15:18 That day the Lord made a covenant 1 with Abram: “To your descendants I give 2 this land, from the river of Egypt 3 to the great river, the Euphrates River – 15:19 the land 4 of the Kenites, Kenizzites, Kadmonites, 15:20 Hittites, Perizzites, Rephaites,
22:16 and said, “‘I solemnly swear by my own name,’ 5 decrees the Lord, 6 ‘that because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, 22:17 I will indeed bless you, 7 and I will greatly multiply 8 your descendants 9 so that they will be as countless as the stars in the sky or the grains of sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession 10 of the strongholds 11 of their enemies. 22:18 Because you have obeyed me, 12 all the nations of the earth will pronounce blessings on one another 13 using the name of your descendants.’”
1 tn Heb “cut a covenant.”
2 tn The perfect verbal form is understood as instantaneous (“I here and now give”). Another option is to understand it as rhetorical, indicating certitude (“I have given” meaning it is as good as done, i.e., “I will surely give”).
sn To your descendants I give this land. The
3 sn The river of Egypt is a wadi (a seasonal stream) on the northeastern border of Egypt, not to the River Nile.
4 tn The words “the land” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
5 tn Heb “By myself I swear.”
6 tn Heb “the oracle of the
7 tn The use of the infinitive absolute before the finite verbal form (either an imperfect or cohortative) emphasizes the certainty of the blessing.
8 tn Here too the infinitive absolute is used for emphasis before the following finite verb (either an imperfect or cohortative).
sn I will greatly multiply. The
10 tn Or “inherit.”
11 tn Heb “gate,” which here stands for a walled city. To break through the gate complex would be to conquer the city, for the gate complex was the main area of defense (hence the translation “stronghold”).
12 tn In the Hebrew text this causal clause comes at the end of the sentence. The translation alters the word order for stylistic reasons.
sn Because you have obeyed me. Abraham’s obedience brought God’s ratification of the earlier conditional promise (see Gen 12:2).
13 tn Traditionally the verb is taken as passive (“will be blessed”) here, as if Abraham’s descendants were going to be a channel or source of blessing to the nations. But the Hitpael is better understood here as reflexive/reciprocal, “will bless [i.e., pronounce blessings on] themselves/one another” (see also Gen 26:4). Elsewhere the Hitpael of the verb “to bless” is used with a reflexive/reciprocal sense in Deut 29:18; Ps 72:17; Isa 65:16; Jer 4:2. Gen 12:2 predicts that Abram will be held up as a paradigm of divine blessing and that people will use his name in their blessing formulae. For examples of blessing formulae utilizing an individual as an example of blessing see Gen 48:20 and Ruth 4:11. Earlier formulations of this promise (see Gen 12:2; 18:18) use the Niphal stem. (See also Gen 28:14.)