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Leviticus 4:1--5:13

Context
Sin Offering Regulations

4:1 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 1  4:2 “Tell the Israelites, ‘When a person sins by straying unintentionally 2  from any of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated, and violates any 3  one of them 4 

For the Priest

4:3 “‘If the high priest 5  sins so that the people are guilty, 6  on account of the sin he has committed he must present a flawless young bull to the Lord 7  for a sin offering. 8  4:4 He must bring the bull to the entrance of the Meeting Tent before the Lord, lay his hand on the head of the bull, and slaughter the bull before the Lord. 4:5 Then that high priest must take some of the blood 9  of the bull and bring it to the Meeting Tent. 4:6 The priest must dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle 10  some of it 11  seven times before the Lord toward 12  the front of the veil-canopy 13  of the sanctuary. 4:7 The priest must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of fragrant incense that is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the bull’s blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.

4:8 “‘Then he must take up all the fat from the sin offering bull: 14  the fat covering the entrails 15  and all the fat surrounding the entrails, 16  4:9 the two kidneys with the fat on their sinews, and the protruding lobe on the liver (which he is to remove along with the kidneys) 17  4:10 – just as it is taken from the ox of the peace offering sacrifice 18  – and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar of burnt offering. 4:11 But the hide of the bull, all its flesh along with its head and its legs, its entrails, and its dung – 4:12 all the rest of the bull 19  – he must bring outside the camp 20  to a ceremonially clean place, 21  to the fatty ash pile, 22  and he must burn 23  it on a wood fire; it must be burned on the fatty ash pile.

For the Whole Congregation

4:13 “‘If the whole congregation of Israel strays unintentionally 24  and the matter is not noticed by 25  the assembly, and they violate one of the Lord’s commandments, which must not be violated, 26  so they become guilty, 4:14 the assembly must present a young bull for a sin offering when the sin they have committed 27  becomes known. They must bring it before the Meeting Tent, 4:15 the elders of the congregation must lay their hands on the head of the bull before the Lord, and someone must slaughter 28  the bull before the Lord. 4:16 Then the high priest 29  must bring some of the blood of the bull to the Meeting Tent, 4:17 and that priest must dip his finger in the blood 30  and sprinkle 31  some of the blood seven times 32  before the Lord toward 33  the front of the veil-canopy. 34  4:18 He must put some of the blood on the horns of the altar 35  which is before the Lord in the Meeting Tent, and all the rest of the blood he must pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering that is at the entrance of the Meeting Tent.

4:19 “‘Then the priest 36  must take all its fat 37  and offer the fat 38  up in smoke on the altar. 4:20 He must do with the rest of the bull just as he did with the bull of the sin offering; this is what he must do with it. 39  So the priest will make atonement 40  on their behalf and they will be forgiven. 41  4:21 He 42  must bring the rest of the bull outside the camp 43  and burn it just as he burned the first bull – it is the sin offering of the assembly.

For the Leader

4:22 “‘Whenever 44  a leader, by straying unintentionally, 45  sins and violates one of the commandments of the Lord his God which must not be violated, 46  and he pleads guilty, 4:23 or his sin that he committed 47  is made known to him, 48  he must bring a flawless male goat as his offering. 49  4:24 He must lay his hand on the head of the male goat and slaughter 50  it in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before the Lord – it is a sin offering. 4:25 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out the rest of its blood at the base of the altar of burnt offering. 4:26 Then the priest 51  must offer all of its fat up in smoke on the altar like the fat of the peace offering sacrifice. So the priest will make atonement 52  on his behalf for 53  his sin and he will be forgiven. 54 

For the Common Person

4:27 “‘If an ordinary individual 55  sins by straying unintentionally 56  when he violates one of the Lord’s commandments which must not be violated, 57  and he pleads guilty 4:28 or his sin that he committed 58  is made known to him, 59  he must bring a flawless female goat 60  as his offering for the sin 61  that he committed. 4:29 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter 62  the sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 4:30 Then the priest must take some of its blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 4:31 Then he must remove all of its fat (just as fat was removed from the peace offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer it up in smoke on the altar for a soothing aroma to the Lord. So the priest will make atonement 63  on his behalf and he will be forgiven. 64 

