35:1 Moses assembled the whole community of the Israelites and said to them, “These are the things that the Lord has commanded you to do. 1 35:2 In six days 2 work may be done, but on the seventh day there must be a holy day 3 for you, a Sabbath of complete rest to the Lord. 4 Anyone who does work on it will be put to death. 35:3 You must not kindle a fire 5 in any of your homes 6 on the Sabbath day.” 7
35:4 8 Moses spoke to the whole community of the Israelites, “This is the word that the Lord has commanded: 35:5 ‘Take 9 an offering for the Lord. Let everyone who has a willing heart 10 bring 11 an offering to the Lord: 12 gold, silver, bronze, 35:6 blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, fine linen, goat’s hair, 35:7 ram skins dyed red, fine leather, 13 acacia wood, 35:8 olive oil for the light, spices for the anointing oil and for the fragrant incense, 35:9 onyx stones, and other gems 14 for mounting 15 on the ephod and the breastpiece. 35:10 Every skilled person 16 among you is to come and make all that the Lord has commanded: 35:11 the tabernacle with 17 its tent, its covering, its clasps, its frames, its crossbars, its posts, and its bases; 35:12 the ark, with its poles, the atonement lid, and the special curtain that conceals it; 35:13 the table with its poles and all its vessels, and the Bread of the Presence; 35:14 the lampstand for 18 the light and its accessories, its lamps, and oil for the light; 35:15 and the altar of incense with its poles, the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; the hanging for the door at the entrance of the tabernacle; 35:16 the altar for the burnt offering with its bronze grating that is on it, its poles, and all its utensils; the large basin and its pedestal; 35:17 the hangings of the courtyard, its posts and its bases, and the curtain for the gateway to the courtyard; 35:18 tent pegs for the tabernacle and tent pegs for the courtyard and their ropes; 35:19 the woven garments for serving in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons to minister as priests.”
35:20 So the whole community of the Israelites went out from the presence of Moses. 35:21 Everyone 19 whose heart stirred him to action 20 and everyone whose spirit was willing 21 came and brought the offering for the Lord for the work of the tent of meeting, for all its service, and for the holy garments. 22 35:22 They came, men and women alike, 23 all who had willing hearts. They brought brooches, earrings, rings and ornaments, all kinds of gold jewelry, 24 and everyone came who waved 25 a wave offering of gold to the Lord.
35:23 Everyone who had 26 blue, purple, or 27 scarlet yarn, fine linen, goats’ hair, ram skins dyed red, or fine leather 28 brought them. 29 35:24 Everyone making an offering of silver or bronze brought it as 30 an offering to the Lord, and everyone who had acacia wood 31 for any work of the service brought it. 32 35:25 Every woman who was skilled 33 spun with her hands and brought what she had spun, blue, purple, or scarlet yarn, or fine linen, 35:26 and all the women whose heart stirred them to action and who were skilled 34 spun goats’ hair.
35:27 The leaders brought onyx stones and other gems to be mounted 35 for the ephod and the breastpiece, 35:28 and spices and olive oil for the light, for the anointing oil, and for the fragrant incense.
35:29 The Israelites brought a freewill offering to the Lord, every man and woman whose heart was willing to bring materials for all the work that the Lord through 36 Moses had commanded them 37 to do.
35:30 Moses said to the Israelites, “See, the Lord has chosen 38 Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. 35:31 He has filled him with the Spirit of God – with skill, with understanding, with knowledge, and in all kinds of work, 35:32 to design artistic designs, to work in gold, in silver, and in bronze, 35:33 and in cutting stones for their setting, 39 and in cutting wood, to do work in every artistic craft. 40 35:34 And he has put it in his heart 41 to teach, he and Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan. 35:35 He has filled them with skill 42 to do all kinds of work 43 as craftsmen, as designers, as embroiderers in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and in fine linen, and as weavers. They are 44 craftsmen in all the work 45 and artistic designers. 46 36:1 So Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person 47 in whom the Lord has put skill 48 and ability 49 to know how 50 to do all the work for the service 51 of the sanctuary are to do the work 52 according to all that the Lord has commanded.”
