8:27 Then Jesus and his disciples went to the villages of Caesarea Philippi. 1 On the way he asked his disciples, 2 “Who do people say that I am?” 8:28 They said, 3 “John the Baptist, others say Elijah, 4 and still others, one of the prophets.” 8:29 He asked them, “But who do you say that I am?” Peter answered him, 5 “You are the Christ.” 6 8:30 Then 7 he warned them not to tell anyone about him. 8
8:31 Then 9 Jesus 10 began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer 11 many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and experts in the law, 12 and be killed, and after three days rise again. 8:32 He spoke openly about this. So 13 Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. 8:33 But after turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “Get behind me, Satan. You are not setting your mind on God’s interests, but on man’s.” 14
8:34 Then 15 Jesus 16 called the crowd, along with his disciples, and said to them, “If anyone wants to become my follower, 17 he must deny 18 himself, take up his cross, 19 and follow me. 8:35 For whoever wants to save his life 20 will lose it, 21 but whoever loses his life for my sake and for the gospel will save it. 8:36 For what benefit is it for a person 22 to gain the whole world, yet 23 forfeit his life? 8:37 What can a person give in exchange for his life? 8:38 For if anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will also be ashamed of him 24 when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.” 9:1 And he said to them, “I tell you the truth, 25 there are some standing here who will not 26 experience 27 death before they see the kingdom of God come with power.” 28
9:2 Six days later 29 Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John and led them alone up a high mountain privately. And he was transfigured before them, 30 9:3 and his clothes became radiantly white, more so than any launderer in the world could bleach them. 9:4 Then Elijah appeared before them along with Moses, 31 and they were talking with Jesus. 9:5 So 32 Peter said to Jesus, 33 “Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let us make three shelters 34 – one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” 9:6 (For they were afraid, and he did not know what to say.) 35 9:7 Then 36 a cloud 37 overshadowed them, 38 and a voice came from the cloud, “This is my one dear Son. 39 Listen to him!” 40 9:8 Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more except Jesus.
9:9 As they were coming down from the mountain, he gave them orders not to tell anyone what they had seen until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. 9:10 They kept this statement to themselves, discussing what this rising from the dead meant.
9:11 Then 41 they asked him, 42 “Why do the experts in the law 43 say that Elijah must come first?” 9:12 He said to them, “Elijah does indeed come first, and restores all things. And why is it written that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be despised? 9:13 But I tell you that Elijah has certainly come, and they did to him whatever they wanted, just as it is written about him.”
9:14 When they came to the disciples, they saw a large crowd around them and experts in the law 44 arguing with them. 9:15 When the whole crowd saw him, they were amazed and ran 45 at once and greeted him. 9:16 He asked them, “What are you arguing about with them?” 9:17 A member of the crowd said to him, “Teacher, I brought you my son, who is possessed by a spirit that makes him mute. 9:18 Whenever it seizes him, it throws him down, and he foams at the mouth, grinds his teeth, and becomes rigid. I asked your disciples to cast it out, but 46 they were not able to do so.” 47 9:19 He answered them, 48 “You 49 unbelieving 50 generation! How much longer 51 must I be with you? How much longer must I endure 52 you? 53 Bring him to me.” 9:20 So they brought the boy 54 to him. When the spirit saw him, it immediately threw the boy into a convulsion. He 55 fell on the ground and rolled around, foaming at the mouth. 9:21 Jesus 56 asked his father, “How long has this been happening to him?” And he said, “From childhood. 9:22 It has often thrown him into fire or water to destroy him. But if you are able to do anything, have compassion on us and help us.” 9:23 Then Jesus said to him, “‘If you are able?’ 57 All things are possible for the one who believes.” 9:24 Immediately the father of the boy cried out and said, “I believe; help my unbelief!”
9:25 Now when Jesus saw that a crowd was quickly gathering, he rebuked 58 the unclean spirit, 59 saying to it, “Mute and deaf spirit, I command you, come out of him and never enter him again.” 9:26 It shrieked, threw him into terrible convulsions, and came out. The boy 60 looked so much like a corpse that many said, “He is dead!” 9:27 But Jesus gently took his hand and raised him to his feet, and he stood up.