4:32 “‘But if he brings a sheep as his offering, for a sin offering, he must bring a flawless female. 4:33 He must lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter it for a sin offering in the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered. 4:34 Then the priest must take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering, and he must pour out all the rest of its blood at the base of the altar. 4:35 Then the one who brought the offering 65  must remove all its fat (just as the fat of the sheep is removed from the peace offering sacrifice) and the priest must offer them up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord. So the priest will make atonement 66  on his behalf for his sin which he has committed and he will be forgiven. 67 

Additional Sin Offering Regulations

5:1 “‘When a person sins 68  in that he hears a public curse against one who fails to testify 69  and he is a witness (he either saw or knew what had happened 70 ) and he does not make it known, 71  then he will bear his punishment for iniquity. 72  5:2 Or when there is 73  a person who touches anything ceremonially 74  unclean, whether the carcass of an unclean wild animal, or the carcass of an unclean domesticated animal, or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even if he did not realize it, 75  but he himself has become unclean and is guilty; 76  5:3 or when he touches human uncleanness with regard to anything by which he can become unclean, 77  even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty; 5:4 or when a person swears an oath, speaking thoughtlessly 78  with his lips, whether to do evil or to do good, with regard to anything which the individual might speak thoughtlessly in an oath, even if he did not realize it, but he himself has later come to know it and is guilty with regard to one of these oaths 79 5:5 when an individual becomes guilty with regard to one of these things 80  he must confess how he has sinned, 81  5:6 and he must bring his penalty for guilt 82  to the Lord for his sin that he has committed, a female from the flock, whether a female sheep or a female goat, for a sin offering. So the priest will make atonement 83  on his behalf for 84  his sin.

5:7 “‘If he cannot afford an animal from the flock, 85  he must bring his penalty for guilt for his sin that he has committed, 86  two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 87  to the Lord, one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering. 5:8 He must bring them to the priest and present first the one that is for a sin offering. The priest 88  must pinch 89  its head at the nape of its neck, but must not sever the head from the body. 90  5:9 Then he must sprinkle 91  some of the blood of the sin offering on the wall of the altar, and the remainder of the blood 92  must be squeezed out at the base of the altar – it is a sin offering. 5:10 The second bird 93  he must make a burnt offering according to the standard regulation. 94  So the priest will make atonement 95  on behalf of this person for 96  his sin which he has committed, and he will be forgiven. 97 

5:11 “‘If he cannot afford 98  two turtledoves or two young pigeons, 99  he must bring as his offering for his sin which he has committed 100  a tenth of an ephah 101  of choice wheat flour 102  for a sin offering. He must not place olive oil on it and he must not put frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. 5:12 He must bring it to the priest and the priest must scoop out from it a handful as its memorial portion 103  and offer it up in smoke on the altar on top of the other gifts of the Lord – it is a sin offering. 5:13 So the priest will make atonement 104  on his behalf for his sin which he has committed by doing one of these things, 105  and he will be forgiven. 106  The remainder of the offering 107  will belong to the priest like the grain offering.’” 108 

Leviticus 6:24-30

Context
The Sin Offering

6:24 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 109  6:25 “Tell Aaron and his sons, ‘This is the law of the sin offering. In the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered the sin offering must be slaughtered before the Lord. It is most holy. 110  6:26 The priest who offers it for sin is to eat it. It must be eaten in a holy place, in the court of the Meeting Tent. 6:27 Anyone who touches its meat must be holy, and whoever spatters some of its blood on a garment, 111  you must wash 112  whatever he spatters it on in a holy place. 6:28 Any clay vessel it is boiled in must be broken, and if it was boiled in a bronze vessel, then that vessel 113  must be rubbed out and rinsed in water. 6:29 Any male among the priests may eat it. It is most holy. 114  6:30 But any sin offering from which some of its blood is brought into the Meeting Tent to make atonement in the sanctuary must not be eaten. It must be burned up in the fire. 115 

1 sn The quotation introduced here extends from Lev 4:2 through 5:13, and encompasses all the sin offering regulations. Compare the notes on Lev 1:1 above, and 5:14 and 6:1 [5:20 HT] below.

