11:25 He will rouse his strength and enthusiasm 1 against the king of the south 2 with a large army. The king of the south will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to prevail because of the plans devised against him. 11:26 Those who share the king’s fine food will attempt to destroy him, and his army will be swept away; 3 many will be killed in battle. 11:27 These two kings, their minds 4 filled with evil intentions, will trade 5 lies with one another at the same table. But it will not succeed, for there is still an end at the appointed time. 11:28 Then the king of the north 6 will return to his own land with much property. His mind will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action, and then return to his own land. 11:29 At an appointed time he will again invade the south, but this latter visit will not turn out the way the former one did. 11:30 The ships of Kittim 7 will come against him, leaving him disheartened. 8 He will turn back and direct his indignation against the holy covenant. He will return and honor 9 those who forsake the holy covenant.
1 tn Heb “heart.”
2 sn This king of the south was Ptolemy Philometer (ca. 181-145
3 tc The present translation reads יִשָׁטֵף (yishatef, passive) rather than the MT יִשְׁטוֹף (yishtof, active).
5 tn Heb “speak.”
6 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
7 sn The name Kittim has various designations in extra-biblical literature. It can refer to a location on the island of Cyprus, or more generally to the island itself, or it can be an inclusive term to refer to parts of the Mediterranean world that lay west of the Middle East (e.g., Rome). For ships of Kittim the Greek OT (LXX) has “Romans,” an interpretation followed by a few English versions (e.g., TEV). A number of times in the Dead Sea Scrolls the word is used in reference to the Romans. Other English versions are more generic: “[ships] of the western coastlands” (NIV, NLT); “from the west” (NCV, CEV).
8 sn This is apparently a reference to the Roman forces, led by Gaius Popilius Laenas, which confronted Antiochus when he came to Egypt and demanded that he withdraw or face the wrath of Rome. Antiochus wisely withdrew from Egypt, albeit in a state of bitter frustration.
9 tn Heb “show regard for.”