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Revelation 4:6

4:6 and in front of the throne was something like a sea of glass, like crystal. 1 

In 2  the middle of the throne 3  and around the throne were four living creatures 4  full of eyes in front and in back.

Revelation 15:2


15:2 Then 5  I saw something like a sea of glass 6  mixed with fire, and those who had conquered 7  the beast and his image and the number of his name. They were standing 8  by 9  the sea of glass, holding harps given to them by God. 10 

1 tn This could refer to rock crystal, but it is possible this refers to ice (an older meaning). See BDAG 571 s.v. κρύσταλλος.

2 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.

3 tn Perhaps, “in the middle of the throne area” (see L&N 83.10).

4 tn On the meaning of ζῴον (zwon) BDAG 431 s.v. 2 states, “Of the four peculiar beings at God’s throne, whose description Rv 4:6-9 reminds one of the ζῷα in Ezk 1:5ff, the cherubim. S. also Rv 5:6, 8, 11, 14; 6:1, 3, 5-7; 7:11; 14:3; 15:7; 19:4.”

5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.

6 sn See Rev 4:6 where the sea of glass was mentioned previously.

7 tn Or “had been victorious over”; traditionally, “had overcome.”

8 tn Grk “of his name, standing.” A new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the words “They were.”

9 tn Or “on.” The preposition ἐπί (epi) with the accusative case could mean “on, at, by, near”; given the nature of this scene appearing in a vision, it is difficult to know precisely which the author of Revelation intended. See BDAG 363 s.v. ἐπί 1.c.γ, “At, by, near someone or someth.

10 tn Grk “harps of God.” The phrase τοῦ θεοῦ (tou qeou) has been translated as a genitive of agency.

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