2 tn Heb “And a person, when he sins in straying.” The English translation of “by straying” (בִּשְׁגָגָה [bishgagah] literally, “in going astray; in making an error”) varies greatly, but almost all suggest that this term refers to sins that were committed by mistake or done not knowing that the particular act was sinful (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:228-29). See, e.g., LXX “involuntarily”; Tg. Onq. “by neglect”; KJV “through ignorance”; ASV, RSV, NJPS “unwittingly”; NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT “unintentionally”; NAB, NEB “inadvertently”; NCV “by accident.” However, we know from Num 15:27-31 that committing a sin “by straying” is the opposite of committing a sin “defiantly” (i.e., בְּיַד רָמָה [bÿyad ramah] “with a raised hand,” v. 30). In the latter case the person, as it were, raises his fist in presumptuous defiance against the Lord. Thus, he “blasphemes” the Lord and has “despised” his word, for which he should be “cut off from among his people” (Num 15:30-31). One could not bring an offering for such a sin. The expression here in Lev 4:2 combines “by straying” with the preposition “from” which fits naturally with “straying” (i.e., “straying from” the Lord’s commandments). For sins committed “by straying” from the commandments (Lev 4 throughout) or other types of transgressions (Lev 5:1-6) there was indeed forgiveness available through the sin offering. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:94-95.

3 tn This is an emphatic use of the preposition מִן (min; see R. J. Williams, Hebrew Syntax, 56-57, §325).

4 tn The “when” clause (כִּי, ki) breaks off here before its resolution, thus creating an open-ended introduction to the following subsections, which are introduced by “if” (אִם [’im] vv. 3, 13, 27, 32). Also, the last part of the verse reads literally, “which must not be done and does from one from them.”

5 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

6 tn Heb “to the guilt of the people”; NRSV “thus bringing guilt on the people.”

7 tn Heb “and he shall offer on his sin which he sinned, a bull, a son of the herd, flawless.”

8 sn The word for “sin offering” (sometimes translated “purification offering”) is the same as the word for “sin” earlier in the verse. One can tell which rendering is intended only by the context. The primary purpose of the “sin offering” (חַטָּאת, khattat) was to “purge” (כִּפֶּר, kipper, “to make atonement,” see 4:20, 26, 31, 35, and the notes on Lev 1:4 and esp. Lev 16:20, 33) the sanctuary or its furniture in order to cleanse it from any impurities and/or (re)consecrate it for holy purposes (see, e.g., Lev 8:15; 16:19). By making this atonement the impurities of the person or community were cleansed and the people became clean. See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:93-103.

9 tn Heb “from the blood of the bull” (and similarly throughout this chapter).

10 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vÿhizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter.” Contrast the different Hebrew verb meaning “splash” in Lev 1:5 (זָרָק, zaraq).

11 tn Heb “of the blood.” The relative pronoun (“it”) has been used in the translation here for stylistic reasons.

12 tn The particle here translated “toward” usually serves as a direct object indicator or a preposition meaning “with.” With the verb of motion it probably means “toward,” “in the direction of” (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:234; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 60); cf. NAB, CEV.

13 tn The Hebrew term פָּרֹכֶת (parokhet) is usually translated “veil” (e.g., ASV, NAB, NASB) or “curtain” (e.g., NIV, NRSV), but it seems to have stretched not only in front of but also over the top of the ark of the covenant which stood behind and under it inside the most holy place (see R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 3:687-89).

14 tn Heb “all the fat of the bull of the sin offering he shall take up from it.”

