Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:7

Context
NET ©

ז (Zayin) Jerusalem 1  remembers, 2  when 3  she became a poor homeless person, 4  all her treasures that she owned in days of old. 5  When her people fell into an enemy’s grip, 6  none of her allies came to her rescue. 7  Her enemies 8  gloated over 9  her; they sneered at her downfall.

NIV ©

In the days of her affliction and wandering Jerusalem remembers all the treasures that were hers in days of old. When her people fell into enemy hands, there was no-one to help her. Her enemies looked at her and laughed at her destruction.

NASB ©

In the days of her affliction and homelessness Jerusalem remembers all her precious things That were from the days of old, When her people fell into the hand of the adversary And no one helped her. The adversaries saw her, They mocked at her ruin.

NLT ©

And now in the midst of her sadness and wandering, Jerusalem remembers her ancient splendor. But then she fell to her enemy, and there was no one to help her. Her enemy struck her down and laughed as she fell.

MSG ©

Jerusalem remembers the day she lost everything, when her people fell into enemy hands, and not a soul there to help. Enemies looked on and laughed, laughed at her helpless silence.

BBE ©

Jerusalem keeps in mind, in the days of her sorrow and of her wanderings, all the desired things which were hers in days gone by; when her people came into the power of her hater and she had no helper, her attackers saw their desire effected on her and made sport of her destruction.

NRSV ©

Jerusalem remembers, in the days of her affliction and wandering, all the precious things that were hers in days of old. When her people fell into the hand of the foe, and there was no one to help her, the foe looked on mocking over her downfall.

NKJV ©

In the days of her affliction and roaming, Jerusalem remembers all her pleasant things That she had in the days of old. When her people fell into the hand of the enemy, With no one to help her, The adversaries saw her And mocked at her downfall.


KJV
Jerusalem
<03389>
remembered
<02142> (8804)
in the days
<03117>
of her affliction
<06040>
and of her miseries
<04788>
all her pleasant things
<04262>
that she had in the days
<03117>
of old
<06924>_,
when her people
<05971>
fell
<05307> (8800)
into the hand
<03027>
of the enemy
<06862>_,
and none did help
<05826> (8802)
her: the adversaries
<06862>
saw
<07200> (8804)
her, [and] did mock
<07832> (8804)
at her sabbaths
<04868>_.
{pleasant: or, desirable}
NASB ©
In the days
<03117>
of her affliction
<06040>
and homelessness
<04788>
Jerusalem
<03389>
remembers
<02142>
all
<03605>
her precious
<04262>
things
<04262>
That were from the days
<03117>
of old
<06924>
, When her people
<05971>
fell
<05307>
into the hand
<03027>
of the adversary
<06862>
And no
<0369>
one
<0369>
helped
<05826>
her. The adversaries
<06862>
saw
<07200>
her, They mocked
<07832>
at her ruin
<04868>
.
HEBREW
o
htbsm
<04868>
le
<05921>
wqxv
<07832>
Myru
<06862>
hwar
<07200>
hl
<0>
rzwe
<05826>
Nyaw
<0369>
ru
<06862>
dyb
<03027>
hme
<05971>
lpnb
<05307>
Mdq
<06924>
ymym
<03117>
wyh
<01961>
rsa
<0834>
hydmxm
<04262>
lk
<03605>
hydwrmw
<04788>
hyne
<06040>
ymy
<03117>
Mlswry
<03389>
hrkz (1:7)
<02142>
LXXM
emnhsyh
<3403
V-API-3S
ierousalhm
<2419
N-PRI
hmerwn
<2250
N-GPF
tapeinwsewv
<5014
N-GSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
kai
<2532
CONJ
apwsmwn {N-GPM} authv
<846
D-GSF
panta
<3956
A-APN
ta
<3588
T-APN
epiyumhmata {N-APN} authv
<846
D-GSF
osa
<3745
A-APN
hn
<1510
V-IAI-3S
ex
<1537
PREP
hmerwn
<2250
N-GPF
arcaiwn
<744
A-GPF
en
<1722
PREP
tw
<3588
T-DSN
pesein
<4098
V-AAN
ton
<3588
T-ASM
laon
<2992
N-ASM
authv
<846
D-GSF
eiv
<1519
PREP
ceirav
<5495
N-APF
ylibontov
<2346
V-PAPGS
kai
<2532
CONJ
ouk
<3364
ADV
hn
<1510
V-IAI-3S
o
<3588
T-NSM
bohywn
<998
N-GPM
auth
<846
D-DSF
idontev
<3708
V-AAPNP
oi
<3588
T-NPM
ecyroi
<2190
A-NPM
authv
<846
D-GSF
egelasan
<1070
V-AAI-3P
epi
<1909
PREP
metoikesia
<3350
N-DSF
authv
<846
D-GSF
NET © [draft] ITL
ז(Zayin) Jerusalem
<03389>
remembers
<02142>
, when
<03117>
she became a poor homeless
<04788>
person, all
<03605>
her treasures
<04262>
that
<0834>
she owned in days
<03117>
of old
<06924>
. When
<01961>
her people
<05971>
fell
<05307>
into
<03027>
an enemy’s
<06862>
grip, none
<0369>
of her allies
<05826>
came to her rescue. Her enemies
<06862>
gloated
<07200>
over
<05921>
her; they sneered at
<07832>
her downfall
<04868>
.
NET ©

ז (Zayin) Jerusalem 1  remembers, 2  when 3  she became a poor homeless person, 4  all her treasures that she owned in days of old. 5  When her people fell into an enemy’s grip, 6  none of her allies came to her rescue. 7  Her enemies 8  gloated over 9  her; they sneered at her downfall.