36:2 Moses summoned 53 Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person in whom 54 the Lord had put skill – everyone whose heart stirred him 55 to volunteer 56 to do the work, 36:3 and they received from Moses all the offerings the Israelites had brought to do 57 the work for the service of the sanctuary, and they still continued to bring him a freewill offering each morning. 58 36:4 So all the skilled people who were doing all the work on the sanctuary came from the work 59 they were doing 36:5 and told Moses, “The people are bringing much more than 60 is needed for the completion 61 of the work which the Lord commanded us to do!” 62
36:6 Moses instructed them to take 63 his message 64 throughout the camp, saying, “Let no man or woman do any more work for the offering for the sanctuary.” So the people were restrained from bringing any more. 65 36:7 Now the materials were more than enough 66 for them to do all the work. 67
36:8 All the skilled among those who were doing the work made the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twisted linen and blue and purple and scarlet; they were made with cherubim that were the work of an artistic designer. 36:9 The length of one curtain was forty-two feet, and the width of one curtain was six feet – the same size for each of the curtains. 36:10 He joined 68 five of the curtains to one another, and the other 69 five curtains he joined to one another. 36:11 He made loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in the first set; he did the same along the edge of the end curtain in the second set. 36:12 He made fifty loops on the first curtain, and he made fifty loops on the end curtain that was in the second set, with the loops opposite one another. 36:13 He made fifty gold clasps and joined the curtains together to one another with the clasps, so that the tabernacle was a unit. 70
36:14 He made curtains of goats’ hair for a tent over the tabernacle; he made eleven curtains. 71 36:15 The length of one curtain was forty-five feet, and the width of one curtain was six feet – one size for all eleven curtains. 36:16 He joined five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves. 36:17 He made fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in the first set and fifty loops along the edge of the curtain that joined the second set. 36:18 He made fifty bronze clasps to join the tent together so that it might be a unit. 72 36:19 He made a covering for the tent out of ram skins dyed red and over that a covering of fine leather. 73
36:20 He made the frames 74 for the tabernacle of acacia wood 75 as uprights. 76 36:21 The length of each 77 frame was fifteen feet, the width of each 78 frame was two and a quarter feet, 36:22 with 79 two projections per frame parallel one to another. 80 He made all the frames of the tabernacle in this way. 36:23 So he made frames for the tabernacle: twenty frames for the south side. 36:24 He made forty silver bases under the twenty frames – two bases under the first frame for its two projections, and likewise 81 two bases under the next frame for its two projections, 36:25 and for the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, he made twenty frames 36:26 and their forty silver bases, two bases under the first frame and two bases under the next 82 frame. 36:27 And for the back of the tabernacle on the west he made six frames. 36:28 He made two frames for the corners of the tabernacle on the back. 36:29 At the two corners 83 they were doubled at the lower end and 84 finished together at the top in one ring. So he did for both. 36:30 So there were eight frames and their silver bases, sixteen bases, two bases under each frame.
36:31 He made bars of acacia wood, five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle 36:32 and five bars for the frames on the second side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the frames of the tabernacle for the back side on the west. 36:33 He made the middle bar to reach from end to end in the center of the frames. 36:34 He overlaid the frames with gold and made their rings of gold to provide places 85 for the bars, and he overlaid the bars with gold.
36:35 He made the special curtain of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen; he made 86 it with cherubim, the work of an artistic designer. 36:36 He made for it four posts of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, with gold hooks, 87 and he cast for them four silver bases.
36:37 He made a hanging for the entrance of the tent of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer, 36:38 and its five posts and their hooks. He overlaid their tops 88 and their bands with gold, but their five bases were bronze. 89
37:1 Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood; its length was three feet nine inches, its width two feet three inches, and its height two feet three inches. 37:2 He overlaid it with pure gold, inside and out, and he made a surrounding border 90 of gold for it. 37:3 He cast four gold rings for it that he put 91 on its four feet, with 92 two rings on one side and two rings on the other side. 37:4 He made poles of acacia wood, overlaid them with gold, 37:5 and put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark.
37:6 He made 93 an atonement lid of pure gold; its length was three feet nine inches, and its width was two feet three inches. 37:7 He made two cherubim of gold; he made them of hammered metal on the two ends of the atonement lid, 37:8 one cherub on one end 94 and one cherub on the other end. 95 He made the cherubim from the atonement lid on its two ends. 37:9 The cherubim were spreading their wings 96 upward, overshadowing the atonement lid with their wings. The cherubim 97 faced each other, 98 looking toward the atonement lid. 99
37:10 He made the table of acacia wood; its length was three feet, its width one foot six inches, and its height two feet three inches. 37:11 He overlaid it with pure gold, and he made a surrounding border of gold for it. 37:12 He made a surrounding frame for it about three inches wide, and he made a surrounding border of gold for its frame. 37:13 He cast four gold rings for it and attached the rings at the four corners where its four legs were. 37:14 The rings were close to the frame to provide places for the poles to carry the table. 37:15 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, to carry the table. 37:16 He made the vessels which were on the table out of pure gold, its 100 plates, its ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to be used in pouring out offerings.
37:17 He made the lampstand of pure gold. He made the lampstand of hammered metal; its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms were from the same piece. 101 37:18 Six branches were extending from its sides, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it, and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. 37:19 Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the first branch, and three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the next 102 branch, and the same 103 for the six branches that were extending from the lampstand. 37:20 On the lampstand there were four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms, 37:21 with a bud under the first two branches from it, and a bud under the next two branches from it, and a bud under the third two branches from it; according to the six branches that extended from it. 104 37:22 Their buds and their branches were of one piece; 105 all of it was one hammered piece of pure gold. 37:23 He made its seven lamps, its trimmers, and its trays of pure gold. 37:24 He made the lampstand 106 and all its accessories with seventy-five pounds of pure gold.