15 tc The MT has here the preposition עַל (’al, “on, upon” [i.e., “which covers on the entrails,” as awkward in Hebrew as it is in English]), but Smr, LXX, Syriac, and Targums read אֶת (’et), which is what would be expected (i.e., “which covers the entrails”; cf. Lev 3:3, 9, 14). It may have been mistakenly inserted here under the influence of “on (עַל) the entrails” at the end of the verse.

16 tn Heb “and all the fat on the entrails.” The fat layer that covers the entrails as a whole (i.e., “that covers the entrails”) is different from the fat that surrounds and adheres to the various organs (“on the entrails,” i.e., surrounding them; J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:205-7).

17 tn Heb “and the protruding lobe on the liver on the kidneys he shall remove it.”

18 tn Heb “taken up from”; KJV, ASV “taken off from”; NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “removed.” See the notes on Lev 3:3-4 above (cf. also 3:9-10, 14-15).

19 tn All of v. 11 is a so-called casus pendens (also known as an extraposition or a nominative absolute), which means that it anticipates the next verse, being the full description of “all (the rest of) the bull” (lit. “all the bull”) at the beginning of v. 12 (actually after the first verb of the verse; see the next note below).

20 tn Heb “And he (the offerer) shall bring out all the bull to from outside to the camp to a clean place.”

21 tn Heb “a clean place,” but referring to a place that is ceremonially clean. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.

22 tn Heb “the pouring out [place] of fatty ash.”

23 tn Heb “burn with fire.” This expression is somewhat redundant in English, so the translation collocates “fire” with “wood,” thus “a wood fire.”

24 tn Heb “strays”; KJV “sin through ignorance.” The verb “strays” here is the verbal form of the noun in the expression “by straying” (see the note on Lev 4:2 above).

25 tn Heb “is concealed from the eyes of”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “escapes the notice of.”

26 tn Heb “and they do one from all the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (cf. v. 2).

27 tn Heb “and the sin which they committed on it becomes known”; KJV “which they have sinned against it.” The Hebrew עָלֶיהָ (’aleha, “on it”) probably refers back to “one of the commandments” in v. 13 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:243).

28 tn Heb “and he shall slaughter.” The singular verb seems to refer to an individual who represents the whole congregation, perhaps one of the elders referred to at the beginning of the verse, or the officiating priest (cf. v. 21). The LXX and Syriac make the verb plural, referring to “the elders of the congregation.”

29 tn Heb “the anointed priest” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). This refers to the high priest (cf. TEV).

30 tn The words “in the blood” are not repeated in the Hebrew text at this point, but must be supplied in the English translation for clarity.

31 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vÿhizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter.” Contrast the different Hebrew verb translated “splash” in Lev 1:5 (זָרָק, zaraq).

32 tc The MT reads literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger from the blood and sprinkle seven times.” This is awkward. Compare v. 6, which has literally, “and the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle from the blood seven times.” The MT appears to be corrupt by haplography (i.e., assuming v. 6 to be the correct form, in v. 17 the scribe skipped from “his finger” to “from the blood,” thus missing “in the blood”) and metathesis (i.e., this also resulted in a text where “from the blood” stands before “sprinkle” rather than after it; J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 47).

33 tn See the note on v. 6 above.

34 tn See the note on v. 6 above.

35 sn See v. 7, where this altar is identified as the altar of fragrant incense.

36 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statement in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.

37 tn Heb “take up all its fat from it”; NASB “shall remove all its fat from it.”

sn See the full discussion of the fat regulations in Lev 4:8-9 above.

38 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the fat) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Only the fat is meant here, since the “rest” of the bull is mentioned in v. 21.

39 sn Cf. Lev 4:11-12 above for the disposition of “the [rest of] the bull.”

40 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

41 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to them” or “it shall be forgiven to them.”

42 sn See the note on the word “slaughter” in v. 15.

43 tn Heb “And he shall bring out the bull to from outside to the camp.”

44 tn This section begins with the relative pronoun אֲשֶׁר (’asher) which usually means “who” or “which,” but here means “whenever.”

