11:31 His forces 1 will rise up and profane the fortified sanctuary, 2 stopping the daily sacrifice. In its place they will set up 3 the abomination that causes desolation. 11:32 Then with smooth words he will defile 4 those who have rejected 5 the covenant. But the people who are loyal to 6 their God will act valiantly. 7 11:33 These who are wise among the people will teach the masses. 8 However, they will fall 9 by the sword and by the flame, 10 and they will be imprisoned and plundered for some time. 11 11:34 When they stumble, they will be granted some help. But many will unite with them deceitfully. 11:35 Even some of the wise will stumble, resulting in their refinement, purification, and cleansing until the time of the end, for it is still for the appointed time.
11:36 “Then the king 12 will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every deity and he will utter presumptuous things against the God of gods. He will succeed until the time of 13 wrath is completed, for what has been decreed must occur. 14
1 tn Heb “arms.”
2 tn Heb “the sanctuary, the fortress.”
3 tn Heb “will give.”
4 tn Or “corrupt.”
5 tn Heb “acted wickedly toward.”
6 tn Heb “know.” The term “know” sometimes means “to recognize.” In relational contexts it can have the connotation “recognize the authority of, be loyal to,” as it does here.
7 sn This is an allusion to the Maccabean revolt, which struggled to bring about Jewish independence in the second century
8 tn Heb “the many.”
9 tn Heb “stumble.”
10 tn Or “by burning.”
11 tn Heb “days.”
12 sn The identity of this king is problematic. If vv. 36-45 continue the description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the account must be viewed as erroneous, since the details do not match what is known of Antiochus’ latter days. Most modern scholars take this view, concluding that this section was written just shortly before the death of Antiochus and that the writer erred on several key points as he tried to predict what would follow the events of his own day. Conservative scholars, however, usually understand the reference to shift at this point to an eschatological figure, viz., the Antichrist. The chronological gap that this would presuppose to be in the narrative is not necessarily a problem, since by all accounts there are many chronological gaps throughout the chapter, as the historical figures intended by such expressions as “king of the north” and “king of the south” repeatedly shift.
13 tn The words “the time of” are added in the translation for clarification.
14 tn Heb “has been done.” The Hebrew verb used here is the perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of fulfillment.