9:28 Then, 61 after he went into the house, his disciples asked him privately, “Why couldn’t we cast it out?” 9:29 He told them, “This kind can come out only by prayer.” 62
9:30 They went out from there and passed through Galilee. But 63 Jesus 64 did not want anyone to know, 9:31 for he was teaching his disciples and telling them, “The Son of Man will be betrayed into the hands of men. 65 They 66 will kill him, 67 and after three days he will rise.” 68 9:32 But they did not understand this statement and were afraid to ask him.
9:33 Then 69 they came to Capernaum. 70 After Jesus 71 was inside the house he asked them, “What were you discussing on the way?” 9:34 But they were silent, for on the way they had argued with one another about who was the greatest. 9:35 After he sat down, he called the twelve and said to them, “If anyone wants to be first, he must be last of all and servant of all.” 9:36 He took a little child and had him stand among them. Taking him in his arms, he said to them, 9:37 “Whoever welcomes 72 one of these little children 73 in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me does not welcome me but the one who sent me.”
9:38 John said to him, “Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him because he was not following us.” 9:39 But Jesus said, “Do not stop him, because no one who does a miracle in my name will be able soon afterward to say anything bad about me. 9:40 For whoever is not against us is for us. 9:41 For I tell you the truth, 74 whoever gives you a cup of water because 75 you bear Christ’s 76 name will never lose his reward.
9:42 “If anyone causes one of these little ones who believe in me to sin, it would be better for him to have a huge millstone 77 tied around his neck and to be thrown into the sea. 9:43 If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better for you to enter into life crippled than to have 78 two hands and go into hell, 79 to the unquenchable fire. 9:44 [[EMPTY]] 80 9:45 If your foot causes you to sin, cut it off! It is better to enter life lame than to have 81 two feet and be thrown into hell. 9:46 [[EMPTY]] 82 9:47 If your eye causes you to sin, tear it out! 83 It is better to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye than to have 84 two eyes and be thrown into hell, 9:48 where their worm never dies and the fire is never quenched. 9:49 Everyone will be salted with fire. 85 9:50 Salt 86 is good, but if it loses its saltiness, 87 how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.”
10:1 Then 88 Jesus 89 left that place and went to the region of Judea and 90 beyond the Jordan River. 91 Again crowds gathered to him, and again, as was his custom, he taught them. 10:2 Then some Pharisees 92 came, and to test him 93 they asked, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his 94 wife?” 95 10:3 He answered them, 96 “What did Moses command you?” 10:4 They said, “Moses permitted a man to write a certificate of dismissal and to divorce her.” 97 10:5 But Jesus said to them, “He wrote this commandment for you because of your hard hearts. 98 10:6 But from the beginning of creation he 99 made them male and female. 100 10:7 For this reason a man will leave his father and mother, 101 10:8 and the two will become one flesh. 102 So they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10:9 Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate.”
10:10 In the house once again, the disciples asked him about this. 10:11 So 103 he told them, “Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her. 10:12 And if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery.” 104
10:13 Now 105 people were bringing little children to him for him to touch, 106 but the disciples scolded those who brought them. 107 10:14 But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, “Let the little children come to me and do not try to stop them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 108 10:15 I tell you the truth, 109 whoever does not receive 110 the kingdom of God like a child 111 will never 112 enter it.” 10:16 After he took the children in his arms, he placed his hands on them and blessed them.
10:17 Now 113 as Jesus 114 was starting out on his way, someone ran up to him, fell on his knees, and said, “Good teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” 115 10:18 Jesus said to him, “Why do you call me good? 116 No one is good except God alone. 10:19 You know the commandments: ‘Do not murder, do not commit adultery, do not steal, do not give false testimony, do not defraud, honor your father and mother.’” 117 10:20 The man 118 said to him, “Teacher, I have wholeheartedly obeyed 119 all these laws 120 since my youth.” 121 10:21 As Jesus looked at him, he felt love for him and said, “You lack one thing. Go, sell whatever you have and give the money 122 to the poor, and you will have treasure 123 in heaven. Then come, follow me.” 10:22 But at this statement, the man 124 looked sad and went away sorrowful, for he was very rich. 125
10:23 Then 126 Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, “How hard it is for the rich to enter the kingdom of God!” 10:24 The disciples were astonished at these words. But again Jesus said to them, 127 “Children, how hard it is 128 to enter the kingdom of God! 10:25 It is easier for a camel 129 to go through the eye of a needle 130 than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God.” 10:26 They were even more astonished and said 131 to one another, “Then 132 who can be saved?” 133 10:27 Jesus looked at them and replied, “This is impossible for mere humans, 134 but not for God; all things are possible for God.”
