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Daniel 8:5-8


8:5 While I was contemplating all this, 1  a male goat 2  was coming from the west over the surface of all the land 3  without touching the ground. This goat had a conspicuous horn 4  between its eyes. 8:6 It came to the two-horned ram that I had seen standing beside the canal and rushed against it with raging strength. 5  8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram 6  and struck it 7  and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. 8  The goat hurled the ram 9  to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 10  8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns 11  in its place, 12  extending toward the four winds of the sky. 13 

Daniel 8:21

8:21 The male goat 14  is the king of Greece, 15  and the large horn between its eyes is the first king.

1 tn The words “all this” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.

2 tn Heb “and behold, a he-goat of the goats.”

3 tn Or “of the whole earth” (NAB, ASV, NASB, NRSV).

4 tn Heb “a horn of vision” [or “conspicuousness”], i.e., “a conspicuous horn,” one easily seen.

5 tn Heb “the wrath of its strength.”

6 tn Heb “him.”

7 tn Heb “the ram.”

8 tn Heb “stand before him.”

9 tn Heb “he hurled him.” The referents of both pronouns (the male goat and the ram) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

10 sn The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334 B.C.), Isus (333 B.C.), and Gaugemela (331 B.C.).

11 tn The word “horns” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

12 sn The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.

13 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

14 tn Heb “the he-goat, the buck.” The expression is odd, and the second word may be an explanatory gloss.

15 tn Heb “Javan.”

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