45 tn See the Lev 4:2 note on “straying.”

46 tn Heb “and does one from all the commandments of the Lord his God which must not be done”; cf. NRSV “ought not to be done”; NIV “does what is forbidden in any of the commands.”

47 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned in it is made known to him”; NAB “if he learns of the sin he committed.”

48 tn Lev 4:22b-23a is difficult. The present translation suggests that there are two possible legal situations envisioned, separated by the Hebrew אוֹ (’o, “or”) at the beginning of v. 23. Lev 4:22b refers to any case in which the leader readily admits his guilt (i.e., “pleads guilty”), whereas v. 23a refers to cases where the leader is convicted of his guilt by legal action (“his sin…is made known to him”). See R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 2:95-96; Lev 4:27-28; and esp. the notes on Lev 5:1 below.

49 tn Heb “a he-goat of goats, a male without defect”; cf. NLT “with no physical defects.”

50 tn The LXX has a plural form here and also for the same verb later in the verse. See the note on Lev 1:5a.

51 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Based on the parallel statements in 4:10 and 4:31, it is the priest who performs this action rather than the person who brought the offering.

52 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

53 tn Heb “from.” In this phrase the preposition מִן (min) may be referring to the reason or cause (“on account of, because of”; GKC 383 §119.z). As J. E. Hartley (Leviticus [WBC], 47) points out, “from” may refer to the removal of the sin, but is an awkward expression. Hartley also suggests that the phrasing might be “an elliptical expression for יְכַפֵּר עַל־לְטַהֵר אֶת־מִן, ‘he will make expiation for…to cleanse…from…,’ as in 16:30.”

54 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).

55 tn Heb “an individual from the people of the land”; cf. NASB “anyone of the common people” (KJV, ASV both similar); NAB “a private person.”

56 tn Heb “If one person sins by straying, from the people of the land.” See Lev 4:2 for a note on “straying.”

57 tn Heb “by doing it, one from the commandments of the Lord which must not be done.”

58 tn Heb “or his sin which he sinned is made known to him”; cf. NCV “when that person learns about his sin.”

59 tn Lev 4:27b-28a is essentially the same as 4:22b-23a (see the notes there).

60 tn Heb “a she-goat of goats, a female without defect”; NAB “an unblemished she-goat.”

61 tn Heb “on his sin.”

62 tc The LXX has a plural form here (see v. 24 above and the note on Lev 1:5a).

63 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

64 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).

65 tn Heb “Then he”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here “he” refers to the offerer rather than the priest (contrast the clauses before and after).

66 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

67 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).

68 tn Heb “And a person when he sins.” Most English versions translate this as the protasis of a conditional clause: “if a person sins” (NASB, NIV).

sn The same expression occurs in Lev 4:2 where it introduces sins done “by straying unintentionally from any of the commandments of the Lord which must not be done” (see the notes there). Lev 5:1-13 is an additional section of sin offering regulations directed at violations other than those referred to by this expression in Lev 4:2 (see esp. 5:1-6), and expanding on the offering regulations for the common person in Lev 4:27-35 with concessions to the poor common person (5:7-13).

69 tn The words “against one who fails to testify” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied to make sense of the remark about the “curse” (“imprecation” or “oath”; cf. ASV “adjuration”; NIV “public charge”) for the modern reader. For the interpretation of this verse reflected in the present translation see J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:292-97.

70 tn The words “what had happened” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

71 tn Heb “and hears a voice of curse, and he is a witness or he saw or he knew, if he does not declare.”

72 tn Heb “and he shall bear his iniquity.” The rendering “bear the punishment (for the iniquity)” reflects the use of the word “iniquity” to refer to the punishment for iniquity (cf. NRSV, NLT “subject to punishment”). It is sometimes referred to as the consequential use of the term (cf. Lev 5:17; 7:18; 10:17; etc.).

73 tc The insertion of the words “when there is” is a reflection of the few Hebrew mss, Smr, and LXX that have כִּי (ki, “when, if”; cf. vv. 3 and esp. 4) rather than the MT’s אֲשֶׁר (’asher, “who”). Many English versions render this as a conditional clause (“if”).