37:25 He made the incense altar of acacia wood. Its length was a foot and a half and its width a foot and a half – a square – and its height was three feet. Its horns were of one piece with it. 107 37:26 He overlaid it with pure gold – its top, 108 its four walls, 109 and its horns – and he made a surrounding border of gold for it. 110 37:27 He also made 111 two gold rings for it under its border, on its two sides, on opposite sides, 112 as places 113 for poles to carry it with. 37:28 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold.
37:29 He made the sacred anointing oil and the pure fragrant incense, the work of a perfumer.
38:1 He made the altar for the burnt offering of acacia wood seven feet six inches long and seven feet six inches wide – it was square – and its height was four feet six inches. 38:2 He made its horns on its four corners; its horns were part of it, 114 and he overlaid it with bronze. 38:3 He made all the utensils of the altar – the pots, the shovels, the tossing bowls, the meat hooks, and the fire pans – he made all its utensils of bronze. 38:4 He made a grating for the altar, a network of bronze under its ledge, halfway up from the bottom. 38:5 He cast four rings for the four corners of the bronze grating, to provide places for the poles. 38:6 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze. 38:7 He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar, with which to carry it. He made the altar 115 hollow, out of boards.
38:9 He made the courtyard. For the south side 117 the hangings of the courtyard were of fine twisted linen, one hundred fifty feet long, 38:10 with 118 their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:11 For the north side the hangings were 119 one hundred fifty feet, with their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:12 For the west side there were 120 hangings seventy-five feet long, with 121 their ten posts and their ten bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:13 For the east side, toward the sunrise, it was seventy-five feet wide, 122 38:14 with hangings on one side 123 of the gate that were twenty-two and a half feet long, with their three posts and their three bases, 38:15 and for the second side of the gate of the courtyard, just like the other, 124 the hangings were twenty-two and a half feet long, with their three posts and their three bases. 38:16 All the hangings around the courtyard were of fine twisted linen. 38:17 The bases for the posts were bronze. The hooks of the posts and their bands were silver, their tops were overlaid with silver, and all the posts of the courtyard had silver bands. 125 38:18 The curtain 126 for the gate of the courtyard was of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer. It was thirty feet long, and like the hangings in the courtyard, it was seven and a half feet high, 38:19 with four posts and their four bronze bases. Their hooks and their bands were silver, and their tops were overlaid with silver. 38:20 All the tent pegs of the tabernacle and of the courtyard all around were bronze.
38:21 This is the inventory 127 of the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the testimony, which was counted 128 by the order 129 of Moses, being the work 130 of the Levites under the direction 131 of Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest. 38:22 Now Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything that the Lord had commanded Moses; 38:23 and with him was Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an artisan, a designer, and an embroiderer in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen.
38:24 All the gold that was used for the work, in all the work of the sanctuary 132 (namely, 133 the gold of the wave offering) was twenty-nine talents and 730 shekels, 134 according to the sanctuary shekel.
38:25 The silver of those who were numbered of the community was one hundred talents and 1,775 shekels, 135 according to the sanctuary shekel, 38:26 one beka per person, that is, a half shekel, 136 according to the sanctuary shekel, for everyone who crossed over to those numbered, from twenty years old or older, 137 603,550 in all. 138 38:27 The one hundred talents of silver were used for casting the bases of the sanctuary and the bases of the special curtain – one hundred bases for one hundred talents, one talent per base. 38:28 From the remaining 1,775 shekels 139 he made hooks for the posts, overlaid their tops, and made bands for them.
38:29 The bronze of the wave offering was seventy talents and 2,400 shekels. 140 38:30 With it he made the bases for the door of the tent of meeting, the bronze altar, the bronze grating for it, and all the utensils of the altar, 38:31 the bases for the courtyard all around, the bases for the gate of the courtyard, all the tent pegs of the tabernacle, and all the tent pegs of the courtyard all around. 141
39:2 He made the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 39:3 They hammered the gold into thin sheets and cut it into narrow strips to weave 143 them into the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and into the fine linen, the work of an artistic designer. 39:4 They made shoulder pieces for it, attached to two of its corners, so it could be joined together. 39:5 The artistically woven waistband of the ephod that was on it was like it, of one piece with it, 144 of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
39:6 They set the onyx stones in gold filigree settings, engraved as with the engravings of a seal 145 with the names of the sons of Israel. 146 39:7 He put 147 them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as stones of memorial for the Israelites, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
39:8 He made the breastpiece, the work of an artistic designer, in the same fashion as the ephod, of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 39:9 It was square – they made the breastpiece doubled, nine inches long and nine inches wide when doubled. 39:10 They set on it 148 four rows of stones: a row with a ruby, a topaz, and a beryl – the first row; 39:11 and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald; 39:12 and the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 39:13 and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They were enclosed in gold filigree settings. 39:14 The stones were for the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, corresponding to the number of 149 their names. Each name corresponding to one of the twelve tribes was like the engravings of a seal.
