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HEBREW: 8413 ledt Tid`al
NAVE: Tidal
EBD: Tidal
Tiberias | Tiberias, The Sea Of | Tiberius Caesar | Tibhath | Tibni | Tidal | Tidings, Glad | Tiglath-pileser | Tiglath-Pileser I. | Tiglath-Pileser III. | Tiglathpileser


In Bible versions:

the king of Goiim defeated by Abraham

that breaks the yoke; knowledge of elevation


Strongs #08413: ledt Tid`al

Tidal = "great son"

1) chief of various nomadic tribes and an ally of Chedorlaomer

8413 Tid`al tid-awl'

perhaps from 1763; fearfulness; Tidal, a Canaanite:-Tidal.
see HEBREW for 01763

Tidal [EBD]

(in the LXX. called "Thorgal"), styled the "king of nations" (Gen.14:1-9). Mentioned as Tudkhula on Arioch's brick (see facing page 139). Goyyim, translated "nations," is the country called Gutium, east of Tigris and north of Elam.

Tidal [NAVE]

TIDAL, king of nations, Gen. 14:1, 9.


(great son) is mentioned only in (Genesis 14:1,9) (B.C. about 1900.) He is called "king of nations," from which we may conclude that he was a chief over various nomadic tribes who inhabited different portions of Mesopotamia at different seasons of the year, as do the Arabs at the present day.


TIDAL - ti'-dal (tidh`al; Thalga, Thalgal, Codex E, Thargal):

1. The Name and Its Forms:

Tidal is mentioned in Gen 14:1,9 in the account of the expedition of Chedorlaomer of Elam, with his allies, Amraphel of Shinar (Babylonia), Arioch of Ellasar, and Tidal, who is called "king of nations" (the King James Version) (goyim, Targum `ammin). Whether the last-named took part in this expedition as one of Chedorlaomer's vassals or not is unknown. The Greek form possibly prints to an earlier pronunciation Tadgal.

2. Its Babylonian Equivalent:

The only name in the cuneiform inscriptions resembling Tidal is Tudhula, or, as it was probably later pronounced, Tudhul. This, from its form, might be Sumerian, meaning "evil progeny," or the like. In addition to the improbability of a name with such a signification, however, his title "king of goyim," or "nations," in Gen 14:1, presupposes a ruler of another race.

3. The Babylonian Tudhula and His Time:

The inscription in which the name Tudhula occurs is one of three of late date (4th to 3rd century BC), all referring, apparently, to the same historical period. The text in question (Sp. iii.2) is of unbaked clay, and is broken and defaced. After referring to a ruler who did not maintain the temples, Durmah-ilani son of Eri-Aku (Arioch) is referred to, appatently as one who ravaged the country, and "waters (came) over Babylon and E-sagila," its great temple. The words which follow suggest that Durmah-ilani was slain by his son, after which a new invader appeared, who would seem to have been Tudhula, son of Gazza(ni?). He likewise ravaged the land, and floods again invaded Babylon and E-sagila. To all appearance he met with the fate which overtook Durmah-ilani--death at the hands of his son, who "smote his head." Then came the Elamite, apparently Chedorlaomer, who was likewise slain. This inscription, therefore, gave historical quotations of the fate which overtook those who were regarded as enemas of the gods.

4. Doubts as to His Identity:

Though we have here the long-sought name of Tidal, it may legitimately be doubted whether this personage was the ruler of that name mentioned in Gen 14. The "nations" (goyim) which he ruled are regarded by Sayce as having been wandering hordes (umman manda), probably Medes. On the other hand, the occurrence of the name Dudhalia, son of Hattusil (Khetasir), contemporary of Rameses II, in the inscriptions found at Hattu, the capital of the Hittites, suggests that that extensive confederation may have been the "nations" referred to. In other words, Tidal or Tudhula (for Dudhalia) was an earlier ruler bearing the same name as Hattusil's son.

5. Probably a Hittite:

If he be, as is possible, the same personage as is mentioned in Gen 14, he must have fought against Arioch's son, conquered his domains and been killed, in his turn, by either the Biblical Chedorlaomer or another Elamite ruler beaming the same or a similar name. See AMRAPHEL; ARIOCH; CHEDORLAOMER; ERI-AKU; NATIONS.

Also see definition of "Tidal" in Word Study

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