10:28 Peter began to speak to him, “Look, 135 we have left everything to follow you!” 136 10:29 Jesus said, “I tell you the truth, 137 there is no one who has left home or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or fields for my sake and for the sake of the gospel 10:30 who will not receive in this age 138 a hundred times as much – homes, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, fields, all with persecutions 139 – and in the age to come, eternal life. 140 10:31 But many who are first will be last, and the last first.”
10:32 They were on the way, going up to Jerusalem. 141 Jesus was going ahead of them, and they were amazed, but those who followed were afraid. He took the twelve aside again and began to tell them what was going to happen to him. 10:33 “Look, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and experts in the law. 142 They will condemn him to death and will turn him over to the Gentiles. 10:34 They will mock him, spit on him, flog 143 him severely, and kill him. Yet 144 after three days, 145 he will rise again.”
10:35 Then 146 James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to him and said, “Teacher, we want you to do for us whatever we ask.” 10:36 He said to them, “What do you want me to do for you?” 10:37 They said to him, “Permit one of us to sit at your right hand and the other at your left in your glory.” 10:38 But Jesus said to them, “You don’t know what you are asking! Are you able to drink the cup I drink or be baptized with the baptism I experience?” 147 10:39 They said to him, “We are able.” 148 Then Jesus said to them, “You will drink the cup I drink, and you will be baptized with the baptism I experience, 10:40 but to sit at my right or at my left is not mine to give. It is for those for whom it has been prepared.” 149
10:41 Now 150 when the other ten 151 heard this, 152 they became angry with James and John. 10:42 Jesus called them and said to them, “You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and those in high positions use their authority over them. 10:43 But it is not this way among you. Instead whoever wants to be great among you must be your servant, 10:44 and whoever wants to be first among you must be the slave 153 of all. 10:45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom 154 for many.”
10:46 They came to Jericho. 155 As Jesus 156 and his disciples and a large crowd were leaving Jericho, Bartimaeus the son of Timaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the road. 10:47 When he heard that it was Jesus the Nazarene, he began to shout, 157 “Jesus, Son of David, 158 have mercy 159 on me!” 10:48 Many scolded 160 him to get him to be quiet, but he shouted all the more, “Son of David, have mercy on me!” 10:49 Jesus stopped and said, “Call him.” So 161 they called the blind man and said to him, “Have courage! Get up! He is calling you.” 10:50 He threw off his cloak, jumped up, and came to Jesus. 10:51 Then 162 Jesus said to him, 163 “What do you want me to do for you?” The blind man replied, “Rabbi, 164 let me see again.” 165 10:52 Jesus said to him, “Go, your faith has healed you.” Immediately he regained 166 his sight and followed him on the road.
1 map Fpr location see Map1 C1; Map2 F4.
2 tn Grk “he asked his disciples, saying to them.” The phrase λέγων αὐτοῖς (legwn autois) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
3 tn Grk “And they said to him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
4 sn The appearance of Elijah would mean that the end time had come. According to 2 Kgs 2:11, Elijah was still alive. In Mal 4:5 it is said that Elijah would be the precursor of Messiah.
5 tn Grk “Answering, Peter said to him.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Peter answered him.”
6 tn Or “the Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn The term χριστός (cristos) was originally an adjective (“anointed”), developing in LXX into a substantive (“an anointed one”), then developing still further into a technical generic term (“the anointed one”). In the intertestamental period it developed further into a technical term referring to the hoped-for anointed one, that is, a specific individual. In the NT the development starts there (technical-specific), is so used in the gospels, and then develops in Paul to mean virtually Jesus’ last name.
7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to indicate the conclusion of the episode.
8 sn Mark 8:27-10:52. The entire section 8:27-10:52 is built around three passion predictions of Jesus (8:31; 9:31; 10:33). These predictions form the structure of the section, the content for the section (Jesus’ suffering, death, and the meaning of genuine discipleship) and the mood of the section (i.e., a somber mood). What is interesting is that after each passion prediction, Mark records both the misunderstanding of the disciples and then Jesus’ teaching on the nature of his death and what genuine discipleship is all about: (1) denying oneself (8:34-38); (2) humility and serving (9:33-37); (3) suffering, humble service, and not lording it over people (10:35-45). For further discussion of the structure of the passage, see W. L. Lane, Mark (NICNT), 292-94.
