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Acts 2:23-24

Context
2:23 this man, who was handed over by the predetermined plan and foreknowledge of God, you executed 1  by nailing him to a cross at the hands of Gentiles. 2  2:24 But God raised him up, 3  having released 4  him from the pains 5  of death, because it was not possible for him to be held in its power. 6 

Acts 2:32-36

Context
2:32 This Jesus God raised up, and we are all witnesses of it. 7  2:33 So then, exalted 8  to the right hand 9  of God, and having received 10  the promise of the Holy Spirit 11  from the Father, he has poured out 12  what you both see and hear. 2:34 For David did not ascend into heaven, but he himself says,

The Lord said to my lord,

Sit 13  at my right hand

2:35 until I make your enemies a footstool 14  for your feet.”’ 15 

2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know beyond a doubt 16  that God has made this Jesus whom you crucified 17  both Lord 18  and Christ.” 19 

1 tn Or “you killed.”

2 tn Grk “at the hands of lawless men.” At this point the term ἄνομος (anomo") refers to non-Jews who live outside the Jewish (Mosaic) law, rather than people who broke any or all laws including secular laws. Specifically it is a reference to the Roman soldiers who carried out Jesus’ crucifixion.

3 tn Grk “Whom God raised up.”

4 tn Or “having freed.”

5 sn The term translated pains is frequently used to describe pains associated with giving birth (see Rev 12:2). So there is irony here in the mixed metaphor.

6 tn Or “for him to be held by it” (in either case, “it” refers to death’s power).

7 tn Or “of him”; Grk “of which [or whom] we are all witnesses” (Acts 1:8).

8 tn The aorist participle ὑψωθείς (Juywqei") could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…” In the translation the more neutral “exalted” (a shorter form of “having been exalted”) was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

9 sn The expression the right hand of God represents supreme power and authority. Its use here sets up the quotation of Ps 110:1 in v. 34.

10 tn The aorist participle λαβών (labwn) could be taken temporally: “So then, after he was exalted…and received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit.” In the translation the more neutral “having received” was used to preserve the ambiguity of the original Greek.

11 tn Here the genitive τοῦ πνεύματος (tou pneumato") is a genitive of apposition; the promise consists of the Holy Spirit.

12 sn The use of the verb poured out looks back to 2:17-18, where the same verb occurs twice.

13 sn Sit at my right hand. The word “sit” alludes back to the promise of “seating one on his throne” in v. 30.

14 sn The metaphor make your enemies a footstool portrays the complete subjugation of the enemies.

15 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1, one of the most often-cited OT passages in the NT, pointing to the exaltation of Jesus.

16 tn Or “know for certain.” This term is in an emphatic position in the clause.

17 tn Grk “has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified.” The clause has been simplified in the translation by replacing the pronoun “him” with the explanatory clause “this Jesus whom you crucified” which comes at the end of the sentence.

18 sn Lord. This looks back to the quotation of Ps 110:1 and the mention of “calling on the Lord” in 2:21. Peter’s point is that the Lord on whom one calls for salvation is Jesus, because he is the one mediating God’s blessing of the Spirit as a sign of the presence of salvation and the last days.

19 tn Or “and Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”

sn See the note on Christ in 2:31.



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