8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns 1 in its place, 2 extending toward the four winds of the sky. 3
8:22 The horn that was broken 4 and in whose place there arose four others stands for four kingdoms that will arise from his nation, though they will not have his strength.
1 tn The word “horns” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.
2 sn The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.
3 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
4 tn Heb “the broken one.” The word “horn” has been supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.