NET © Notes

map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

sn As elsewhere in chap. 1, Jerusalem is personified as remembering the catastrophic days of 587 b.c. when Nebuchadnezzar destroyed the city and exiled its inhabitants. Like one of its dispossessed inhabitants, Jerusalem is pictured as becoming impoverished and homeless.

tn Heb “the days of her poverty and her homelessness,” or “the days of her affliction and wandering.” The plural construct יְמֵי (yÿme, “days of”) functions in the general sense “the time of” or “when,” envisioning the time period in which this occurred. The principal question is whether the phrase is a direct object or an adverb. If a direct object, she remembers either the season when the process happened or she remembers, i.e. reflects on, her current season of life. An adverbial sense, “during” or “throughout” normally occurs with כֹּל (kol, “all”) in the phrase “all the days of…” but may also occur without כֹּל (kol) in poetry as in Job 10:20. The adverbial sense would be translated “during her poor homeless days.” Treating “days” adverbially makes better sense with line 7b, whereas treating “days” as a direct object makes better sense with line 7c.

tn The 3rd person feminine singular suffixes on the terms עָנְיָהּ וּמְרוּדֶיהָ (’onyah umÿrudeha, “her poverty and her homelessness,” or “the days of her affliction and wandering”) function as subjective genitives: “she became impoverished and homeless.” The plural noun וּמְרוּדֶיהָ (umÿrudeha, lit. “her homelessnesses”) is an example of the plural of intensity. The two nouns עָנְיָהּ וּמְרוּדֶיהָ (’onyah umÿrudeha, lit., “her poverty and her homelessness”) form a nominal hendiadys in which one noun functions adjectivally and the other retains its full nominal sense: “her impoverished homelessness” or “homeless poor” (GKC 397-98 §124.e). The nearly identical phrase עֲנִיִּים מְרוּדִים (’aniyyim mÿrudim, “homeless poor”) is used in Isa 58:7 (see GKC 226 §83.c), suggesting this was a Hebrew idiom. Jerusalem is personified as one of its inhabitants who became impoverished and homeless when the city was destroyed.

tc The BHS editors suggest that the second bicola in 1:7 is a late addition and should be deleted. Apart from the four sets of bicola here in 1:7 and again in 2:19, every stanza in chapters 1-4 consists of three sets of bicola. Commentators usually suggest dropping line b or line c. Depending on the meaning of “days” in line a (see note on “when” earlier in the verse) either line makes sense. The four lines would make sense as two bicola if “days of” in line 7a is understood adverbially and 7b as the direct object completing the sentence. Lines 7c-d would begin with a temporal modifier and the rest of the couplet describe conditions that were true at that time.

tn Heb “into the hand of.” In such phrases “hand” represents power or authority.

tn Heb “and there was no helper for her.” This phrase is used idiomatically in OT to describe the plight of a city whose allies refuse to help ward off a powerful attacker. The nominal participle עוֹזֵר II (’oser) refers elsewhere to military warriors (1 Chr 12:1, 18, 22; 2 Chr 20:23; 26:7; 28:23; 26:15; Ps 28:7; 46:6; Ezek 12:14; 30:8; 32:21; Dan 11:34) and the related noun refers to military allies upon whom an attacked city calls for help (Lachish Letters 19:1).

tn Heb “the adversaries” (צָרִים, tsarim). The 3rd person feminine singular pronoun “her” is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and good English style.

tn The verb רָאָה (raah, “to look”) has a broad range of meanings, including “to feast the eyes upon” and “to look down on” or “to gloat over” fallen enemies with exultation and triumph (e.g., Judg 16:27; Pss 22:18; 112:8; 118:7; Ezek 28:17; Mic 7:10; Obad 12, 13). This nuance is clarified by the synonymous parallelism between רָאוּהָ (rauha, “they gloated over her”) in the A-line and שָׂחֲקוּ עַל־מִשְׁבַּתֶּהָ (sakhaqual-mishbatteha, “they mocked at her downfall”) in the B-line.

10 tn Heb “laughed” or “sneered.” The verb שָׂחַק (sakhaq, “to laugh”) is often used in reference to contempt and derision (e.g., Job 30:1; Pss 37:13; 52:8; 59:9; Lam 1:7).

11 tc The MT reads מִשְׁבַּתֶּהָ (mishbatteha, “her annihilation”) from the noun מִשְׁבָּת (mishbat, “cessation, annihilation”), which is derived from the root שָׁבַת (shavat, “to cease”). The LXX mistakenly connected this with the root יָשַׁב (yashav, “to dwell”), reading μετοικεσίᾳ αὐτῆς (metoikesia auth") which reflects שִׁבְתָּהּ (shivtah, “her dwelling”). The MT is favored on the basis of internal evidence: (1) The MT is the more difficult reading, being a hapax legomenon, (2) the LXX is guilty of simply misunderstanding the root and wrongly vocalizing the consonantal text, and (3) the LXX does not make good sense contextually, while the MT does.

tn Heb “her cessation” or “her annihilation.”



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