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(1.00)(Sos 4:13)

sn The noun <span class="hebrew">פַּרְדֵּסspan> (<span class="translit">pardesspan>, “garden, parkland, forest”) is a foreign loanword that occurs only 3 times in the Hebrew Bible (<data ref="Bible:So 4:13">Song 4:13data>; <data ref="Bible:Ec 2:5">Eccl 2:5data>; <data ref="Bible:Ne 2:8">Neh 2:8data>). The original Old Persian (Avestan) term <span class="translit">pairidaezaspan> designated the enclosed parks and pleasure-grounds which were the exclusive domain of the Persian kings and nobility in the Achaemenid period (<i>HALOTi> 963 s.v. <span class="hebrew">פַּרְדֵּסspan>; LSJ <br>1308). The Babylonian term <i>pardesui> meansmarvelous garden,” in reference to the enclosed parks of the kings (<i>AHwi> 2:833. a and 3:1582. a). The term passed into Greek as <span class="greek">παραδείσοςspan> (<span class="translit">paradeisosspan>, “enclosed park, pleasure-ground”), referring to the enclosed parks and gardens of the Persian kings (LSJ 1308). The Greek term was transliterated into English asparadise.”

(1.00)(Ecc 2:5)

tn The noun <span class="hebrew">פַּרְדֵּסspan> (<span class="translit">pardesspan>, “garden, parkland, forest”) is a foreign loanword that occurs only 3 times in biblical Hebrew (<data ref="Bible:So 4:13">Song 4:13data>; <data ref="Bible:Ec 2:5">Eccl 2:5data>; <data ref="Bible:Ne 2:8">Neh 2:8data>). The original Old Persian term <span class="translit">pairidaezaspan> designated the enclosed parks and pleasure-grounds that were the exclusive domain of the Persian kings and nobility (<i>HALOTi> 963 s.v. <span class="hebrew">פַּרְדֵּסspan>; LSJ 1308 s.v <span class="greek">παράδεισοςspan>). The related Babylonian term <span class="translit">pardesuspan> “marvelous gardenreferred to the enclosed parks of the kings (<i>AHwi> 2:833 and 3:1582). The term passed into Greek as <span class="greek">παράδεισοςspan> (<span class="translit">paradeisosspan>, “enclosed park, pleasure-ground”), referring to the enclosed parks and gardens of the Persian kings (LSJ 1308). The Greek term has been transliterated into English asparadise.”

(0.40)(Sos 4:15)

tn <i>Hebi> “a fountain of gardensora headwaters for gardens.” The term <span class="hebrew">מַעְיַןspan> (<span class="translit">maʿyanspan>, “fountain”) denotessource, headwatersas the place of origin of streams (<i>HALOTi> 612 s.v. <span class="hebrew">מַעְיַןspan>). The term does not refer to a water fountain such as commonly found in modern cultivated gardens or parks; rather, it refers to the headwaters of streams and rivers, such as the headwaters of the Jordan. The genitive construct <span class="hebrew">מַעְיַן גַּנִּיםspan> (<span class="translit">maʿyanspan> <span class="translit">gannimspan>, “a fountain of gardens”) is an unusual expression that has been treated in various ways: (1) “a garden fountain,” that is, a fountain located in a garden (<i>HALOTi> 198 s.v. <span class="hebrew">גַּןspan>); (2) “a fountain of gardens,” that is, the headwaters of many spring-watered gardens. The latter is preferred. In <data ref="Bible:So 4:12-14">Song 4:12-14data> the bride is figuratively described as a garden with exotic plants; however, in <data ref="Bible:Song 4:15">4:15data> the metaphor shifts to the source of the water for the garden: <span class="hebrew">מַעְיַןspan> (“headwaters”) and <span class="hebrew">בְּאֵרspan> (<span class="translit">b<sup>esuperspan>, “well”) of fresh water flowing down from Lebanon.

(0.30)(Exo 3:14)

tn The verb form used here is <span class="hebrew">אֶהְיֶהspan> (<span class="translit">ʾehyehspan>), the Qal imperfect, first person common singular, of the verb <span class="hebrew">הָיָהspan> (<span class="translit">hayahspan>, “to be”). It forms an excellent paronomasia with the name. So when God used the verb to express his name, he used this form saying, “<span class="smcaps">I amspan>.” When his people refer to him as Yahweh, which is the third person masculine singular form of the same verb, they sayhe is.” Some commentators argue for a future tense translation, “I will be who I will be,” because the verb has an active quality about it, and the Israelites lived in the light of the promises for the future. They argue that “<span class="smcaps">I amspan>” would be of little help to the Israelites in bondage. But a translation ofI will bedoes not effectively do much more except restrict it to the future. The idea of the verb would certainly indicate that God is not bound by time, and while he is present (“<span class="smcaps">I amspan>”) he will always be present, even in the future, and so “<span class="smcaps">I amspan>” would embrace that as well (see also <data ref="Bible:Ru 2:13">Ruth 2:13data>; <data ref="Bible:Ps 50:21">Ps 50:21data>; <data ref="Bible:Ho 1:9">Hos 1:9data>). The Greek translation of the OT used a participle to capture the idea, and several times in the Gospels Jesus used the powerfulI amwith this significance (e.g., <data ref="Bible:Jn 8:58">John 8:58data>). The point is that Yahweh is sovereignly independent of all creation and that his presence guarantees the fulfillment of the covenant (cf. <data ref="Bible:Is 41:4">Isa 41:4data>; <data ref="Bible:Is 42:6">42:6data>, <data ref="Bible:Is 42:8">8data>; <data ref="Bible:Is 43:10-11">43:10-11data>; <data ref="Bible:Is 44:6">44:6data>; <data ref="Bible:Is 45:5-7">45:5-7data>). Others argue for a causative Hiphil translation ofI will cause to be,” but nowhere in the Bible does this verb appear in Hiphil or Piel. A good summary of the views can be found in G. H. Parke-Taylor, <i>Yahwehi>, <i>the Divine Name in the Biblei>. See among the many articles: B. Beitzel, “<data ref="Bible:Ex 3:14">Exodus 3:14data> and the Divine Name: A Case of Biblical Paronomasia,” <i>TJi> 1 (1980): 5-20; C. D. Isbell, “The Divine Name <span class="translit">ehyehspan> as a Symbol of Presence in Israelite Tradition,” <i>HARi> 2 (1978): 101-18; J. G. Janzen, “Whats in a Name? Yahweh in <data ref="Bible:Ex 3">Exodus 3data> and the Wider Biblical Context,” <i>Inti> 33 (1979): 227-39; J. R. Lundbom, “Gods Use of the <i>Idem per Idemi> to Terminate Debate,” <i>HTRi> 71 (1978): 193-201; A. R. Millard, “<span class="translit">Ywspan> and <span class="translit">Yhwspan> Names,” <i>VTi> 30 (1980): 208-12; and R. Youngblood, “A New Occurrence of the Divine NameI AM,’” <i>JETSi> 15 (1972): 144-52.