28:11 You are to engrave the two stones with the names of the sons of Israel with the work of an engraver in stone, like the engravings of a seal; 1 you are to have them set 2 in gold filigree 3 settings. 28:12 You are to put the two stones on the shoulders of the ephod, stones of memorial for the sons of Israel, and Aaron will bear their names before the Lord on his two shoulders for a memorial. 4
28:21 The stones are to be for the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, according to the number of 5 their names. Each name according to the twelve tribes is to be like 6 the engravings of a seal.
1 sn Expert stone or gem engravers were used to engrave designs and names in identification seals of various sizes. It was work that skilled artisans did.
2 tn Or “you will mount them” (NRSV similar).
3 tn Or “rosettes,” shield-like frames for the stones. The Hebrew word means “to plait, checker.”
4 sn This was to be a perpetual reminder that the priest ministers on behalf of the twelve tribes of Israel. Their names would always be borne by the priests.
5 tn For clarity the words “the number of” have been supplied.
6 tn The phrase translated “the engravings of a seal” is an adverbial accusative of manner here.