Internet Verse Search Commentaries Word Analysis ITL - draft

Lamentations 1:4

Context
NET ©

ד (Dalet) The roads to Zion 1  mourn 2  because no one 3  travels to the festivals. 4  All her city gates 5  are deserted; 6  her priests groan. 7  Her virgins grieve; 8  she is in bitter anguish! 9 

NIV ©

The roads to Zion mourn, for no-one comes to her appointed feasts. All her gateways are desolate, her priests groan, her maidens grieve, and she is in bitter anguish.

NASB ©

The roads of Zion are in mourning Because no one comes to the appointed feasts. All her gates are desolate; Her priests are groaning, Her virgins are afflicted, And she herself is bitter.

NLT ©

The roads to Jerusalem are in mourning, no longer filled with crowds on their way to celebrate the Temple festivals. The city gates are silent, her priests groan, her young women are crying––how bitterly Jerusalem weeps!

MSG ©

Zion's roads weep, empty of pilgrims headed to the feasts. All her city gates are deserted, her priests in despair. Her virgins are sad. How bitter her fate.

BBE ©

The ways of Zion are sad, because no one comes to the holy meeting; all her doorways are made waste, her priests are breathing out sorrow: her virgins are troubled, and it is bitter for her.

NRSV ©

The roads to Zion mourn, for no one comes to the festivals; all her gates are desolate, her priests groan; her young girls grieve, and her lot is bitter.

NKJV ©

The roads to Zion mourn Because no one comes to the set feasts. All her gates are desolate; Her priests sigh, Her virgins are afflicted, And she is in bitterness.


KJV
The ways
<01870>
of Zion
<06726>
do mourn
<057>_,
because none come
<0935> (8802)
to the solemn feasts
<04150>_:
all her gates
<08179>
are desolate
<08074> (8802)_:
her priests
<03548>
sigh
<0584> (8737)_,
her virgins
<01330>
are afflicted
<03013> (8737)_,
and she [is] in bitterness
<04843> (8804)_.
NASB ©
The roads
<01870>
of Zion
<06726>
are in mourning
<057>
Because
<04480>
<1097> no
<01097>
one comes
<0935>
to the appointed
<04150>
feasts
<04150>
. All
<03605>
her gates
<08179>
are desolate
<08074>
; Her priests
<03548>
are groaning
<0584>
, Her virgins
<01330>
are afflicted
<03013>
, And she herself
<01931>
is bitter
<04843>
.
HEBREW
o
hl
<0>
rm
<04751>
ayhw
<01931>
twgwn
<03013>
hytlwtb
<01330>
Myxnan
<0584>
hynhk
<03548>
Nymmws
<08074>
hyres
<08179>
lk
<03605>
dewm
<04150>
yab
<0935>
ylbm
<01097>
twlba
<057>
Nwyu
<06726>
ykrd (1:4)
<01870>
LXXM
odoi
<3598
N-NPF
siwn
<4622
N-PRI
penyousin
<3996
V-PAI-3P
para
<3844
PREP
to
<3588
T-ASN
mh
<3165
ADV
einai
<1510
V-PAN
ercomenouv
<2064
V-PMPAP
en
<1722
PREP
eorth
<1859
N-DSF
pasai
<3956
A-NPF
ai
<3588
T-NPF
pulai
<4439
N-NPF
authv
<846
D-GSF
hfanismenai {V-AMPNP} oi
<3588
T-NPM
iereiv
<2409
N-NPM
authv
<846
D-GSF
anastenazousin
<389
V-PAI-3P
ai
<3588
T-NPF
paryenoi
<3933
N-NPF
authv
<846
D-GSF
agomenai
<71
V-PMPNP
kai
<2532
CONJ
auth
<846
D-NSF
pikrainomenh
<4087
V-PMPNS
en
<1722
PREP
eauth
<1438
D-DSF
NET © [draft] ITL
ד(Dalet) The roads
<01870>
to Zion
<06726>
mourn
<057>
because no one
<01097>
travels
<0935>
to the festivals
<04150>
. All
<03605>
her city gates
<08179>
are deserted
<08074>
; her priests
<03548>
groan
<0584>
. Her virgins
<01330>
grieve
<03013>
; she
<01931>
is in bitter anguish
<04751>
!
NET ©