39:15 They made for the breastpiece braided chains like cords of pure gold, 39:16 and they made two gold filigree settings and two gold rings, and they attached the two rings to the upper 150 two ends of the breastpiece. 39:17 They attached the two gold chains to the two rings at the ends of the breastpiece; 39:18 the other 151 two ends of the two chains they attached to the two settings, and they attached them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front of it. 39:19 They made two rings of gold and put them on the other 152 two ends of the breastpiece on its edge, which is on the inner side of the ephod. 153 39:20 They made two more 154 gold rings and attached them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the juncture above the waistband of the ephod. 39:21 They tied the breastpiece by its rings to the rings of the ephod by blue cord, so that it was above the waistband of the ephod, so that the breastpiece would not be loose from the ephod, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
39:22 He made the robe of the ephod completely blue, the work of a weaver. 39:23 There was an opening in the center of the robe, like the opening of a collar, with an edge all around the opening so that it could not be torn. 39:24 They made pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and twisted linen 155 around the hem of the robe. 39:25 They made bells of pure gold and attached the bells between the pomegranates around the hem of the robe between the pomegranates. 39:26 There was 156 a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, all around the hem of the robe, to be used in ministering, 157 just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
39:27 They made tunics of fine linen – the work of a weaver, for Aaron and for his sons – 39:28 and the turban of fine linen, the headbands of fine linen, and the undergarments of fine twisted linen. 39:29 The sash was of fine twisted linen and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, the work of an embroiderer, just as the Lord had commanded Moses. 39:30 They made a plate, the holy diadem, of pure gold and wrote on it an inscription, as on the engravings of a seal, “Holiness to the Lord.” 39:31 They attached to it a blue cord, to attach it to the turban above, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
39:32 158 So all the work of the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, was completed, and the Israelites did according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses – they did it exactly so. 39:33 They brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent and all its furnishings, clasps, frames, bars, posts, and bases; 39:34 and the coverings of ram skins dyed red, the covering of fine leather, 159 and the protecting 160 curtain; 39:35 the ark of the testimony and its poles, and the atonement lid; 39:36 the table, all its utensils, and the Bread of the Presence; 39:37 the pure 161 lampstand, its lamps, with the lamps set in order, and all its accessories, and oil for the light; 39:38 and the gold altar, and the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; and the curtain for the entrance to the tent; 39:39 the bronze altar and its bronze grating, its poles, and all its utensils; the large basin with its pedestal; 39:40 the hangings of the courtyard, its posts and its bases, and the curtain for the gateway of the courtyard, its ropes and its tent pegs, and all the furnishings 162 for the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of meeting; 39:41 the woven garments for serving 163 in the sanctuary, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons to minister as priests.
39:42 The Israelites did all the work according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses. 39:43 Moses inspected 164 all the work – and 165 they had done it just as the Lord had commanded – they had done it exactly – and Moses blessed them. 166
40:1 167 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 168 40:2 “On the first day of the first month you are to set up 169 the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 40:3 You are to place the ark of the testimony in it and shield the ark with the special curtain. 40:4 You are to bring in the table and set out the things that belong on it; 170 then you are to bring in the lampstand and set up its lamps. 40:5 You are to put 171 the gold altar for incense in front of the ark of the testimony and put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 40:6 You are to put the altar for the burnt offering in front of the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 40:7 You are to put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it. 172 40:8 You are to set up the courtyard around it and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. 40:9 And take 173 the anointing oil, and anoint 174 the tabernacle and all that is in it, and sanctify 175 it and all its furnishings, and it will be holy. 40:10 Then you are to anoint the altar for the burnt offering with 176 all its utensils; you are to sanctify the altar, and it will be the most holy altar. 40:11 You must also anoint the large basin and its pedestal, and you are to sanctify it. 177
40:12 “You are to bring 178 Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the tent of meeting and wash them with water. 40:13 Then you are to clothe Aaron with the holy garments and anoint him and sanctify him so that he may minister as my priest. 40:14 You are to bring 179 his sons and clothe them with tunics 40:15 and anoint them just as you anointed their father, so that they may minister as my priests; their anointing will make them a priesthood that will continue throughout their generations.” 40:16 This is what Moses did, according to all the Lord had commanded him – so he did.
40:17 So the tabernacle was set up on the first day of the first month, in the second year. 40:18 When Moses set up the tabernacle and put its bases in place, he set up its frames, attached its bars, and set up its posts. 40:19 Then he spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering of the tent over it, as the Lord had commanded Moses. 40:20 He took the testimony and put it in the ark, attached the poles to the ark, and then put the atonement lid on the ark. 40:21 And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, hung 180 the protecting curtain, 181 and shielded the ark of the testimony from view, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
40:22 And he put the table in the tent of meeting, on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the curtain. 40:23 And he set the bread in order on it 182 before the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
40:28 Then he put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 40:29 He also put the altar for the burnt offering by the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
40:30 Then he put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it 183 for washing. 40:31 Moses and Aaron and his sons would wash their hands and their feet from it. 40:32 Whenever they entered 184 the tent of meeting, and whenever they approached 185 the altar, they would wash, 186 just as the Lord had commanded Moses.