9 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
11 sn The necessity that the Son of Man suffer is the particular point that needed emphasis, since for many 1st century Jews the Messiah was a glorious and powerful figure, not a suffering one.
12 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
13 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate Peter’s rebuke is in response to Jesus’ teaching about the suffering of the Son of Man.
14 tn Grk “people’s.”
15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
16 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
17 tn Grk “to follow after me.”
18 tn This translation better expresses the force of the Greek third person imperative than the traditional “let him deny,” which could be understood as merely permissive.
19 sn To bear the cross means to accept the rejection of the world for turning to Jesus and following him. Discipleship involves a death that is like a crucifixion; see Gal 6:14.
20 tn Or “soul” (throughout vv. 35-37).
21 sn The point of the saying whoever wants to save his life will lose it is that if one comes to Jesus then rejection by many will certainly follow. If self-protection is a key motivation, then one will not respond to Jesus and will not be saved. One who is willing to risk rejection will respond and find true life.
22 tn Grk “a man,” but ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo") is used in a generic sense here to refer to both men and women.
23 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
24 sn How one responds now to Jesus and his teaching is a reflection of how Jesus, as the Son of Man who judges, will respond then in the final judgment.
25 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
26 tn The Greek negative here (οὐ μή, ou mh) is the strongest possible.
27 tn Grk “will not taste.” Here the Greek verb does not mean “sample a small amount” (as a typical English reader might infer from the word “taste”), but “experience something cognitively or emotionally; come to know something” (cf. BDAG 195 s.v. γεύομαι 2).
28 sn Several suggestions have been made as to the referent for the phrase the kingdom of God come with power: (1) the transfiguration itself, which immediately follows in the narrative; (2) Jesus’ resurrection and ascension; (3) the coming of the Spirit; (4) Jesus’ second coming and the establishment of the kingdom. The reference to after six days in 9:2 seems to indicate that Mark had the transfiguration in mind insofar as it was a substantial prefiguring of the consummation of the kingdom (although this interpretation is not without its problems). As such, the transfiguration was a tremendous confirmation to the disciples that even though Jesus had just finished speaking of his death (8:31; 9:31; 10:33), he was nonetheless the promised Messiah and things were proceeding according to God’s plan.
29 tn Grk “And after six days.”
30 sn In 1st century Judaism and in the NT, there was the belief that the righteous get new, glorified bodies in order to enter heaven (1 Cor 15:42-49; 2 Cor 5:1-10). This transformation means the righteous will share the glory of God. One recalls the way Moses shared the Lord’s glory after his visit to the mountain in Exod 34. So the disciples saw Jesus transfigured, and they were getting a sneak preview of the great glory that Jesus would have (only his glory is more inherent to him as one who shares in the rule of the kingdom).
31 sn Commentators and scholars discuss why Moses and Elijah are present. The most likely explanation is that Moses represents the prophetic office (Acts 3:18-22) and Elijah pictures the presence of the last days (Mal 4:5-6), the prophet of the eschaton (the end times).
32 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
33 tn Grk “And answering, Peter said to Jesus.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and has not been translated.
34 tn Or “dwellings,” “booths” (referring to the temporary booths constructed in the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles).
sn Peter apparently wanted to celebrate the feast of Tabernacles or Booths that looked forward to the end and wanted to treat Moses, Elijah, and Jesus as equals by making three shelters (one for each). It was actually a way of expressing honor to Jesus, but the next few verses make it clear that it was not enough honor.
35 sn This is a parenthetical note by the author.
36 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
37 sn This cloud is the cloud of God’s presence and the voice is his as well.
38 tn Grk “And there came a cloud, surrounding them.”
39 tn Grk “my beloved Son,” or “my Son, the beloved [one].” The force of ἀγαπητός (agaphtos) is often “pertaining to one who is the only one of his or her class, but at the same time is particularly loved and cherished” (L&N 58.53; cf. also BDAG 7 s.v. 1).
40 sn The expression listen to him comes from Deut 18:15 and makes two points: 1) Jesus is a prophet like Moses, a leader-prophet, and 2) they have much yet to learn from him.
41 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
42 tn Grk “And they were asking him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant and has not been translated.
