16:10 Then 1 the fifth angel 2 poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast so that 3 darkness covered his kingdom, 4 and people 5 began to bite 6 their tongues because 7 of their pain. 16:11 They blasphemed the God of heaven because of their sufferings 8 and because of their sores, 9 but nevertheless 10 they still refused to repent 11 of their deeds.
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
2 tn Grk “the fifth”; the referent (the fifth angel) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
3 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so that” to indicate the implied result of the fifth bowl being poured out.
4 tn Grk “his kingdom became dark.”
5 tn Grk “men,” but this is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") and refers to both men and women.
7 tn The preposition ἐκ (ek) has been translated here and twice in the following verse with a causal sense.
8 tn Grk “pains” (the same term in Greek [πόνος, ponos] as the last word in v. 11, here translated “sufferings” because it is plural). BDAG 852 s.v. 2 states, “ἐκ τοῦ π. in pain…Rv 16:10; pl. (Gen 41:51; Jos., C. Ap. 2, 146; Test. Jud. 18:4) ἐκ τῶν π. …because of their sufferings vs. 11.”
10 tn Grk “and they did not repent.” Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but nevertheless” to express the contrast here.
11 tn Grk “they did not repent” The addition of “still refused” reflects the hardness of people’s hearts in the context.