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Romans 4:3-13

Context
4:3 For what does the scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was credited 1  to him as righteousness.” 2  4:4 Now to the one who works, his pay is not credited due to grace but due to obligation. 3  4:5 But to the one who does not work, but believes in the one who declares the ungodly righteous, 4  his faith is credited as righteousness.

4:6 So even David himself speaks regarding the blessedness of the man to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

4:7Blessed 5  are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven, and whose sins are covered;

4:8 blessed is the one 6  against whom the Lord will never count 7  sin. 8 

4:9 Is this blessedness 9  then for 10  the circumcision 11  or also for 12  the uncircumcision? For we say, “faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.” 13  4:10 How then was it credited to him? Was he circumcised at the time, or not? No, he was not circumcised but uncircumcised! 4:11 And he received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised, 14  so that he would become 15  the father of all those who believe but have never been circumcised, 16  that they too could have righteousness credited to them. 4:12 And he is also the father of the circumcised, 17  who are not only circumcised, but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham possessed when he was still uncircumcised. 18 

4:13 For the promise 19  to Abraham or to his descendants that he would inherit the world was not fulfilled through the law, but through the righteousness that comes by faith.

Romans 4:20-22

Context
4:20 He 20  did not waver in unbelief about the promise of God but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God. 4:21 He was 21  fully convinced that what God 22  promised he was also able to do. 4:22 So indeed it was credited to Abraham 23  as righteousness.

1 tn The term λογίζομαι (logizomai) occurs 11 times in this chapter (vv. 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 22, 23, 24). In secular usage it could (a) refer to deliberations of some sort, or (b) in commercial dealings (as virtually a technical term) to “reckoning” or “charging up a debt.” See H. W. Heidland, TDNT 4:284, 290-92.

2 sn A quotation from Gen 15:6.

3 tn Grk “not according to grace but according to obligation.”

4 tn Or “who justifies the ungodly.”

5 tn Or “Happy.”

6 tn The word for “man” or “individual” here is ἀνήρ (anhr), which often means “male” or “man (as opposed to woman).” However, as BDAG 79 s.v. 2 says, here it is “equivalent to τὶς someone, a person.”

7 tn The verb translated “count” here is λογίζομαι (logizomai). It occurs eight times in Rom 4:1-12, including here, each time with the sense of “place on someone’s account.” By itself the word is neutral, but in particular contexts it can take on a positive or negative connotation. The other occurrences of the verb have been translated using a form of the English verb “credit” because they refer to a positive event: the application of righteousness to the individual believer. The use here in v. 8 is negative: the application of sin. A form of the verb “credit” was not used here because of the positive connotations associated with that English word, but it is important to recognize that the same concept is used here as in the other occurrences.

8 sn A quotation from Ps 32:1-2.

9 tn Or “happiness.”

10 tn Grk “upon.”

11 sn See the note on “circumcision” in 2:25.

12 tn Grk “upon.”

13 sn A quotation from Gen 15:6.

14 tn Grk “of the faith, the one [existing] in uncircumcision.”

15 tn Grk “that he might be,” giving the purpose of v. 11a.

16 tn Grk “through uncircumcision.”

17 tn Grk “the father of circumcision.”

18 tn Grk “the ‘in-uncircumcision faith’ of our father Abraham.”

19 sn Although a singular noun, the promise is collective and does not refer only to Gen 12:7, but as D. Moo (Romans 1-8 [WEC], 279) points out, refers to multiple aspects of the promise to Abraham: multiplied descendants (Gen 12:2), possession of the land (Gen 13:15-17), and his becoming the vehicle of blessing to all people (Gen 12:13).

20 tn Grk “And he.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, δέ (de) has not been translated here.

21 tn Grk “and being.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

22 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

23 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.



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