43 tn Or “Why do the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
44 tn Or “and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
45 tn Grk The participle προστρέχοντες (prostrecontes) has been translated as a finite verb to make the sequence of events clear in English.
46 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
47 tn The words “to do so” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for clarity and stylistic reasons.
48 tn Grk “And answering, he said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant, but the phrasing of the sentence was modified slightly to make it clearer in English.
49 tn Grk “O.” The marker of direct address, ὦ (w), is functionally equivalent to a vocative and is represented in the translation by “you.”
50 tn Or “faithless.”
sn The rebuke for lack of faith has OT roots: Num 14:27; Deut 32:5, 30; Isa 59:8.
51 tn Grk “how long.”
52 tn Or “put up with.” See Num 11:12; Isa 46:4.
53 sn The pronouns you…you are plural, indicating that Jesus is speaking to a group rather than an individual.
54 tn Grk “him.”
55 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
56 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
57 tc Most
58 tn Or “commanded” (often with the implication of a threat, L&N 33.331).
59 sn Unclean spirit refers to an evil spirit.
60 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the boy) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
61 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
62 tc Most witnesses, even early and excellent ones (Ì45vid א2 A C D L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat co), have “and fasting” (καὶ νηστείᾳ, kai nhsteia) after “prayer” here. But this seems to be a motivated reading, due to the early church’s emphasis on fasting (TCGNT 85; cf., e.g., 2 Clem. 16:4; Pol. Phil 7:2; Did. 1:3; 7:4). That the most important witnesses (א* B), as well as a few others (0274 2427 k), lack καὶ νηστείᾳ, when a good reason for the omission is difficult to find, argues strongly for the shorter reading.
63 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
64 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
65 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anqrwpwn) is considered by some to be used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NRSV, “into human hands”; CEV, “to people”). However, because this can be taken as a specific reference to the group responsible for Jesus’ arrest, where it is unlikely women were present (cf. Matt 26:47-56; Mark 14:43-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:2-12), the word “men” has been retained in the translation. There may also be a slight wordplay with “the Son of Man” earlier in the verse.
66 tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
67 tn Grk “They will kill him, and being killed, after…” The redundancy in the statement has been removed in the translation.
68 sn They will kill him and after three days he will rise. See the note at the end of Mark 8:30 regarding the passion predictions.
69 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
70 map For location see Map1 D2; Map2 C3; Map3 B2.
71 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
72 tn This verb, δέχομαι (decomai), is a term of hospitality (L&N 34.53).
73 sn Children were very insignificant in ancient culture, so this child would be the perfect object lesson to counter the disciples’ selfish ambitions.
74 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
75 tn Grk “in [the] name that of Christ you are.”
76 tn Or “bear the Messiah’s”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”
sn See the note on Christ in 8:29.
77 tn Grk “the millstone of a donkey.” This refers to a large flat stone turned by a donkey in the process of grinding grain (BDAG 661 s.v. μύλος 2; L&N 7.68-69). The same term is used in the parallel account in Matt 18:6.
sn The punishment of drowning with a heavy weight attached is extremely gruesome and reflects Jesus’ views concerning those who cause others who believe in him to sin.
78 tn Grk “than having.”
79 sn The word translated hell is “Gehenna” (γέεννα, geenna), a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew words ge hinnom (“Valley of Hinnom”). This was the valley along the south side of Jerusalem. In OT times it was used for human sacrifices to the pagan god Molech (cf. Jer 7:31; 19:5-6; 32:35), and it came to be used as a place where human excrement and rubbish were disposed of and burned. In the intertestamental period, it came to be used symbolically as the place of divine punishment (cf. 1 En. 27:2, 90:26; 4 Ezra 7:36). This Greek term also occurs in vv. 45, 47.
80 tc Most later
81 tn Grk “than having.”
82 tc See tc note at the end of v. 43.
83 tn Grk “throw it out.”
84 tn Grk “than having.”
85 tc The earliest
sn The statement everyone will be salted with fire is difficult to interpret. It may be a reference to (1) unbelievers who enter hell as punishment for rejection of Jesus, indicating that just as salt preserves so they will be preserved in their punishment in hell forever; (2) Christians who experience suffering in this world because of their attachment to Christ; (3) any person who experiences suffering in a way appropriate to their relationship to Jesus. For believers this means the suffering of purification, and for unbelievers it means hell, i.e., eternal torment.