40:33 And he set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.
40:34 Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 40:35 Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud settled on it and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 40:36 But when the cloud was lifted up 187 from the tabernacle, the Israelites would set out 188 on all their journeys; 40:37 but if the cloud was not lifted up, then they would not journey further until the day it was lifted up. 189 40:38 For the cloud of the Lord was on the tabernacle by day, but fire would be 190 on it at night, in plain view 191 of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.
1 tn Heb “to do them”; this is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
2 tn This is an adverbial accusative of time.
3 tn The word is קֹדֶשׁ (qodesh, “holiness”). S. R. Driver suggests that the word was transposed, and the line should read: “a sabbath of entire rest, holy to Jehovah” (Exodus, 379). But the word may simply be taken as a substitution for “holy day.”
4 sn See on this H. Routtenberg, “The Laws of the Sabbath: Biblical Sources,” Dor le Dor 6 (1977): 41-43, 99-101, 153-55, 204-6; G. Robinson, “The Idea of Rest in the Old Testament and the Search for the Basic Character of Sabbath,” ZAW 92 (1980): 32-43.
5 sn Kindling a fire receives special attention here because the people thought that kindling a fire was not work, but only a preparation for some kind of work. The Law makes sure that this too was not done. But see also G. Robinson, “The Prohibition of Strange Fire in Ancient Israel: A Look at the Case of Gathering Wood and Kindling Fire on the Sabbath,” VT 28 (1978): 301-17.
6 tn Heb “dwelling places”; KJV, ASV “habitations.”
7 sn The presence of these three verses in this place has raised all kinds of questions. It may be that after the renewal of the covenant the people needed a reminder to obey God, and obeying the sign of the covenant was the starting point. But there is more to it than this; it is part of the narrative design of the book. It is the artistic design that puts the filling of the Spirit section (31:1-11) prior to the Sabbath laws (31:12-18) before the idolatry section, and then after the renewal there is the Sabbath reminder (35:1-3) before the filling of the Spirit material (35:4-36:7).
8 sn The book now turns to record how all the work of the sanctuary was done. This next unit picks up on the ideas in Exod 31:1-11. But it adds several features. The first part is the instruction of God for all people to give willingly (35:4-19); the next section tells how the faithful brought an offering for the service of the tabernacle (35:20-29); the next section tells how God set some apart with special gifts (35:30-35), and finally, the narrative reports how the faithful people of God enthusiastically began the work (36:1-7).
9 tn Heb “from with you.”
10 tn “Heart” is a genitive of specification, clarifying in what way they might be “willing.” The heart refers to their will, their choices.
11 tn The verb has a suffix that is the direct object, but the suffixed object is qualified by the second accusative: “let him bring it, an offering.”
12 tn The phrase is literally “the offering of Yahweh”; it could be a simple possessive, “Yahweh’s offering,” but a genitive that indicates the indirect object is more appropriate.
14 tn Heb “and stones.”
15 tn Heb “filling.”
16 tn Heb “wise of heart”; here also “heart” would be a genitive of specification, showing that there were those who could make skillful decisions.
17 tn In Hebrew style all these items are typically connected with a vav (ו) conjunction, but English typically uses commas except between the last two items in a series or between items in a series that are somehow related to one another. The present translation follows contemporary English style in lists such as this.
18 tn “for” has been supplied.
19 tn Heb “man.”
20 tn The verb means “lift up, bear, carry.” Here the subject is “heart” or will, and so the expression describes one moved within to act.
22 tn Literally “the garments of holiness,” the genitive is the attributive genitive, marking out what type of garments these were.
23 tn The expression in Hebrew is “men on/after the women,” meaning men with women, to ensure that it was clear that the preceding verse did not mean only men. B. Jacob takes it further, saying that the men came after the women because the latter had taken the initiative (Exodus, 1017).
24 tn Heb “all gold utensils.”
25 tn The verb could be translated “offered,” but it is cognate with the following noun that is the wave offering. This sentence underscores the freewill nature of the offerings people made. The word “came” is supplied from v. 21 and v. 22.
26 tn The text uses a relative clause with a resumptive pronoun for this: “who was found with him,” meaning “with whom was found.”
27 tn The conjunction in this verse is translated “or” because the sentence does not intend to say that each person had all these things. They brought what they had.
29 tn Here “them” has been supplied.
30 tn This translation takes “offering” as an adverbial accusative explaining the form or purpose of their bringing things. It could also be rendered as the direct object, but that would seem to repeat without much difference what had just been said.
31 sn U. Cassuto notes that the expression “with whom was found” does not rule out the idea that these folks went out and cut down acacia trees (Exodus, 458). It is unlikely that they had much wood in their tents.
