1:20 This power 1 he exercised 2 in Christ when he raised him 3 from the dead and seated him 4 at his right hand in the heavenly realms 5 1:21 far above every rule and authority and power and dominion and every name that is named, not only in this age but also in the one to come. 1:22 And God 6 put 7 all things under Christ’s 8 feet, 9 and he gave him to the church as head over all things. 10 1:23 Now the church is 11 his body, the fullness of him who fills all in all. 12
3 tn Or “This power he exercised in Christ by raising him”; Grk “raising him.” The adverbial participle ἐγείρας (egeiras) could be understood as temporal (“when he raised [him]”), which would be contemporaneous to the action of the finite verb “he exercised” earlier in the verse, or as means (“by raising [him]”). The participle has been translated here with the temporal nuance to allow for means to also be a possible interpretation. If the translation focused instead upon means, the temporal nuance would be lost as the time frame for the action of the participle would become indistinct.
4 tc The majority of
6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
7 tn Grk “subjected.”
8 tn Grk “his”; the referent (Christ) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
10 tn Grk “and he gave him as head over all things to the church.”
11 tn Grk “which is.” The antecedent of “which” is easily lost in English, though in Greek it is quite clear. In the translation “church” is repeated to clarify the referent.
12 tn Or perhaps, “who is filled entirely.”
sn The idea of all in all is either related to the universe (hence, he fills the whole universe entirely) or the church universal (hence, Christ fills the church entirely with his presence and power).