86 sn Salt was used as seasoning or fertilizer (BDAG 41 s.v. ἅλας a), or as a preservative. If salt ceased to be useful, it was thrown away. With this illustration Jesus warned about a disciple who ceased to follow him.
87 sn The difficulty of this saying is understanding how salt could lose its saltiness since its chemical properties cannot change. It is thus often assumed that Jesus was referring to chemically impure salt, perhaps a natural salt which, when exposed to the elements, had all the genuine salt leached out, leaving only the sediment or impurities behind. Others have suggested the background of the saying is the use of salt blocks by Arab bakers to line the floor of their ovens: Under the intense heat these blocks would eventually crystallize and undergo a change in chemical composition, finally being thrown out as unserviceable. A saying in the Talmud (b. Bekhorot 8b) attributed to R. Joshua ben Chananja (ca.
88 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
89 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
90 tc Alexandrian and other witnesses (א B C* L Ψ 0274 892 2427 pc co) read καὶ πέραν (kai peran, “and beyond”), while Western and Caesarean witnesses (C2 D W Δ Θ Ë1,13 28 565 579 1241 al) read πέραν (simply “beyond”). It is difficult to decide between the Alexandrian and Western readings here, but since the parallel in Matt 19:1 omits καί the weight is slightly in favor of including it here; scribes may have omitted the word here to harmonize this passage to the Matthean passage. Because of the perceived geographical difficulties found in the earlier readings (omission of the word “and” would make it seem as though Judea is beyond the Jordan), the majority of the witnesses (A Ï) read διὰ τοῦ πέραν (dia tou peran, “through the other side”), perhaps trying to indicate the direction of Jesus’ travel.
91 tn “River” is not in the Greek text but is supplied for clarity. The region referred to here is sometimes known as Transjordan (i.e., “across the Jordan”).
92 tc The Western text (D it) and a few others have only καί (kai) here, rather than καὶ προσελθόντες Φαρισαῖοι (kai proselqonte" Farisaioi, here translated as “then some Pharisees came”). The longer reading, a specific identification of the subject, may have been prompted by the parallel in Matt 19:3. The fact that the
sn See the note on Pharisees in 2:16.
93 tn In Greek this phrase occurs at the end of the sentence. It has been brought forward to conform to English style.
94 tn The personal pronoun “his” is not in the Greek text, but is certainly implied and has been supplied in the English translation to clarify the sense of the statement (cf. “his wife” in 10:7).
95 tn The particle εἰ (ei) is often used to introduce both indirect and direct questions. Thus, another possible translation is to take this as an indirect question: “They asked him if it were lawful for a man to divorce his wife.” See BDF §440.3.
sn The question of the Pharisees was anything but sincere; they were asking it to test him. Jesus was now in the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas (i.e., Judea and beyond the Jordan) and it is likely that the Pharisees were hoping he might answer the question of divorce in a way similar to John the Baptist and so suffer the same fate as John, i.e., death at the hands of Herod (cf. 6:17-19). Jesus answered the question not on the basis of rabbinic custom and the debate over Deut 24:1, but rather from the account of creation and God’s original design.
96 tn Grk “But answering, he said to them.”
97 tn Grk “to divorce.” The pronoun has been supplied in the translation for clarity.
sn An allusion to Deut 24:1. The Pharisees were all in agreement that the OT permitted a man to write a certificate of dismissal and divorce his wife (not vice-versa) and that remarriage was therefore sanctioned. But the two rabbinic schools of Shammai and Hillel differed on the grounds for divorce. Shammai was much stricter than Hillel and permitted divorce only in the case of sexual immorality. Hillel permitted divorce for almost any reason (cf. the Mishnah, m. Gittin 9.10).
98 tn Grk “heart” (a collective singular).
99 tc Most
100 sn A quotation from Gen 1:27; 5:2.
101 tc ‡ The earliest witnesses, as well as a few other important
102 sn A quotation from Gen 2:24. The “two” refers to husband and wife, not father and mother mentioned in the previous verse. See the tc note on “mother” in v. 7 for discussion.
103 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “So” to indicate that Jesus’ statement is in response to the disciples’ question (v. 10).