74 tn The word “ceremonially” has been supplied in the translation to clarify that the uncleanness involved is ritual or ceremonial in nature.

75 tn Heb “and it is hidden from him,” meaning that the person who contracted the ceremonial uncleanness was not aware at the time what had happened, but later found out that he had become ceremonially unclean. This same phrase occurs again in both vv. 3 and 4.

76 sn Lev 5:2-3 are parallel laws of uncleanness (contracted from animals and people, respectively), and both seem to assume that the contraction of uncleanness was originally unknown to the person (vv. 2 and 3) but became known to him or her at a later time (v. 3; i.e., “has come to know” in v. 3 is to be assumed for v. 2 as well). Uncleanness itself did not make a person “guilty” unless he or she failed to handle it according to the normal purification regulations (see, e.g., “wash his clothes and bathe with water, and he will be unclean till evening,” Lev 15:5 NIV; cf. Lev 11:39-40; 15:5-12, 16-24; Num 19, etc.). The problem here in Lev 5:2-3 is that, because the person had not been aware of his or her uncleanness, he or she had incurred guilt for not carrying out these regular procedures, and it would now be too late for that. Thus, the unclean person needs to bring a sin offering to atone for the contamination caused by his or her neglect of the purity regulations.

77 tn Heb “or if he touches uncleanness of mankind to any of his uncleanness which he becomes unclean in it.”

78 tn Heb “to speak thoughtlessly”; cf. NAB “rashly utters an oath.”

79 tn Heb “and is guilty to one from these,” probably referring here to any of “these” things about which one might swear a thoughtless oath (J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC], 45), with the word “oath” supplied in the translation for clarity. Another possibility is that “to one from these” is a dittography from v. 5 (cf. the note on v. 5a), and that v. 4 ends with “and is guilty” like vv. 2 and 3 (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:300).

80 tn Heb “and it shall happen when he becomes guilty to one from these,” referring to any of “these” possible transgressions in Lev 5:1-4. Tg. Onq., the original Greek translation, and the Latin Vulgate omit this clause, possibly due to homoioteleuton because of the repetition of “to one from these” from the end of v. 4 in v. 5a (cf. the note on v. 4b).

sn What all the transgressions in Lev 5:1-4 have in common is that the time is past for handling the original situation properly (i.e., testifying in court, following purity regulations, or fulfilling an oath), so now the person has become guilty and needs to follow corrective sacrificial procedures.

81 tn Heb “which he sinned on it”; cf. ASV “confess that wherein he hath sinned”; NCV “must tell how he sinned.”

82 tn In this context the word for “guilt” (אָשָׁם, ’asham) refers to the “penalty” for incurring guilt, the so-called consequential אָשָׁם (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:303; cf. the note on Lev 5:1).

83 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

84 tn See the note on 4:26 regarding the use of מִן (min).

85 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach enough of a flock animal” (see the note on v. 11 below). The term translated “animal from the flock” (שֶׂה, seh) is often translated “lamb” (e.g., KJV, NASB, NIV, NCV) or “sheep” (e.g., NRSV, TEV, NLT), but it clearly includes either a sheep or a goat here (cf. v. 6), referring to the smaller pasture animals as opposed to the larger ones (i.e., cattle; cf. 4:3). Some English versions use the more generic “animal” (e.g., NAB, CEV).

86 tn Heb “and he shall bring his guilt which he sinned,” which is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the Lord for his sin which he committed.” The words “for his sin” have been left out in v. 7, and “to the Lord” has been moved so that it follows the mention of the birds.

87 tn See the note on Lev 1:14 above.

88 tn Heb “he.” The subject (“he”) refers to the priest here, not the offerer who presented the birds to the priest (cf. v. 8a).

89 sn The action seems to involve both a twisting action, breaking the neck of the bird and severing its vertebrae, as well as pinching or nipping the skin, but in this case not severing the head from the main body (note the rest of this verse).

