5:12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people 1 because 2 all sinned – 5:13 for before the law was given, 3 sin was in the world, but there is no accounting for sin 4 when there is no law. 5:14 Yet death reigned from Adam until Moses even over those who did not sin in the same way that Adam (who is a type 5 of the coming one) transgressed. 6
1 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anqrwpou") has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
2 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (ef Jw) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”
3 tn Grk “for before the law.”
4 tn Or “sin is not reckoned.”
5 tn Or “pattern.”
6 tn Or “disobeyed”; Grk “in the likeness of Adam’s transgression.”