ד (Dalet) The roads to Zion 1  mourn 2  because no one 3  travels to the festivals. 4  All her city gates 5  are deserted; 6  her priests groan. 7  Her virgins grieve; 8  she is in bitter anguish! 9 

NET © Notes

tn Heb “roads of Zion.” The noun צִיּוֹן (tsiyyon, Zion) is a genitive of direction (termination) following the construct noun, meaning “roads to Zion.”

sn The noun דַּרְכֵי (darkhe, “roads”) is normally masculine in gender, but here it is feminine (e.g., Exod 18:20) (BDB 202 s.v.) as indicated by the following feminine adjective אֲבֵּלּוֹת (’avelot, “mourning”). This rare feminine usage is probably due to the personification of Jerusalem as a bereaved woman throughout chap. 1.

tn The adjective אֲבֵּלּוֹת (’avelot, “mourning”) functions as a predicate of state.

sn The term אָבַּלּ (’aval, “mourn”) refers to the mourning rites for the dead or to those mourning the deceased (Gen 37:35; Job 29:25; Ps 35:14; Jer 16:7; Esth 6:12; Sir 7:34; 48:24). The prophets often use it figuratively to personify Jerusalem as a mourner, lamenting her deceased and exiled citizens (Isa 57:18; 61:2, 3) (BDB 5 s.v.; HALOT 7 s.v.).

tn Heb “from lack of.” The construction מִבְּלִי (mibbÿli) is composed of the preposition מִן (min) functioning in a causal sense (BDB 580 s.v. מִן 2.f) and the adverb of negation בְּלִי (bÿli) to denote the negative cause: “from want of” or “without” (HALOT 133 s.v. בְּלִי 4; BDB 115 s.v. בְּלִי 2.c) (Num 14:16; Deut 9:28; 28:55; Eccl 3:11; Isa 5:13; Jer 2:15; 9:11; Hos 4:6; Ezek 34:5).

tn Heb “those coming of feast.” The construct chain בָּאֵי מוֹעֵד (bae moed) consists of (1) the substantival plural construct participle בָּאֵי (bae, “those who come”) and (2) the collective singular genitive of purpose מוֹעֵד (moed, “for the feasts”).

tc The MT reads שְׁעָרֶיהָ (shÿareha, “her gates”). The BHS editors suggest revocalizing the text to the participle שֹׁעֲרֶיהָ (shoareha, “her gate-keepers”) from שֹׁעֵר (shoer, “porter”; BDB 1045 s.v. שֹׁעֵר). The revocalization creates tight parallelism: “her gate-keepers”//“her priests,” but ruins the chiasm: (A) her gate-keepers, (B) her priests, (B’) her virgins, (A’) the city itself.

tn The verb שָׁמֵם (shamem) normally means “to be desolated; to be appalled,” but when used in reference to land, it means “deserted” (Isa 49:8; Ezek 33:28; 35:12, 15; 36:4) (BDB 1030 s.v. 1).

tn Heb “groan” or “sigh.” The verb אָנַח (’anakh) is an expression of grief (Prov 29:2; Isa 24:7; Lam 1:4, 8; Ezek 9:4; 21:11). BDB 58 s.v. 1 suggests that it means “sigh” but HALOT 70-71 s.v. prefers “groan” here.

tc The MT reads נּוּגוֹת (nugot, “are grieved”), Niphal participle feminine plural from יָגָה (yagah, “to grieve”). The LXX ἀγόμεναι (agomenai) reflects נָהוּגוֹת (nahugot, “are led away”), Qal passive participle feminine plural from נָהַג (nahag, “to lead away into exile”), also reflected in Aquila and Symmachus. The MT reading is an unusual form (see translator’s note below) and best explains the origin of the LXX which is a more common root. It would be difficult to explain the origin of the MT reading if the LXX reflects the original. Therefore, the MT is probably the original reading.

tn Heb “are grieved” or “are worried.” The unusual form נּוּגוֹת (nugot) is probably best explained as Niphal feminine plural participle (with dissimilated nun [ן]) from יָגָה (yagah, “to grieve”). The similarly formed Niphal participle masculine plural construct נוּגֵי (nuge) appears in Zeph 3:18 (GKC 421 §130.a). The Niphal of יָגָה (yagah, “to grieve”) appears only twice, both in contexts of sorrow: “to grieve, sorrow” (Lam 1:4; Zeph 3:18).

tn Heb “and she is bitter to herself,” that is, “sick inside” (2 Kgs 4:27)



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