They are wild waves of the sea, foaming up their shame; wandering stars, for whom blackest darkness has been reserved for ever.
wild waves of the sea, casting up their own shame like foam; wandering stars, for whom the black darkness has been reserved forever.
They are like wild waves of the sea, churning up the dirty foam of their shameful deeds. They are wandering stars, heading for everlasting gloom and darkness.
wild ocean waves leaving nothing on the beach but the foam of their shame; Lost stars in outer space on their way to the black hole.
Violent waves of the sea, streaming with their shame, wandering stars for whom the darkest night is kept in store for ever.
wild waves of the sea, casting up the foam of their own shame; wandering stars, for whom the deepest darkness has been reserved forever.
raging waves of the sea, foaming up their own shame; wandering stars for whom is reserved the blackness of darkness forever.
|NET © [draft] ITL|
|NET © Notes||
1 tn Grk “wild waves of the sea.”
2 tn Grk “foaming, causing to foam.” The verb form is intensive and causative. BDAG 360 s.v. ἐπαφρίζω suggests the meaning “to cause to splash up like froth, cause to foam,” or, in this context, “waves casting up their own shameless deeds like (dirty) foam.”
3 tn Grk “shames, shameful things.” It is uncertain whether shameful deeds or shameful words are in view. Either way, the picture has taken a decided turn: Though waterless clouds and fruitless trees may promise good things, but deliver nothing, wild sea-waves are portents of filth spewed forth from the belly of the sea.
4 sn The imagery of a star seems to fit the nautical theme that Jude is developing. Stars were of course the guides to sailors at night, just as teachers are responsible to lead the flock through a benighted world. But false teachers, as wayward stars, are not fixed and hence offer unreliable, even disastrous guidance. They are thus both the dangerous reefs on which the ships could be destroyed and the false guides, leading them into these rocks. There is a special irony that these lights will be snuffed out, reserved for the darkest depths of eternal darkness.
5 tn Grk “utter darkness of darkness for eternity.” See note on the word “utter” in v. 6.