104 sn It was not uncommon in Jesus’ day for a Jewish man to divorce his wife, but it was extremely rare for a wife to initiate such an action against her husband, since among many things it would have probably left her destitute and without financial support. Mark’s inclusion of the statement And if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery (v. 12) reflects more the problem of the predominantly Gentile church in Rome to which he was writing. As such it may be an interpretive and parenthetical comment by the author rather than part of the saying by Jesus, which would stop at the end of v. 11. As such it should then be placed in parentheses. Further NT passages that deal with the issue of divorce and remarriage are Matt 5:31-32; 19:1-12; Luke 16:18; 1 Cor 7.
105 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
106 tn Grk “so that he would touch them.” Here the touch is connected with (or conveys) a blessing (cf. v. 16; also BDAG 126 s.v. ἅπτω 2.c).
107 tc “Those who brought them” (ἐπετιμῶν τοῖς προσφέρουσιν, epetimwn toi" prosferousin) is the reading of most
tn Grk “the disciples scolded them.”
108 sn The kingdom of God belongs to such as these. Children are a picture of those whose simple trust illustrates what faith is all about. The remark illustrates how everyone is important to God, even those whom others regard as insignificant.
109 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
110 sn On receive see John 1:12.
111 sn The point of the comparison receive the kingdom of God like a child has more to do with a child’s trusting spirit and willingness to be dependent and receive from others than any inherent humility the child might possess.
112 tn The negation in Greek (οὐ μή, ou mh) is very strong here.
113 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
114 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
sn Mark 10:17-31. The following unit, Mark 10:17-31, can be divided up into three related sections: (1) the rich man’s question (vv. 17-22); (2) Jesus’ teaching on riches and the kingdom of God (vv. 23-27); and (3) Peter’s statement and Jesus’ answer (vv. 28-31). They are all tied together around the larger theme of the relationship of wealth to the kingdom Jesus had been preaching. The point is that it is impossible to attain to the kingdom by means of riches. The passage as a whole is found in the section 8:27-10:52 in which Mark has been focusing on Jesus’ suffering and true discipleship. In vv. 28-31 Jesus does not deny great rewards to those who follow him, both in the present age and in the age to come, but it must be thoroughly understood that suffering will be integral to the mission of the disciples and the church, for in the very next section (10:32-34) Jesus reaffirmed the truth about his coming rejection, suffering, death, and resurrection.
115 sn The rich man wanted to know what he must do to inherit eternal life, but Jesus had just finished teaching that eternal life was not earned but simply received (10:15).
116 sn Jesus’ response, Why do you call me good?, was designed to cause the young man to stop and think for a moment about who Jesus really was. The following statement No one is good except God alone seems to point the man in the direction of Jesus’ essential nature and the demands which logically follow on the man for having said it.
117 sn A quotation from Exod 20:12-16; Deut 5:16-20, except for do not defraud, which is an allusion to Deut 24:14.
118 tn Grk “He”; the referent (the man who asked the question in v. 17) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
119 tn Grk “kept.” The implication of this verb is that the man has obeyed the commandments without fail throughout his life, so the adverb “wholeheartedly” has been added to the translation to bring out this nuance.
120 tn Grk “these things.” The referent of the pronoun (the laws mentioned by Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
sn While the rich man was probably being sincere when he insisted I have wholeheartedly obeyed all these laws, he had confined his righteousness to external obedience. The rich man’s response to Jesus’ command to give away all he had revealed that internally he loved money more than God.
121 sn Since my youth. Judaism regarded the age of thirteen as the age when a man would have become responsible to live by God’s commands.
122 tn The words “the money” are not in the Greek text, but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
123 sn The call for sacrifice comes with a promise of eternal reward: You will have treasure in heaven. Jesus’ call is a test to see how responsive the man is to God’s direction through him. Will he walk the path God’s agent calls him to walk? For a rich person who got it right, see Zacchaeus in Luke 19:1-10.
124 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man who asked the question in v. 17) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
125 tn Grk “he had many possessions.” This term (κτῆμα, kthma) is often used for land as a possession.
126 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
127 tn Grk “But answering, Jesus again said to them.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokriqeis) is redundant and has not been translated.
128 tc Most
129 tc A few witnesses (Ë13 28 579 pc) read κάμιλον (kamilon, “rope”) for κάμηλον (kamhlon, “camel”), either through accidental misreading of the text or intentionally so as to soften Jesus’ words.
130 sn The referent of the eye of a needle is a sewing needle. (The gate in Jerusalem known as “The Needle’s Eye” was built during the middle ages and was not in existence in Jesus’ day.) Jesus was speaking rhetorically to point out that apart from God’s intervention, salvation is impossible (v. 27).
