here they refers to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ca. 285-246 B.C.) and Antiochus II Theos (ca. 262-246 B.C.).

61 sn The daughter refers to Berenice, who was given in marriage to Antiochus II Theos.

62 tn Heb “the strength of the arm.”

63 tn Heb “stand.” So also in vv. 7, 8, 11, 13.

64 tn Heb “and his arm.” Some understand this to refer to the descendants of the king of the north.

65 tc The present translation reads יַלְדָּה (yaldah, “her child”) rather than the MT יֹלְדָהּ (yolÿdah, “the one who begot her”). Cf. Theodotion, the Syriac, and the Vulgate.

66 sn Antiochus II eventually divorced Berenice and remarried his former wife Laodice, who then poisoned her husband, had Berenice put to death, and installed her own son, Seleucus II Callinicus (ca. 246-227 B.C.), as the Seleucid king.

67 sn The reference is to the king of Egypt.

68 tn Heb “the stock of her roots.”

sn The reference to one from her family line is probably to Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes (ca. 246-221 B.C.).

69 tn Heb “will deal with them and prevail.”

70 tn The Hebrew preposition מִן (min) is used here with the verb עָמַד (’amad, “to stand”). It probably has a sense of separation (“stand away from”), although it may also be understood in an adversative sense (“stand against”).

71 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

72 sn The sons of Seleucus II Callinicus were Seleucus III Ceraunus (ca. 227-223 B.C.) and Antiochus III the Great (ca. 223-187 B.C.).

73 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the enemy of the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

74 tn Heb “and he will certainly come and overflow and cross over and return and be aroused unto a fortress.” The translation has attempted to simplify the syntax of this difficult sequence.

75 sn This king of the south refers to Ptolemy IV Philopator (ca. 221-204 B.C.).

76 tn Heb “his heart will be lifted up.” The referent (the king of the south) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

77 tn Heb “cause to fall.”

78 tn Heb “of myriads.”

79 tn Heb “stand against.”

80 sn This was Ptolemy V Epiphanes (ca. 203-181 B.C.).

81 tn Heb “sons of violence.” “Son(s) is sometimes used idiomatically in Hebrew to indicate that someone is characterized by a certain quality. So the expression “sons of violence” means that these individuals will be characterized by violent deeds.

82 tn Heb “to cause to stand.”

83 sn This well-fortified city is apparently Sidon. Its capture from the Ptolemies by Antiochus the Great was a strategic victory for the Seleucid kingdom.

84 tn Or “choice troops” (BDB 104 s.v. מִבְחָר), or “elite troops” (HALOT 542 s.v. מִבְחָר).

85 tn Heb “hand.”

86 tn Heb “and he will set his face.” Cf. vv. 18, 19.

87 tc The present translation reads מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim, “alliances”) for the MT וִישָׁרִים (viysharim, “uprightness”).

88 tn Heb “him”; the referent (the king of the south) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

89 tn Heb “the daughter of the women.”

sn The daughter refers to Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, who was given in marriage to Ptolemy V.

90 tn Heb “his face.” See v. 19 as well.

91 sn The commander is probably the Roman commander, Lucius Cornelius Scipio.

92 tn The Hebrew here is difficult in that the negative בִּלְתִּי (biltiy, “not”) is used in an unusual way. The sense is not entirely clear.

93 tn Heb “his shameful conduct he will return to him.”

94 tn Heb “on his place.”

95 sn The one who will send out an exactor of tribute was Seleucus IV Philopator (ca. 187-176 B.C.).

96 sn Perhaps this exactor of tribute was Heliodorus (cf. 2 Maccabees 3).

97 tn Heb “broken” or “shattered.”

98 sn This despicable person to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred is Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 175-164 B.C.).

99 tn Heb “arms.”

100 tc The present translation reads הִשָּׁטֹף (hishatof), Niphal infinitive absolute of שָׁטַף (shataf, “to overflow”), for the MT הַשֶּׁטֶף (hashetef, “flood”).

101 tn The words “in defeat” are added in the translation for clarification.

102 tn Heb “a prince of the covenant.”

103 tn Heb “broken” or “shattered.”

104 tn The preposition מִן (min) is probably temporal here (so BDB 583 s.v. 7.c; cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV), although it could also be understood here as indicating means (so J. Goldingay, Daniel [WBC], 279, n. 23a; cf. TEV, NLT).

105 tn Heb “nation.”

106 tn Heb “and unto a time.”

107 tn Heb “heart.”

108 sn This king of the south was Ptolemy Philometer (ca. 181-145 B.C.).

109 tc The present translation reads יִשָׁטֵף (yishatef, passive) rather than the MT יִשְׁטוֹף (yishtof, active).