32 tn Here “it” has been supplied.
33 tn Heb “wisdom of heart,” which means that they were skilled and could make all the right choices about the work.
34 tn The text simply uses a prepositional phrase, “with/in wisdom.” It seems to be qualifying “the women” as the relative clause is.
35 tn Heb “and stones of the filling.”
36 tn Heb “by the hand of.”
37 tn Here “them” has been supplied.
38 tn Heb “called by name” (so KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV). This expression means that the person was specifically chosen for some important task (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 342). See the expression with Cyrus in Isa 45:3-4.
39 tn Heb “to set.”
40 tn Heb “in every work of thought,” meaning, every work that required the implementation of design or plan.
41 sn The expression means that God has given them the ability and the desire to teach others how to do the work. The infinitive construct “to teach” is related to the word Torah, “instruction, guide, law.” They will be able to direct others in the work.
42 tn The expression “wisdom of heart,” or “wisdom in heart,” means artistic skill. The decisions and plans they make are skilled. The expression forms a second accusative after the verb of filling.
43 tn The expression “all the work” means “all kinds of work.”
44 tn Here “They are” has been supplied.
45 tn Heb “doers of all work.”
46 tn Heb “designers of designs.”
47 tn Heb “wise of [in] heart.”
48 tn Heb “wisdom.”
49 tn Heb “understanding, discernment.”
50 tn The relative clause includes this infinitive clause that expresses either the purpose or the result of God’s giving wisdom and understanding to these folk.
51 tn This noun is usually given an interpretive translation. B. Jacob renders the bound relationship as “the holy task” or “the sacred task” (Exodus, 1019). The NIV makes it “constructing,” so read “the work of constructing the sanctuary.”
52 tn The first word of the verse is a perfect tense with vav (ו) consecutive; it is singular because it agrees with the first of the compound subject. The sentence is a little cumbersome because of the extended relative clause in the middle.
53 tn The verb קָרָא (qara’) plus the preposition “to” – “to call to” someone means “to summon” that person.
54 tn Here there is a slight change: “in whose heart Yahweh had put skill.”
55 tn Or “whose heart was willing.”
56 sn The verb means more than “approach” or “draw near”; קָרַב (qarav) is the word used for drawing near the altar as in bringing an offering. Here they offer themselves, their talents and their time.
57 tn In the Hebrew text the infinitive “to do it” comes after “sanctuary”; it makes a smoother rendering in English to move it forward, rather than reading “brought for the work.”
58 tn Heb “in the morning, in the morning.”
59 tn Heb “a man, a man from his work”; or “each one from his work.”
60 tn The construction uses the verbal hendiadys: מַרְבִּים לְהָבִיא (marbim lÿhavi’) is the Hiphil participle followed (after the subject) by the Hiphil infinitive construct. It would read, “they multiply…to bring,” meaning, “they bring more” than is needed.
61 tn Heb “for the service” (so KJV, ASV).
62 tn The last clause is merely the infinitive with an object – “to do it.” It clearly means the skilled workers are to do it.
63 tn The verse simply reads, “and Moses commanded and they caused [a voice] to cross over in the camp.” The second preterite with the vav may be subordinated to the first clause, giving the intent (purpose or result).
64 tn Heb “voice.”
65 tn The verse ends with the infinitive serving as the object of the preposition: “from bringing.”
66 tn This part of the sentence comes from the final verb, the Hiphil infinitive – leave over, meaning, have more than enough (see BDB 451 s.v. יָתַר).
67 tn Heb “for all the work, to do it.”
sn This lengthy section (35:1-36:7) forms one of the most remarkable sections in the book. Here there is a mixture of God’s preparation of people to do the work and their willingness to give and to serve. It not only provides insight into this renewed community of believers, but it also provides a timeless message for the church. The point is clear enough: In response to God’s commission, and inspired by God’s Spirit, the faithful and willing people rally to support and participate in the
68 tn The verb is singular since it probably is referring to Bezalel, but since he would not do all the work himself, it may be that the verbs could be given a plural subject: “they joined.”
69 tn The words “the other” have been supplied.
70 tn Heb “one.”
71 tn Heb “eleven curtains he made them.”
72 tn The construction uses the infinitive construct from the verb “to be” to express this purpose clause: “to be one,” or, “so that it might be a unit.”
74 tn There is debate whether the word הַקְּרָשִׁים (haqqÿrashim) means “boards” or “frames” or “planks” (see Ezek 27:6) or “beams,” given the size of them. The literature on this includes M. Haran, “The Priestly Image of the Tabernacle,” HUCA 36 (1965): 192; B. A. Levine, “The Description of the Tabernacle Texts of the Pentateuch,” JAOS 85 (1965): 307-18; J. Morgenstern, “The Ark, the Ephod, and the Tent,” HUCA 17 (1942/43): 153-265; 18 (1943/44): 1-52.
75 tn “Wood” is an adverbial accusative.
