8:5 While I was contemplating all this, 1 a male goat 2 was coming from the west over the surface of all the land 3 without touching the ground. This goat had a conspicuous horn 4 between its eyes. 8:6 It came to the two-horned ram that I had seen standing beside the canal and rushed against it with raging strength. 5 8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram 6 and struck it 7 and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. 8 The goat hurled the ram 9 to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 10
8:20 The ram that you saw with the two horns stands for the kings of Media and Persia. 8:21 The male goat 11 is the king of Greece, 12 and the large horn between its eyes is the first king.
1 tn The words “all this” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.
2 tn Heb “and behold, a he-goat of the goats.”
3 tn Or “of the whole earth” (NAB, ASV, NASB, NRSV).
4 tn Heb “a horn of vision” [or “conspicuousness”], i.e., “a conspicuous horn,” one easily seen.
5 tn Heb “the wrath of its strength.”
6 tn Heb “him.”
7 tn Heb “the ram.”
8 tn Heb “stand before him.”
9 tn Heb “he hurled him.” The referents of both pronouns (the male goat and the ram) have been specified in the translation for clarity.
10 sn The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334
11 tn Heb “the he-goat, the buck.” The expression is odd, and the second word may be an explanatory gloss.
12 tn Heb “Javan.”