110 tn Heb “heart.” So also in v. 28.

111 tn Heb “speak.”

112 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

113 sn The name Kittim has various designations in extra-biblical literature. It can refer to a location on the island of Cyprus, or more generally to the island itself, or it can be an inclusive term to refer to parts of the Mediterranean world that lay west of the Middle East (e.g., Rome). For ships of Kittim the Greek OT (LXX) has “Romans,” an interpretation followed by a few English versions (e.g., TEV). A number of times in the Dead Sea Scrolls the word is used in reference to the Romans. Other English versions are more generic: “[ships] of the western coastlands” (NIV, NLT); “from the west” (NCV, CEV).

114 sn This is apparently a reference to the Roman forces, led by Gaius Popilius Laenas, which confronted Antiochus when he came to Egypt and demanded that he withdraw or face the wrath of Rome. Antiochus wisely withdrew from Egypt, albeit in a state of bitter frustration.

115 tn Heb “show regard for.”

116 tn Heb “arms.”

117 tn Heb “the sanctuary, the fortress.”

118 tn Heb “will give.”

119 tn Or “corrupt.”

120 tn Heb “acted wickedly toward.”

121 tn Heb “know.” The term “know” sometimes means “to recognize.” In relational contexts it can have the connotation “recognize the authority of, be loyal to,” as it does here.

122 sn This is an allusion to the Maccabean revolt, which struggled to bring about Jewish independence in the second century B.C.

123 tn Heb “the many.”

124 tn Heb “stumble.”

125 tn Or “by burning.”

126 tn Heb “days.”

127 sn The identity of this king is problematic. If vv. 36-45 continue the description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the account must be viewed as erroneous, since the details do not match what is known of Antiochus’ latter days. Most modern scholars take this view, concluding that this section was written just shortly before the death of Antiochus and that the writer erred on several key points as he tried to predict what would follow the events of his own day. Conservative scholars, however, usually understand the reference to shift at this point to an eschatological figure, viz., the Antichrist. The chronological gap that this would presuppose to be in the narrative is not necessarily a problem, since by all accounts there are many chronological gaps throughout the chapter, as the historical figures intended by such expressions as “king of the north” and “king of the south” repeatedly shift.

128 tn The words “the time of” are added in the translation for clarification.

129 tn Heb “has been done.” The Hebrew verb used here is the perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of fulfillment.

130 tn Heb “consider.”

131 tn Heb “[the one] desired by women.” The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

132 tn Heb “act against.”

133 tn Heb “with.”

134 tn Or perhaps “for a reward.”

135 tn Heb “engage in thrusting.”

136 tn The referent of the pronoun is most likely the king of the south, in which case the text describes the king of the north countering the attack of the king of the south.

137 tn Heb “many ships.”

138 tn This most likely refers to the king of the north who, in response to the aggression of the king of the south, launches an invasion of the southern regions.

139 tn Heb “and will overflow and pass over.”

140 sn The beautiful land is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel.

141 tn This can be understood as “many people” (cf. NRSV) or “many countries” (cf. NASB, NIV, NLT).

142 tn Heb “be delivered from his hand.”

143 tn Heb “hand.”

144 tn Or “Nubians” (NIV, NCV); Heb “Cushites.”

145 tn Heb “Libyans and Cushites [will be] at his footsteps.”

146 sn Presumably seas refers to the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea.

147 tn Heb “stands over the sons of your people.”

148 tn Heb “will stand up.”

149 tn Or “from the beginning of a nation.”

150 tn The words “whose names are” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.

151 sn This verse is the only undisputed reference to a literal resurrection found in the Hebrew Bible.

152 tn Or “will run back and forth”; KJV “shall run to and fro”; NIV “will go here and there”; CEV “will go everywhere.”

sn Many will dash about is probably an allusion to Amos 8:12.

153 tn Heb “one to this edge of the river and one to that edge of the river.”

154 tn Or “to the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

155 tc The present translation reads יַד־נֹפֵץ (yad-nofets, “hand of one who shatters”) rather than the MT נַפֵּץ־יַד (nappets-yad, “to shatter the hand”).

156 tn Heb “my lord,” a title of polite address.

157 tn Heb “to give.”

158 tn The words “your way” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

159 tc The LXX lacks “until the end.”

160 tn The word “receive” is added in the translation for clarification.

161 sn The deuterocanonical writings known as the Story of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon appear respectively as chapters 13 and 14 of the book of Daniel in the Greek version of this book. Although these writings are not part of the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, they were popular among certain early communities who valued traditions about the life of Daniel.

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