19:28 When 1 they heard 2 this they became enraged 3 and began to shout, 4 “Great is Artemis 5 of the Ephesians!” 19:29 The 6 city was filled with the uproar, 7 and the crowd 8 rushed to the theater 9 together, 10 dragging with them Gaius and Aristarchus, the Macedonians who were Paul’s traveling companions. 19:30 But when Paul wanted to enter the public assembly, 11 the disciples would not let him. 19:31 Even some of the provincial authorities 12 who were his friends sent 13 a message 14 to him, urging him not to venture 15 into the theater. 19:32 So then some were shouting one thing, some another, for the assembly was in confusion, and most of them did not know why they had met together. 16 19:33 Some of the crowd concluded 17 it was about 18 Alexander because the Jews had pushed him to the front. 19 Alexander, gesturing 20 with his hand, was wanting to make a defense 21 before the public assembly. 22 19:34 But when they recognized 23 that he was a Jew, they all shouted in unison, 24 “Great is Artemis 25 of the Ephesians!” for about two hours. 26 19:35 After the city secretary 27 quieted the crowd, he said, “Men of Ephesus, what person 28 is there who does not know that the city of the Ephesians is the keeper 29 of the temple of the great Artemis 30 and of her image that fell from heaven? 31 19:36 So because these facts 32 are indisputable, 33 you must keep quiet 34 and not do anything reckless. 35 19:37 For you have brought these men here who are neither temple robbers 36 nor blasphemers of our goddess. 37 19:38 If then Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a complaint 38 against someone, the courts are open 39 and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges against one another there. 40 19:39 But if you want anything in addition, 41 it will have to be settled 42 in a legal assembly. 43 19:40 For 44 we are in danger of being charged with rioting 45 today, since there is no cause we can give to explain 46 this disorderly gathering.” 47 19:41 After 48 he had said 49 this, 50 he dismissed the assembly. 51
1 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
2 tn Grk “And hearing.” The participle ἀκούσαντες (akousante") has been taken temporally.
4 tn Grk “and began shouting, saying.” The imperfect verb ἔκραζον (ekrazon) has been translated as an ingressive imperfect. The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in English and has not been translated.
5 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
6 tn Grk “And the.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
8 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowd) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
9 sn To the theater. This location made the event a public spectacle. The Grand Theater in Ephesus (still standing today) stood facing down the main thoroughfare of the city toward the docks. It had a seating capacity of 25,000.
10 tn Grk “to the theater with one accord.”
11 tn Or “enter the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly…εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δ. go into the assembly 19:30.”
12 tn Grk “Asiarchs” (high-ranking officials of the province of Asia).
13 tn Grk “sending”; the participle πέμψαντες (pemyante") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
14 tn The words “a message” are not in the Greek text but are implied. Direct objects were often omitted in Greek when clear from the context, but must be supplied for the modern English reader.
15 tn BDAG 242-43 s.v. δίδωμι 11 has “to cause (oneself) to go, go, venture somewhere (cp. our older ‘betake oneself’)…Ac 19:31.” The desire of these sympathetic authorities was surely to protect Paul’s life. The detail indicates how dangerous things had become.
16 tn Or “had assembled.”
17 tn Or “Some of the crowd gave instructions to.”
18 tn The words “it was about” are not in the Greek text but are implied; ᾿Αλέξανδρον (Alexandron) is taken to be an accusative of general reference.
20 tn Or “motioning.”
21 sn The nature of Alexander’s defense is not clear. It appears he was going to explain, as a Jew, that the problem was not caused by Jews, but by those of “the Way.” However, he never got a chance to speak.
22 tn Or “before the crowd.” According to BDAG 223 s.v. δῆμος 2, “in a Hellenistic city, a convocation of citizens called together for the purpose of transacting official business, popular assembly…ἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δ. make a defense before the assembly vs. 33.”
23 tn Grk “But recognizing.” The participle ἐπιγνόντες (epignonte") has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
24 tn Grk “[they shouted] with one voice from all of them” (an idiom).
25 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus, 1.25 mi (2 km) northeast of the Grand Theater. Dimensions were 418 ft by 239 ft (125 m by 72 m) for the platform; the temple proper was 377 ft by 180 ft (113 m by 54 m). The roof was supported by 117 columns, each 60 ft (18 m) high by 6 ft (1.8 m) in diameter. The Emperor Justinian of Byzantium later took these columns for use in construction of the Hagia Sophia, where they still exist (in modern day Istanbul).
26 sn They all shouted…for about two hours. The extent of the tumult shows the racial and social tensions of a cosmopolitan city like Ephesus, indicating what the Christians in such locations had to face.
27 tn Or “clerk.” The “scribe” (γραμματεύς, grammateu") was the keeper of the city’s records.
28 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo").
29 tn See BDAG 670 s.v. νεωκόρος. The city is described as the “warden” or “guardian” of the goddess and her temple.
30 sn Artemis was a Greek goddess worshiped particularly in Asia Minor, whose temple, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, was located just outside the city of Ephesus.
31 tn Or “from the sky” (the same Greek word means both “heaven” and “sky”).
sn The expression fell from heaven adds a note of apologetic about the heavenly origin of the goddess. The city’s identity and well-being was wrapped up with this connection, in their view. Many interpreters view her image that fell from heaven as a stone meteorite regarded as a sacred object.
32 tn Grk “these things.”
33 tn The genitive absolute construction with the participle ὄντων (ontwn) has been translated as a causal adverbial participle. On the term translated “indisputable” see BDAG 68-69 s.v. ἀναντίρρητος which has “not to be contradicted, undeniable.”
34 tn Grk “it is necessary that you be quiet.”
35 tn L&N 88.98 has “pertaining to impetuous and reckless behavior – ‘reckless, impetuous.’…‘so then, you must calm down and not do anything reckless’ Ac 19:36.” The city secretary was asking that order be restored.
36 tn Or perhaps, “desecrators of temples.”
37 sn Nor blasphemers of our goddess. There was no formal crime with which Paul could be charged. He had the right to his religion as long as he did not act physically against the temple. Since no overt act had taken place, the official wanted the community to maintain the status quo on these religious matters. The remarks suggest Paul was innocent of any civil crime.
40 tn The word “there” is not in the Greek text but is implied. The official’s request is that the legal system be respected.
41 tn Or “anything more than this.”
42 tn Or “resolved.”
43 tn Or “in a legal meeting of the citizens.” L&N 30.81 has “ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται ‘it will have to be settled in a legal meeting of the citizens’ Ac 19:39.” This meeting took place three times a year.
44 tn Grk “For indeed.” The ascensive force of καί (kai) would be awkward to translate here.
45 tn The term translated “rioting” refers to a revolt or uprising (BDAG 940 s.v. στάσις 2, 3). This would threaten Roman rule and invite Roman intervention.
46 tn Or “to account for.” Grk “since there is no cause concerning which we can give account concerning this disorderly gathering.” The complexity of the Greek relative clause (“which”) and the multiple prepositions (“concerning”) have been simplified in the translation consistent with contemporary English style.
48 tn Grk “And after.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
49 tn Grk “And saying.” The participle εἰπών (eipwn) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
50 tn Grk “these things.”