12:1 Then 1 a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and with the moon under her feet, and on her head was a crown of twelve stars. 2 12:2 She 3 was pregnant and was screaming in labor pains, struggling 4 to give birth. 12:3 Then 5 another sign appeared in heaven: a huge red dragon that had seven heads and ten horns, and on its heads were seven diadem crowns. 6
1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
3 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
4 tn Grk “and being tortured,” though βασανίζω (basanizw) in this context refers to birth pangs. BDAG 168 s.v. 2.b states, “Of birth-pangs (Anth. Pal. 9, 311 βάσανος has this mng.) Rv 12:2.” The καί (kai) has not been translated.
5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the vision.
6 tn For the translation of διάδημα (diadhma) as “diadem crown” see L&N 6.196.
sn Diadem crowns were a type of crown used as a symbol of the highest ruling authority in a given area, and thus often associated with kingship.