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Exodus 20:16-17

Context

20:16 “You shall not give 1  false testimony 2  against your neighbor.

20:17 “You shall not covet 3  your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that belongs to your neighbor.” 4 

Exodus 21:14

Context
21:14 But if a man willfully attacks his neighbor to kill him cunningly, 5  you will take him even from my altar that he may die.

Exodus 21:18

Context

21:18 “If men fight, and one strikes his neighbor with a stone or with his fist and he does not die, but must remain in bed, 6 

Exodus 21:35

Context
21:35 If the ox of one man injures the ox of his neighbor so that it dies, then they will sell the live ox and divide its proceeds, 7  and they will also divide the dead ox. 8 

Exodus 22:7-11

Context

22:7 “If a man gives his neighbor money or articles 9  for safekeeping, 10  and it is stolen from the man’s house, if the thief is caught, 11  he must repay double. 22:8 If the thief is not caught, 12  then the owner of the house will be brought before the judges 13  to see 14  whether he has laid 15  his hand on his neighbor’s goods. 22:9 In all cases of illegal possessions, 16  whether for an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any kind of lost item, about which someone says ‘This belongs to me,’ 17  the matter of the two of them will come before the judges, 18  and the one whom 19  the judges declare guilty 20  must repay double to his neighbor. 22:10 If a man gives his neighbor a donkey or an ox or a sheep or any beast to keep, and it dies or is hurt 21  or is carried away 22  without anyone seeing it, 23  22:11 then there will be an oath to the Lord 24  between the two of them, that he has not laid his hand on his neighbor’s goods, and its owner will accept this, and he will not have to pay.

Exodus 22:14

Context

22:14 “If a man borrows an animal 25  from his neighbor, and it is hurt or dies when its owner was not with it, the man who borrowed it 26  will surely pay.

Exodus 22:26

Context
22:26 If you do take 27  the garment of your neighbor in pledge, you must return it to him by the time the sun goes down, 28 

1 tn Heb “answer” as in a court of law.

2 tn The expression עֵד שָׁקֶר (’ed shaqer) means “a lying witness” (B. S. Childs, Exodus [OTL], 388). In this verse the noun is an adverbial accusative, “you will not answer as a lying witness.” The prohibition is against perjury. While the precise reference would be to legal proceedings, the law probably had a broader application to lying about other people in general (see Lev 5:1; Hos 4:2).

3 tn The verb חָמַד (khamad) focuses not on an external act but on an internal mental activity behind the act, the motivation for it. The word can be used in a very good sense (Ps 19:10; 68:16), but it has a bad connotation in contexts where the object desired is off limits. This command is aimed at curtailing the greedy desire for something belonging to a neighbor, a desire that leads to the taking of it or the attempt to take it. It was used in the story of the Garden of Eden for the tree that was desired.

4 sn See further G. Wittenburg, “The Tenth Commandment in the Old Testament,” Journal for Theology in South Africa 21 (1978): 3-17: and E. W. Nicholson, “The Decalogue as the Direct Address of God,” VT 27 (1977): 422-33.

5 tn The word עָרְמָה (’ormah) is problematic. It could mean with prior intent, which would be connected with the word in Prov 8:5, 12 which means “understanding” (or “prudence” – fully aware of the way things are). It could be connected also to an Arabic word for “enemy” which would indicate this was done with malice or evil intentions (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 270). The use here seems parallel to the one in Josh 9:4, an instance involving intentionality and clever deception.

6 tn Heb “falls to bed.”

7 tn Literally “its silver” or “silver for it.”

8 tn Heb “divide the dead.” The noun “ox” has been supplied.

9 tn The word usually means “vessels” but can have the sense of household goods and articles. It could be anything from jewels and ornaments to weapons or pottery.

10 tn Heb “to keep.” Here “safekeeping,” that is, to keep something secure on behalf of a third party, is intended.

11 tn Heb “found.”

12 tn Heb “found.”

13 tn Here again the word used is “the gods,” meaning the judges who made the assessments and decisions. In addition to other works, see J. R. Vannoy, “The Use of the Word ha’elohim in Exodus 21:6 and 22:7,8,” The Law and the Prophets, 225-41.

14 tn The phrase “to see” has been supplied.

15 tn The line says “if he has not stretched out his hand.” This could be the oath formula, but the construction here would be unusual, or it could be taken as “whether” (see W. C. Kaiser, Jr., “Exodus,” EBC 2:438). U. Cassuto (Exodus, 286) does not think the wording can possibly fit an oath; nevertheless, an oath would be involved before God (as he takes it instead of “judges”) – if the man swore, his word would be accepted, but if he would not swear, he would be guilty.

16 tn Heb “concerning every kind [thing] of trespass.”

17 tn The text simply has “this is it” (הוּא זֶה, huzeh).

18 tn Again, or “God.”

19 tn This kind of clause Gesenius calls an independent relative clause – it does not depend on a governing substantive but itself expresses a substantival idea (GKC 445-46 §138.e).

20 tn The verb means “to be guilty” in Qal; in Hiphil it would have a declarative sense, because a causative sense would not possibly fit.

21 tn The form is a Niphal participle from the verb “to break” – “is broken,” which means harmed, maimed, or hurt in any way.

22 tn This verb is frequently used with the meaning “to take captive.” The idea here then is that raiders or robbers have carried off the animal.

23 tn Heb “there is no one seeing.”

24 tn The construct relationship שְׁבֻעַת יְהוָה (shÿvuat yÿhvah, “the oath of Yahweh”) would require a genitive of indirect object, “an oath [to] Yahweh.” U. Cassuto suggests that it means “an oath by Yahweh” (Exodus, 287). The person to whom the animal was entrusted would take a solemn oath to Yahweh that he did not appropriate the animal for himself, and then his word would be accepted.

25 tn Heb “if a man asks [an animal] from his neighbor” (see also Exod 12:36). The ruling here implies an animal is borrowed, and if harm comes to it when the owner is not with it, the borrower is liable. The word “animal” is supplied in the translation for clarity.

26 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the man who borrowed the animal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

27 tn The construction again uses the infinitive absolute with the verb in the conditional clause to stress the condition.

28 tn The clause uses the preposition, the infinitive construct, and the noun that is the subjective genitive – “at the going in of the sun.”



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