90 tn Heb “he shall not divide [it]” (see J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:305).

91 tn The Hebrew verb וְהִזָּה (vÿhizzah, Hiphil of נָזָה, nazah) does indeed mean “sprinkle” or “splatter” (cf. Lev 4:6, 17). Contrast “splash” in Lev 1:5, etc. (זָרָק, zaraq).

92 tn Heb “the remainder in the blood.” The Heb. preposition “in” (בְּ, bÿ) is used here to mean “some among” a whole collection of something.

93 tn The word “bird” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity.

94 sn The term “[standard] regulation” (מִשְׁפָּט, mishppat) here refers to the set of regulations for burnt offering birds in Lev 1:14-17.

95 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

96 tn See the note on 4:26 with regard to מִן, min.

97 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).

98 tn Heb “and if his hand does not reach [or is not sufficient] to”; cf. NASB “if his means are insufficient for.” The expression is the same as that in Lev 5:7 above except for the verb: נָשַׂג (nasag, “to collect, to reach, to be sufficient”) is used here, but נָגַע (nagah, “to touch, to reach”) is used in v. 7. Smr has the former in both v. 7 and 11.

99 tn See the note on Lev 1:14 above (cf. also 5:7).

100 tn Heb “and he shall bring his offering which he sinned.” Like the similar expression in v. 7 above (see the note there), this is an abbreviated form of Lev 5:6, “and he shall bring his [penalty for] guilt to the Lord for his sin which he committed.” Here the words “to the Lord for his sin” have been left out, and “his [penalty for] guilt” has been changed to “his offering.”

101 sn A tenth of an ephah would be about 2.3 liters, one day’s ration for a single person (J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:306). English versions handle the amount somewhat differently, cf. NCV “about two quarts”; TEV “one kilogramme”; CEV “two pounds.”

102 tn See the note on Lev 2:1 above.

103 sn The “memorial portion” (אַזְכָּרָה, ’azkkarah) was the part of the grain offering that was burnt on the altar (Lev 2:2), as opposed to the remainder, which was normally consumed by the priests (Lev 2:3; see the full regulations in Lev 6:14-23 [6:7-16 HT]). It was probably intended to call to mind (i.e., memorialize) before the Lord the reason for the presentation of the particular offering (see the remarks in R. E. Averbeck, NIDOTTE 1:335-39).

104 sn The focus of sin offering “atonement” was purging impurities from the tabernacle (see the note on Lev 1:4).

105 tn Heb “from one from these,” referring to the four kinds of violations of the law delineated in Lev 5:1-4 (see the note on Lev 5:5 above and cf. Lev 4:27).

106 tn Heb “there shall be forgiveness to him” or “it shall be forgiven to him” (KJV similar).

107 tn Heb “and it”; the referent (the remaining portion of the offering) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

108 tn Heb “and it shall be to the priest like the grain offering,” referring to the rest of the grain that was not offered on the altar (cf. the regulations in Lev 2:3, 10).

109 sn See the note on Lev 6:8 [6:1 HT].

110 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is.” Cf. NAB “most sacred”; CEV “very sacred”; TEV “very holy.”

111 tn Heb “on the garment”; NCV “on any clothes”; CEV “on the clothes of the priest.”

112 tc The translation “you must wash” is based on the MT as it stands (cf. NASB, NIV). Smr, LXX, Syriac, Tg. Ps.-J., and the Vulgate have a third person masculine singular passive form (Pual), “[the garment] must be washed” (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT). This could also be supported from the verbs in the following verse, and it requires only a repointing of the Hebrew text with no change in consonants. See the remarks in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus (WBC), 90 and J. Milgrom, Leviticus (AB), 1:404.

113 tn Heb “it”; the words “that vessel” are supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.

114 tn Heb “holiness of holinesses [or holy of holies] it is” (also in 7:1).

115 tn Heb “burned with fire,” an expression which is sometimes redundant in English, but here means “burned up,” “burned up entirely.”



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