131 tn Grk “But they were even more astonished, saying.” The participle λέγονες (legontes) has been translated here as a finite verb to emphasize the sequence of events: The disciples were astonished, then they spoke.
132 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of thought.
133 sn The assumption is that the rich are blessed, so if they risk exclusion, who is left to be saved?
134 tn The plural Greek term ἄνθρωποις (anqrwpois) is used here in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NASB 1995 update, “people”). Because of the contrast here between mere mortals and God (“impossible for men…all things are possible for God”) the phrase “mere humans” has been used in the translation.
135 sn Peter wants reassurance that the disciples’ response and sacrifice has been noticed.
136 tn Grk “We have left everything and followed you.” Koine Greek often used paratactic structure when hypotactic was implied.
137 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amhn), I say to you.”
138 tn Grk “this time” (καιρός, kairos), but for stylistic reasons this has been translated “this age” here.
139 tn Grk “with persecutions.” The “all” has been supplied to clarify that the prepositional phrase belongs not just to the “fields.”
140 sn Note that Mark (see also Matt 19:29; Luke 10:25, 18:30) portrays eternal life as something one receives in the age to come, unlike John, who emphasizes the possibility of receiving eternal life in the present (John 5:24).
141 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.
142 tn Or “chief priests and scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
143 tn Traditionally, “scourge him” (the term means to beat severely with a whip, L&N 19.9). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “The ‘verberatio’ is denoted in the passion predictions and explicitly as action by non-Israelites Mt 20:19; Mk 10:34; Lk 18:33”; the verberatio was the beating given to those condemned to death in the Roman judicial system. Here the term μαστιγόω (mastigow) has been translated “flog…severely” to distinguish it from the term φραγελλόω (fragellow) used in Matt 27:26; Mark 15:15.
144 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “yet” to indicate the contrast present in this context.
145 tc Most
146 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
147 tn Grk “baptism I am baptized with.” This same change has been made in v. 39.
148 sn No more naïve words have ever been spoken as those found here coming from James and John, “We are able.” They said it with such confidence and ease, yet they had little clue as to what they were affirming. In the next sentence Jesus confirms that they will indeed suffer for his name.
149 sn After the first passion prediction in 8:31 Jesus rebuked Peter as having been used by Satan. After the second passion prediction in 9:31 the disciples were concerned about who would be the greatest in the kingdom. After the third passion prediction in 10:33 James and John asked for positions of honor and rulership in the kingdom, revealing their complete misunderstanding of the nature of the kingdom and exposing their inadequacy as true disciples of Jesus. Jesus replied that such positions were for those for whom it has been prepared.
150 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
151 tn Grk “the ten.”
152 tn The word “this” is not in the Greek text, but is supplied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
153 tn Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v. 1). The most accurate translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος), in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force.
154 sn The Greek word for ransom (λύτρον, lutron) is found here and in Matt 20:28 and refers to the payment of a price in order to purchase the freedom of a slave. The idea of Jesus as the “ransom” is that he paid the price with his own life by standing in humanity’s place as a substitute, enduring the judgment that was deserved for sin.
155 map For location see Map5 B2; Map6 E1; Map7 E1; Map8 E3; Map10 A2; Map11 A1.
156 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
157 tn Grk “to shout and to say.” The infinitive λέγειν (legein) is redundant here and has not been translated.
158 sn Jesus was more than a Nazarene to this blind person, who saw quite well that Jesus was Son of David. There was a tradition in Judaism that the Son of David (Solomon) had great powers of healing (Josephus, Ant. 8.2.5 [8.42-49]).
159 sn Have mercy on me is a request for healing. It is not owed the man. He simply asks for God’s kind grace.
160 tn Or “rebuked.” The crowd’s view was that surely Jesus would not be bothered with someone as unimportant as a blind beggar.
161 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
162 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
163 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said to him.” The participle ἀποκριθείς is redundant and has not been translated.
164 tn Or “Master”; Grk ῥαββουνί (rabbouni).
165 tn Grk “that I may see [again].” The phrase can be rendered as an imperative of request, “Please, give me sight.” Since the man is not noted as having been blind from birth (as the man in John 9 was) it is likely the request is to receive back the sight he once had.
166 tn Or “received” (see the note on the phrase “let me see again” in v. 51).