76 tn The plural participle “standing” refers to how these items will be situated; they will be vertical rather than horizontal (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 354).
77 tn Heb “the frame.”
78 tn Heb “the one.”
79 tn Heb “two hands to the one frame.”
80 tn Heb “joined one to one.”
81 tn The clause is repeated to show the distributive sense; it literally says, “and two bases under the one frame for its two projections.”
82 tn Heb “under the one frame” again.
83 tn This is the last phrase of the verse, moved forward for clarity.
84 tn This difficult verse uses the perfect tense at the beginning, and the second clause parallels it with יִהְיוּ (yihyu), which has to be taken here as a preterite without the consecutive vav (ו). The predicate “finished” or “completed” is the word תָּמִּים (tammim); it normally means “complete, sound, whole,” and related words describe the sacrifices as without blemish.
85 tn Literally “houses”; i.e., places to hold the bars.
87 tn Heb “and their hooks gold.”
88 tn The word is “their heads”; technically it would be “their capitals” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV). The bands were bands of metal surrounding these capitals just beneath them. These are not mentioned in Exod 26:37, and it sounds like the posts are to be covered with gold. But the gradation of metals is what is intended: the posts at the entrance to the Most Holy Place are all of gold; the posts at the entrance to the tent are overlaid with gold at the top; and the posts at the entrance to the courtyard are overlaid with silver at the top (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 387, citing Dillmann without reference).
89 sn For a good summary of the differences between the instruction section and the completion section, and the reasons for the changes and the omissions, see B. Jacob, Exodus, 1022-23.
90 tn Or “molding.”
91 tn “that he put” has been supplied.
92 tn This is taken as a circumstantial clause; the clause begins with the conjunction vav.
93 tn Heb “and he made.”
94 tn Heb “from/at [the] end, from this.”
95 tn The repetition of the expression indicates it has the distributive sense.
96 tn The construction is a participle in construct followed by the genitive “wings” – “spreaders of wings.”
97 tn “The cherubim” has been placed here instead of in the second clause to produce a smoother translation.
98 tn Heb “and their faces a man to his brother.”
99 tn Heb “to the atonement lid were the faces of the cherubim.”
101 tn Heb “from it”; the referent (“the same piece” of wrought metal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
102 tn Heb “the one branch.” But the repetition of “one…one” means here one after another, or the “first” and then the “next.”
103 tn Heb “thus for six branches….”
105 tn Heb “were from it.”
106 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the lampstand) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
107 tn Heb “from it were its horns,” meaning that they were made from the same piece.
108 tn Heb “roof.”
109 tn Heb “its walls around.”
110 tn Heb “and he made for it border gold around.”
111 tn Heb “and he made.”
112 sn Since it was a small altar, it needed only two rings, one on either side, in order to be carried. The second mention of their location clarifies that they should be on the sides, the right and the left, as one approached the altar.
113 tn Heb “for houses.”
114 tn Heb “its horns were from it,” meaning from the same piece.
115 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the altar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
116 sn The word for “serve” is not the ordinary one. It means “to serve in a host,” especially in a war. It appears that women were organized into bands and served at the tent of meeting. S. R. Driver thinks that this meant “no doubt” washing, cleaning, or repairing (Exodus, 391). But there is no hint of that (see 1 Sam 2:22; and see Ps 68:11 [12 Hebrew text]). They seem to have had more to do than what Driver said.
117 tn Heb “south side southward.”
119 tn Here the phrase “the hangings were” has been supplied.
120 tn The phrase “there were” has been supplied.
121 tn The text simply has “their posts ten and their bases ten”; this may be added here as a circumstantial clause with the main sentence in order to make sense out of the construction.
122 tn The text simply says “seventy-five feet.”
123 tn The word literally means “shoulder.” The next words, “of the gate,” have been supplied here. The east end contained the courtyard’s entry with a wall of curtains on each side of the entry (see v. 15).
125 tn Heb “they were banded with silver.”
126 tn This word is different from the word for hangings; it has more of the idea of a screen, shielding or securing the area.
127 tn The Hebrew word is פְּקוּדֵי (pÿqude), which in a slavishly literal way would be “visitations of” the tabernacle. But the word often has the idea of “numbering” or “appointing” as well. Here it is an accounting or enumeration of the materials that people brought, so the contemporary term “inventory” is a close approximation. By using this Hebrew word there is also the indication that whatever was given, i.e., appointed for the tabernacle, was changed forever in its use. This is consistent with this Hebrew root, which does have a sense of changing the destiny of someone (“God will surely visit you”). The list in this section will also be tied to the numbering of the people.
128 tn The same verb is used here, but now in the Pual perfect tense, third masculine singular. A translation “was numbered” or “was counted” works. The verb is singular because it refers to the tabernacle as a unit. This section will list what made up the tabernacle.
129 tn Heb “at/by the mouth of.”
130 tn The noun is “work” or “service.” S. R. Driver explains that the reckonings were not made for the Levites, but that they were the work of the Levites, done by them under the direction of Ithamar (Exodus, 393).
