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Matthew 27:29-30

27:29 and after braiding 1  a crown of thorns, 2  they put it on his head. They 3  put a staff 4  in his right hand, and kneeling down before him, they mocked him: 5  “Hail, king of the Jews!” 6  27:30 They 7  spat on him and took the staff 8  and struck him repeatedly 9  on the head.

Matthew 27:34

27:34 and offered Jesus 10  wine mixed with gall to drink. 11  But after tasting it, he would not drink it.

Matthew 27:48

27:48 Immediately 12  one of them ran and got a sponge, filled it with sour wine, 13  put it on a stick, 14  and gave it to him to drink.

1 tn Or “weaving.”

2 sn The crown may have been made from palm spines or some other thorny plant common in Israel. In placing the crown of thorns on his head, the soldiers were unwittingly symbolizing God’s curse on humanity (cf. Gen 3:18) being placed on Jesus. Their purpose would have been to mock Jesus’ claim to be a king; the crown of thorns would have represented the “radiant corona” portrayed on the heads of rulers on coins and other artifacts in the 1st century.

3 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

4 tn Or “a reed.” The Greek term can mean either “staff” or “reed.” See BDAG 502 s.v. κάλαμος 2.

5 tn Grk “they mocked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.

6 tn Or “Long live the King of the Jews!”

sn The statement Hail, King of the Jews! is a mockery patterned after the Romans’ cry of Ave, Caesar (“Hail, Caesar!”).

7 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

8 tn Or “the reed.”

9 tn The verb here has been translated as an iterative imperfect.

10 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

11 sn It is difficult to say for certain who gave Jesus this drink of wine mixed with gall (e.g., the executioner, or perhaps women from Jerusalem). In any case, whoever gave it to him most likely did so in order to relieve his pain, but Jesus was unwilling to take it.

12 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.

13 sn Sour wine refers to cheap wine that was called in Latin posca, a cheap vinegar wine diluted heavily with water. It was the drink of slaves and soldiers, and was probably there for the soldiers who had performed the crucifixion.

14 tn Grk “a reed.”

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