131 tn Heb “by the hand of.”
132 tn These words form the casus pendens, or independent nominative absolute, followed by the apodosis beginning with the vav (ו; see U. Cassuto, Exodus, 469).
133 tn Heb “and it was.”
134 sn There were 3000 shekels in a talent, and so the total weight here in shekels would be 87,730 shekels of gold. If the sanctuary shekel was 224 grs., then this was about 40,940 oz. troy. This is estimated to be a little over a ton (cf. NCV “over 2,000 pounds”; TEV “a thousand kilogrammes”; CEV “two thousand two hundred nine pounds”; NLT “about 2,200 pounds”), although other widely diverging estimates are also given.
135 sn This would be a total of 301,775 shekels (about 140,828 oz), being a half shekel exacted per person from 605,550 male Israelites 20 years old or more (Num 1:46). The amount is estimated to be around 3.75 tons.
136 sn The weight would be about half an ounce.
137 tn Heb “upward.”
138 tn The phrase “in all” has been supplied.
139 tn Here the word “shekels” is understood; about 45 pounds.
140 sn The total shekels would have been 212,400 shekels, which would be about 108,749 oz. This would make about 2.5 to 3 tons.
141 sn The bronze altar is the altar for the burnt offering; the large bronze basin is not included here in the list.
142 sn This chapter also will be almost identical to the instructions given earlier, with a few changes along the way.
143 tn The verb is the infinitive that means “to do, to work.” It could be given a literal rendering: “to work [them into] the blue….” Weaving or embroidering is probably what is intended.
144 tn Heb “from it” or the same.
145 tn Or “as seals are engraved.”
146 sn The twelve names were those of Israel’s sons. The idea was not the remembrance of the twelve sons as such, but the twelve tribes that bore their names.
147 tn Or “attached.”
148 tn That is, they set in mountings.
149 tn The phrase “the number of” has been supplied.
150 tn Here “upper” has been supplied.
151 tn Here “other” has been supplied.
152 tn Here “other” has been supplied.
153 tn Heb “homeward side.”
154 tn Here “more” has been supplied.
155 tn The word is simply “twined” or “twisted.” It may refer to the twisted linen that so frequently is found in these lists; or, it may refer to the yarn twisted. The LXX reads “fine twined linen.” This is not found in the text of Exod 28:33, except in Smr and LXX.
156 tn The words “there was” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
157 tn The infinitive “to minister” is present; “to be used” is supplied from the context.
158 sn The last sections of the book bring several themes together to a full conclusion. Not only is it the completion of the tabernacle, it is the fulfillment of God’s plan revealed at the beginning of the book, i.e., to reside with his people.
160 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); NASB “the screening veil.”
161 tn Possibly meaning “pure gold lampstand.”
162 tn Heb “utensils, vessels.”
163 tn The form is the infinitive construct; it means the clothes to be used “to minister” in the holy place.
164 tn Or “examined” (NASB, TEV); NCV “looked closely at.”
165 tn The deictic particle draws attention to what he saw in such a way as to give the reader Moses’ point of view and a sense of his pleasure: “and behold, they…”
167 sn All of Exod 39:32-40:38 could be taken as a unit. The first section (39:32-43) shows that the Israelites had carefully and accurately completed the preparation and brought everything they had made to Moses: The work of the
168 tn Heb “and Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying.”
169 tn Heb “you will raise,” an imperfect of instruction.
172 tn Heb “there.”
173 tn Heb “you will take” (perfect with vav, ו).
174 tn Heb “and you will anoint” (perfect with vav, ו).
175 tn Heb “and you will sanctify” (perfect with vav, ו).
176 tn Heb “and.”
177 sn U. Cassuto (Exodus, 480) notes that the items inside the tent did not need to be enumerated since they were already holy, but items in the courtyard needed special attention. People needed to know that items outside the tent were just as holy.
178 tn The verb is “bring near,” or “present,” to Yahweh.
179 tn The verb is also “bring near” or “present.”
180 tn Heb “set up,” if it includes more than the curtain.
181 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); Heb “the veil of the covering” (cf. KJV).
182 tn Heb uses a cognate accusative construction, “he arranged the arrangement.”
183 tn Heb “there.”
184 tn The construction is the infinitive construct with the temporal preposition and the suffixed subjective genitive. This temporal clause indicates that the verb in the preceding verse was frequentative.
185 tn This is another infinitive construct in a temporal clause.
186 tn In this explanatory verse the verb is a customary imperfect.
187 tn The construction uses the Niphal infinitive construct to form the temporal clause.
188 tn The imperfect tense in this context describes a customary action.
189 tn The clause uses the Niphal infinitive construct in the temporal clause: “until the day of its being taken up.”
190 tn Here is another imperfect tense of the customary nuance.
191 tn Heb “to the eyes of all”; KJV, ASV, NASB “in the sight of all”; NRSV “before the eyes of all.”